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The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
We assessed self-reported drives for alcohol use and their impact on clinical features of alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. Our prediction was that, in contrast to “affectively” (reward or fear) driven drinking, “habitual” drinking would be associated with worse clinical features in relation to alcohol use and higher occurrence of associated psychiatric symptoms.
Fifty-eight Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol abuse patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of reward- and fear-based behavioral tendencies. An 18-item self-report instrument (the Habit, Reward and Fear Scale; HRFS) was employed to quantify affective (fear or reward) and non-affective (habitual) motivations for alcohol use. To characterize clinical and demographic measures associated with habit, reward, and fear, we conducted a partial least squares analysis.
Habitual alcohol use was significantly associated with the severity of alcohol dependence reflected across a range of domains and with lower number of detoxifications across multiple settings. In contrast, reward-driven alcohol use was associated with a single domain of alcohol dependence, reward-related behavioral tendencies, and lower number of detoxifications.
These results seem to be consistent with a shift from goal-directed to habit-driven alcohol use with severity and progression of addiction, complementing preclinical work and informing biological models of addiction. Both reward-related and habit-driven alcohol use were associated with lower number of detoxifications, perhaps stemming from more benign course for the reward-related and lack of treatment engagement for the habit-related alcohol abuse group. Future work should further explore the role of habit in this and other addictive disorders, and in obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
The rapid spread of Zika virus represents a threat to public health and demands significant preparation from hospitals and health care systems. Establishment of procedures for the identification of cases of Zika virus infection is a fundamental aspect of response planning. We describe the steps taken in the development and implementation of a protocol for the diagnosis and management of suspected cases of Zika virus infection in a large academic medical center. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:256–258)
The ruminant provides a powerful model for understanding the temporal dynamics of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in the dairy cow is caused by rumen-derived bioactive fatty acids, and is commonly attributed to the changes in the microbial population. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes occurring in nine ruminal bacterial taxa with well-characterised functions, and abundance of total fungi, ciliate protozoa and bacteria during the induction of and recovery from MFD. Interactions between treatment and time were observed for ten of the twelve populations. The total number of both fungi and ciliate protozoa decreased rapidly (days 4 and 8, respectively) by more than 90 % during the induction period and increased during the recovery period. The abundance of Streptococcus bovis (amylolytic) peaked at 350 % of control levels on day 4 of induction and rapidly decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Prevotella bryantii (amylolytic) decreased by 66 % from day 8 to 20 of the induction period and increased to the control levels on day 12 of the recovery period. The abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium (lactate-utilising bacteria) increased progressively until day 12 of induction (>170 %) and decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes (fibrolytic) decreased by 97 % on day 4 of induction and increased progressively to an equal extent during the recovery period, although smaller changes were observed for other fibrolytic bacteria. The abundance of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens/Pseudobutyrivibrio group decreased progressively during the induction period and increased during the recovery period, whereas the abundance of Butyrivibrio hungatei was not affected by treatment. Responsive taxa were modified rapidly, with the majority of changes occurring within 8 d and their time course was similar to the time course of the induction of MFD, demonstrating a strong correlation between changes in ruminal microbial populations and MFD.
This paper shows the technological development for manufacturing corner angle sections or cardboard. Its manufacture involves splicing sheets (liners) of different weight Kraft papers joined with white glue. The thickness and strength of each profile is determined by the amount of spliced leaves and paperweight. There are two types of finishing in the profile, which are: natural finish Kraft wrapping paper and the white paper envelope. The second one is used to print images or logos on the exterior face for advertising purposes. They can withstand bending stresses for supporting buckling in horizontal and vertical position. These profiles are mainly used for packaging, protect corners, transportation and storage. A machine for manufacturing specialized linear process to obtain the required thickness is used. In this article, the basic load of an angular profile is analyzed by the finite element method using ANSYS 14 ®. Mechanical design considerations based on the mechanics of composite materials and the theory of laminated beams are considered. With the results of this analysis, load capacities like bending, buckling and deformation profiles are obtained. Furthermore, a comparison of three thicknesses of angular profiles supporting the mentioned loads is also presented.
