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Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
A pilot study was designed to evaluate the potential of zircon geochronology as a provenance indicator of till from the Lake Michigan, Saginaw, and Huron-Erie Lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Based on existing ice flow-path models, we hypothesized that till from each lobe would have different zircon age population distributions because the lobes originated from regions of the Canadian Shield with different bedrock ages. After correcting for zircon fertility, the majority of grains in all till samples are 1600–950 Ma, with ~30 % of ages >2500 Ma. This similarity means that till from the three lobes cannot be clearly differentiated based on their zircon populations. The dominant ages found and the homogeneity of distributions in the till indicates a non-Shield source and, instead, reflect an origin from some combination of underlying till and sedimentary bedrock in the Great Lakes region. Even though the datasets are small, the tills have similarities to zircon distributions in Michigan Basin rocks. This implies that a substantial fraction of zircon in till was not transported long distances from the Canadian Shield. Although zircon ages are not distinct between tills, the method provides a novel application to understand Laurentide Ice Sheet glacial erosion and transport.
Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the nonlinearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front-tracking techniques and have a limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. Consequently, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice-sheet and ice-shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation and material fragmentation. In this paper, we use the SPH model to study ice-sheet/ice-shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady-state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is verified by simulating the plane-shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous Newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of the ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.
Astrobiology seeks to understand the limits of life and to determine the physiology of organisms in order to better assess the habitability of other worlds. To successfully achieve these goals we require microorganisms from environments on Earth that approximate to extraterrestrial environments in terms of physical and/or chemical conditions. The most challenging of these environments with respect to sample collection, isolation and cultivation of microorganisms are anoxic environments. In this paper, an approach to this challenge was implemented within the European Union's MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. In this review paper, we aim to provide a set of methods for future field work and sampling campaigns. A number of anoxic environment based on characteristics that make them analogous to past and present locations on Mars were selected. They included anoxic sulphur-rich springs (Germany), the salt-rich Boulby Mine (UK), a lake in a basaltic context (Iceland), acidic sediments in the Rio Tinto (Spain), glacier samples (Austria) and permafrost samples (Russia and Canada). Samples were collected under strict anoxic conditions to be used for cultivation and genomic community analysis. Using the samples, a culturing approach was implemented to enrich anaerobic organisms using a defined medium that would allow for organisms to be grown under identical conditions in future physiological comparisons. Anaerobic microorganisms were isolated and deposited with the DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) culture collection to make them available to other scientists. In MASE, the selected organisms are studied with respect to survival and growth under Mars relevant stresses. They are artificially fossilized and the resulting biosignatures studied and used to investigate the efficacy of life detection instrumentation for planetary missions. Some of the organisms belong to genera with medical and environmental importance such as Yersinia spp., illustrating how astrobiology field research can be used to increase the availability of microbial isolates for applied terrestrial purposes.
The classical model of the interstellar medium consists of cool clouds (typical temperature 80 K, number density 20-40 cm-3) moving through a warmer interstellar medium (104 K, 0.15-0.3 cm-3) at a rms velocity of ~ 10 km s-1. More recent models have included the coronal gas (106 K) as part of this medium. We consider the collisions of these clouds in order to determine whether these collisions initiate star formation and/or change the state of the interstellar medium.
The present study evaluated the impact on psychosocial outcome of parallel clinician and peer-led information programmes for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for family members within an Irish context.
A sequential mixed method design was used. Quantitative data were collected using pre- and post-programme questionnaires followed by an integrated qualitative component involving semi-structured interviews after the programme. The questionnaires assessed knowledge, attitudes towards recovery, hope, support, advocacy and well-being. Interviews with participants, facilitators and project workers explored their experiences and views of the programme.
While a number of the questionnaires did not show a statistically significant change, findings from the interviews suggest that the1 programmes had a number of positive outcomes, including increases in perceived knowledge, empowerment and support. Participants in both programmes valued the opportunity to meet people in similar circumstances, share their experiences, learn from each other and provide mutual support.
