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This study aimed to investigate the rate of dizziness and occurrence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in the elderly by physical examination in those reporting dizziness symptoms when lying down or turning over in bed.
A total of 498 people, aged 70–85 years, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding dizziness symptoms. Subjects answering that they became dizzy in bed were asked to participate in a physical examination and diagnostic manoeuvres investigating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
A total of 324 participants (65 per cent) completed the questionnaire. More than one-quarter (29 per cent) reported dizziness and 32 (10 per cent) reported dizziness when turning in bed. Of these 32 persons, 22 (69 per cent) underwent a physical examination. Six participants tested positive for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Ten per cent of the elderly participants reported positional symptoms, and 6 out of 22 fulfilled diagnostic criteria for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Furthermore, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo was established despite a delay between questionnaire completion and investigation, emphasising that this type of dizziness may not be a self-limiting disorder.
Engabreen is an outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap located in Northern Norway. It is a unique glacier due to the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory which allows direct access to the glacier bed. In this study, we combine both sub- and supraglacial observations with ice-flow modelling in order to investigate conditions at the bed of Engabreen both spatially and temporally. We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice and satellite-based surface-velocity maps from 2010 and 2014 to infer patterns of basal friction. Direct measurements of basal sliding and deformation of lower layers of the ice are used to adjust the ice viscosity and provide essential input to the setup of our model and influence the interpretation of the results. We find a clear seasonal cycle in the subglacial conditions at the higher elevation region of the study area and discuss this in relation to the subglacial hydrological system. Our results also reveal an area with an overdeepening where basal friction is significantly lower than elsewhere on the glacier all year round. We attribute this to either water pooling at the base, or saturated sediments and increased strain heating at this location which softens the ice further.
Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis.
Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP. The associations of ESR with IQ (cross-sectional) and psychoses (longitudinal) were investigated using linear and Cox-regression. The co-relative analysis was used to examine effects of shared familial confounding. We examined mediation and moderation of effect between ESR and IQ on psychosis risk.
Baseline IQ was associated with subsequent risk of schizophrenia (adjusted HR per 1-point increase in IQ = 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.960–0.963) and ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.973; 95% CI 0.971–0.975). Higher ESR was associated with lower IQ in a dose-response fashion. High ESR was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.01–1.28) and decreased risk for ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.96), although these effects were specific to one ESR band (7–10 mm/hr). Familial confounding explained ESR-IQ but not ESR-psychoses associations. IQ partly mediated the ESR-psychosis relationships.
Lower IQ is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with an increased risk of schizophrenia and ONAP in adulthood. Low-grade inflammation may influence schizophrenia risk by affecting neurodevelopment. Future studies should explore the differential effects of inflammation on different types of psychosis.
This paper presents an overview of internal layering across Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, as measured from airborne-radar data acquired during a survey conducted by the British Antarctic Survey and the University of Texas in the 2004/05 season. Internal layering is classified according to type (continuous/discontinuous/missing) and the results compared with InSAR velocities. Several areas exhibit disruption of internal layers that is most likely caused by large basal shear stresses. Signs of changes in flow were identified in a few inter-tributary areas, but overall the layering classification and distribution of layers indicate that only minor changes in ice-flow regime have taken place. This is supported by bed-topography data that show the main trunk of the glacier, as well as some of the tributaries, are topographically controlled and located in deep basins.
The potential for future dynamical instability of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, has been addressed in a number of studies, but information on its past remains limited. In this study we use airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) data acquired over Pine Island Glacier to investigate past variations in accumulation pattern. In the dataset a distinctive pattern of layers was identified in the central part of the glacier basin. We use these layers as chronological identifiers in order to construct elevation maps of the internal stratigraphy. The observed internal layer stratigraphy is then compared to calculated stratigraphy from a three-dimensional ice-flow model that has been forced with different accumulation scenarios. The model results indicate that the accumulation pattern is likely to have changed at least twice since the deposition of the deepest identified layer. Additional RES data linked to the Byrd ice core provide an approximate timescale. This timescale suggests that the layers were deposited at the beginning of or during the Holocene period. Thus the widespread changes occurring in the coastal extent of the West Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the last glacial period could have been accompanied by changes in accumulation pattern.