This paper presents a systematic approach to compute the angularity and the axiality indices for a Schönflies parallel manipulator. Angularity index may be considered as a measure of the sensitivity of the mobile platform to changes in rotation, while axiality index can be used to measure the sensitivity of the OP of the mobile platform to changes in translation. Since both indices were inspired by very fundamental concepts of classical kinematics (angular velocity vector and helicoidal velocity field), they offer a clear and simple physical meaning, which may be useful to the designer of parallel manipulators. Moreover, both dexterity indices do not require obtaining a dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix, nor do they depend on having similar types of actuators in each manipulator's leg. Detailed numerical examples are given in order to illustrate the computation of the dexterity indices.
The present work presents the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the biocompatibility and ability to dissolve and chemically protect the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOXO) of two polyethylene oxide-polystyrene oxide triblock copolymers, EO33SO13EO33 and EO38SO10EO38, where EO and SO denote the ethylene oxide and styrene oxide blocks, respectively. Block copolymer length and SO/EO ratio were selected with the objective of ensuring an optimal compromise between chain solubility, micelle formation ability and core size for enhanced drug solubilization. The temporal stability of the drug-loaded micelles and drug release profile were also analyzed as well as their efficacy as an antitumoral polymeric formulation in vitro by using a multidrug resistant ovarian tumor cell line (NCI-ADR-RES), with the special aim of analyzing the possible capability of both copolymers as potential P-glycoprotein efflux (P-gp) pump inhibitors to enhance DOXO accumulation in this cell line.
A long-term flood record from the Buffels River, the largest ephemeral river of NW South Africa (9250 km2), was reconstructed based on interpretation of palaeoflood, documentary and instrumental rainfall data. Palaeoflood data were obtained at three study reaches, with preserved sedimentary evidence indicating at least 25 large floods during the last 700 yr. Geochronological control for the palaeoflood record was provided by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Annual resolution was obtained since the 19th century using the overlapping documentary and instrumental records. Large floods coincided in the past within three main hydroclimatic settings: (1) periods of regular large flood occurrence (1 large flood/~30 yr) under wetter and cooler prevailing climatic conditions (AD 1600–1800), (2) decreasing occurrence of large floods (1 large flood/~100 yr) during warmer conditions (e.g., AD 1425–1600 and after 1925), and (3) periods of high frequency of large floods (~ 4–5 large floods in 20–30 yr) coinciding with wetter conditions of decadal duration, namely at AD 1390–1425, 1800–1825 and 1915–1925. These decadal-scale periods of the highest flood frequency seem to correspond in time with changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, as inferred when comparing their onset and distribution with temperature proxies in southern Africa.
The research about the structural stability of bone, as a composite material, compromises a complete understanding of the interaction between the mineral and organic phases. The thermal stability of human bone and type I collagen extracted from human bone by different methods was studied in order to understand the interactions between the mineral and organic phases when is affected by a degradation/combustion process. The experimental techniques employed were calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The extracted type I collagens result to have a bigger thermal stability with a Tmax at 500 and 530 Celsius degrees compared with the collagen present in bone with Tmax at 350 Celsius degrees. The enthalpy value for the complete degradation/combustion process were similar for all the samples, being 8.4 +- 0.11 kJ/g for recent bones diminishing with the antiquity, while for extracted collagens were 8.9 +- 0.07 and 7.9 +-1.01 kJ/g. These findings demonstrate that the stability loss of type I collagen is due to its interactions with the mineral phase, namely carbonate hydroxyapatite. This cause a change in the molecular properties of the collagen during mineralization, specifically in its cross-links and other chemical interactions, which have a global effect over the fibers elasticity, but gaining tensile strength in bone as a whole tissue. We are applying this characterization to analyze the diagenetic process of bones with archaeological interest in order to identify how the environmental factors affect the molecular structure of type I collagen. In bone samples that proceed from an specific region with the same environmental conditions, the enthalpy value per unit mass was found to diminish exponentially with respect to the bone antiquity.