The EOLAS programmes offer a novel template for communication and information sharing in a way that embodies the principles of collaboration and offers users and families a meaningful opportunity to become involved in service design, delivery and evaluation.
The need for nitrogen (N) efficiency measures for dairy systems is as great as ever if we are to meet the challenge of increasing global production of animal-based protein while reducing N losses to the environment. The present paper provides an overview of current N efficiency and mitigation options for pastoral dairy farm systems and assesses the impact of integrating a range of these options on reactive N loss to the environment from dairy farms located in five regions of New Zealand with contrasting soil, climate and farm management attributes. Specific options evaluated were: (i) eliminating winter applications of fertilizer N, (ii) optimal reuse of farm dairy effluent, (iii) improving animal performance through better feeding and using cows with higher genetic merit, (iv) lowering dietary N concentration, (v) applying the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) and (vi) restricting the duration of pasture grazing during autumn and winter. The Overseer® Nutrient Budgeting model was used to estimate N losses from representative farms that were characterized based on information obtained from detailed farmer surveys conducted in 2001 and 2009. The analysis suggests that (i) milk production increases of 7–30% were associated with increased N leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission losses of 3–30 and 0–25%, respectively; and (ii) integrating a range of strategic and tactical management and mitigation options could offset these increased N losses. The modelling analysis also suggested that the restricted autumn and winter grazing strategy resulted in some degree of pollution swapping, with reductions in N leaching loss being associated with increases in N loss via ammonia volatilization and N2O emissions from effluents captured and stored in the confinement systems. Future research efforts need to include farm systems level experimentation to validate and assess the impacts of region-specific dairy systems redesign on productivity, profit, environmental losses, practical feasibility and un-intended consequences.
This paper focuses on the design of a cascade within a cold stream thrust reverser during the early, conceptual stage of the product development process. A reliable procedure is developed for the exchange of geometric and load data between a two dimensional aerodynamic model and a three dimensional structural model. Aerodynamic and structural simulations are carried out using realistic operating conditions, for three different design configurations with a view to minimising weight for equivalent or improved aerodynamic and structural performance. For normal operational conditions the simulations show that total reverse thrust is unaffected when the performance of the deformed vanes is compared to the un-deformed case. This shows that for the conditions tested, the minimal deformation of the cascade vanes has no significant affect on aerodynamic efficiency and that there is scope for reducing the weight of the cascade. The pressure distribution through a two dimensional thrust reverser section is determined for two additional cascade vane configurations and it is shown that with a small decrease in total reverse thrust, it is possible to reduce weight and eliminate supersonic flow regimes through the nacelle section. By increasing vane sections in high pressure areas and decreasing sections in low pressure areas the structural performance of the cascade vanes in the weight reduced designs, is improved with significantly reduced levels of vane displacement and stress.
This paper describes experiments and numerical simulations of a
flowing down a ramp in a tank stratified in two layers. We study the dynamics
configuration for different densities of the gravity current and different
The experiments show that waves of large amplitude can be generated easily
depending on the density of the gravity current, the initial gravity current
splits into a
gravity current along the interface of the stratified layers, and a gravity
the bottom of the tank. We also describe numerical simulations which give
in agreement with the results of the experiments and enable us to study
configurations with wider ranges of density than is possible in the laboratory.
We report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning where symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome developed following use of neuroleptic medication. Literature review has failed to reveal a previous report of neuroleptic malignant syndrome following carbon monoxide insult.
The breeding population of Audouin's gull, a Red Data Book species, is endemic to the Mediterranean. Its population was estimated at 4000 pairs in 1985, but its restricted distribution and vulnerability to disturbance and competition necessitate active conservation measures. The gull's most important breeding colony is on Rey Island in the Chafarinas group, and in 1983 a three-year study was started to discover the factors limiting the size of the colony and to formulate a management plan.
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