The status of the AMICA project is reported. Final tests are currently running
at Teramo Observatory before moving the instrument to Antarctica. AMICA is a
camera equipped with two array detectors to perform astronomical imaging in the
2–28 μm band. It will be mounted at the IRAIT focal plane. Its very special
feature is the antarctic operability. AMICA subsystems have been tested at
typical antarctic conditions, in order to adopt technological solutions that
ensure the correct operation of AMICA even on the antarctic plateau. Moreover,
since human operations are not possible during the antarctic “winter", AMICA has
been designed to operate in a completely automatic mode. AMICA is essentially
aimed to demonstrate the potential of Antarctica for Infrared Astronomy and
should therefore produce significant data, both for astronomy and site-testing.
In addition, the experience gained in its technological development will be
useful for building future astronomical instruments for extreme environment
The Antarctic Multi-band Infrared Camera is a NIR/MIR double armed camera operating in the K, L, M, N, Q photometrical bands
that will be mounted at one of the F/21.65 IRAIT Nasmyth foci (Tosti et al. 2006; Dolci et al. 2009).
AMICA will host two detectors: the short wavelength radiation, 1-5.5 µm NIR band, is sensed by a Raytheon CRC-463 InSb 256 × 256 detector, while the long wavelengths 7-25 µm MIR band – is served by a DRS Technologies BIB Si:As 128 × 128 pixels array optimized
for moderate photon flux. A fully reflective optical system, composed of two off-axis parabolic mirrors and one fixed 45° flat mirror, achieves a common, optimized, focal ratio reduction to F/14.73 at the detectors focal plane. Taking advantage from
the large difference in pixel size between the NIR/MIR detectors, the resulting field-of-view will be 2.29 × 2.29 arcmin2 and 2.87 × 2.87 arcmin2 on the NIR and MIR array, respectively. In the present paper we report on the successful tests of the
NIR/ MIR multiplexers functionality at the maximum required readout frequency.
In this work a new nonoverconstrained redundant decoupled robot, free of compound joints, formed from three parallel manipulators, with two moving platforms and provided with six active limbs connected to the fixed platform, called LinceJJP, is presented. Interesting applications such as multi-axis machine tools with parallel kinematic architectures, solar panels, radar antennas, and telescopes are available for this novel spatial mechanism.
Nine biological indices based on the macroinvertebrate community inhabiting rivers have been calculated in order to find out which of them is more appropriate to evaluate the qualitative status of the running water for public environmental authorities. The BMWP' score (Alba-Tercedor & Sánchez-Ortega 1988) has been chosen because it is both accurate and precise, and easy to calculate. Some problems derived from sampling strategies are discussed.
AMICA (Antarctic Multiband Infrared CAmera) is an instrument designed to perform astronomical
imaging in the near- (1-5 μm) and
mid- (5–27 μm) infrared wavelength regions. Equipped with two detectors, an InSb 2562 and a Si:As 1282 IBC,
cooled at 35 and 7 K respectively, it will be the first instrument to investigate the potential of the Italian-French
base Concordia for IR astronomy.
The main technical challenge is represented by the extreme conditions of Dome C
(T ~ -90 °C, p ~ 640 mbar). An environmental control system
ensures the correct start-up, shut-down and housekeeping of the various components of the camera.
AMICA will be mounted on the IRAIT telescope and will perform survey-mode
observations in the Southern sky. The first task is to provide important site-quality data. Substantial
contributions to the solution of fundamental
astrophysical quests, such as those related to late phases of stellar evolution and to star formation processes, are also
We report a preliminary study of the main focal plane instrument
for the IRAIT telescope, currently being built at
INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Teramo. The basic requirements
are those of a remotely-controlled camera aimed to perform 10- and
20-μm photometry from Dome-C in the standard bandpasses N and
Q. Starting from the site properties and the science goals, the
main components of AMICA (Antarctic Mid-Infrared CAmera) are
described: a Si:As BIB array detector, sensitive in the range 2–28 μm; a fully reflective optical design; a cryostat modified in
order to work at the extreme environmental conditions of the
antarctic plateau; a cryocooler maintaining the operating
temperature of 4.2 K without external intervention; an automatized
and flexible control electronics. AMICA is designed to fully exploit the unique mid-infrared observing conditions at Dome-C.