Visual processing problems may be one underlying factor for cognitive impairments related to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We examined associations between ASD-traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) and visual processing performance (Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test; Block Design task of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) in young adults (mean age=25.0, s.d.=2.1 years) born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) (n=101) or at term (n=104). A higher level of ASD-traits was associated with slower global visual processing speed among the preterm VLBW, but not among the term-born group (P<0.04 for interaction). Our findings suggest that the associations between ASD-traits and visual processing may be restricted to individuals born preterm, and related specifically to global, not local visual processing. Our findings point to cumulative social and neurocognitive problems in those born preterm at VLBW.
In Germany tularemia is a re-emerging zoonotic disease. Therefore, we investigated wild animals and environmental water samples for the presence and phylogenetic diversity of Francisella tularensis in the poorly studied Berlin/Brandenburg region. The phylogenomic analysis of three isolates from wild animals revealed three new subclades within the phylogenetic tree of F. tularensis [B.71 from a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides); B.74 from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and B.75 from a Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber albicus)]. The results from histological, PCR, and genomic investigations on the dead beaver showed that the animal suffered from a systemic infection. Indications were found that the bacteria were released from the beaver carcass into the surrounding environment. We demonstrated unexpectedly high and novel phylogenetic diversity of F. tularensis in Germany and the fact that the bacteria persist in the environment for at least one climatic season. These findings support a broader host species diversity than previously known regarding Germany. Our data further support the assumption derived from previous serological studies of an underestimated frequency of occurrence of the pathogen in the environment and in wild animals. F. tularensis was isolated from animal species not previously reported as natural hosts in Germany.
Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman (Musaceae)] is a multi-purpose and drought-tolerant crop, traditionally grown in Ethiopia. Food from enset has nutritive values similar to potato; it could improve food and livelihood security for many in larger geographical areas. Agronomical advice is needed which requires increased knowledge of management techniques. The purposes of this study were to (i) compare traditional corm pre-treatments when planting for sucker production, (ii) compare all six officially released cultivars regarding sprouting and (iii) investigate the effect of watering on newly buried corms. Emergence rate and number and characteristics of sprouts were recorded. Corms, from 63 two year old plants, were buried in local soil supplied with cow manure in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. Emergence was recorded daily. After nine months, including one rainy season, all suckers (totally 4405) were harvested and individually recorded. Regardless of cultivar, minimum time to emergence was 50 days. Sprouts from split parent corms emerged earlier than from entire. Emergence occurred from 100% of corms, number of sprouts was strongly correlated to cultivar: average 28–106. The cultivars responded similarly to corm splitting: the more pieces the corm was split into, the more sprouts per parent corm. Average pseudostem diameter of the seven largest per parent corm: 8–10 cm for all cultivars, leaf length: 3.1–3.7 m, remaining 2700 smaller suckers: diameter 3 cm (SD 1.8). Watering decreased the average time to emergence and levelled out the differences between pre-treatments. The traditional belief is that watering as well as manure on corm cause rotting; manure is therefore usually put on the soil surface. On the contrary, full emergence and unexpected large suckers may be a result of careful soil preparation with manure applied on corm directly; watering resulted in an even emergence and growth. In conclusion, vegetative propagation of enset is efficient, but methods used and agronomical advice can be improved.
Performing basic activities of daily living (ADLs) is one of the major difficulties encountered in dementia, which can have considerable negative impacts on the quality of life (QoL) of people with dementia (PwD). However, the extent to which basic ADL performance deteriorates across mild, moderate, and severe dementia is little examined and its impact, together with depression and neuropsychiatric behavior, upon QoL, is of considerable relevance across European countries.
Data were drawn from people living in the community who were participants in a large-scale European study on transition from community living to care homes of PwD. PwD completed measures on cognitive functioning and QoL, and informal carers reported upon QoL, depressive symptomatology, psychopathology, and functional ability of the PwD.
ADL performance deteriorated differently for each activity. In particular, toileting, transfer, and feeding remained relatively intact throughout, whereas performance on bathing and dressing deteriorated to a greater extent from mild to severe dementia. It appears that continence was not affected by the stage of dementia with similar levels of impairment. Basic ADL performance impacted to different degrees on QoL across dementia stages and countries.
Interventions aimed at maintaining independence or QoL need to target different ADLs across different dementia stages and perhaps also tailor interventions to the context of different countries. Findings contribute to the development of non-pharmaceutical interventions and governmental pledges to promote independence in dementia.
We observed Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the +50 km s−1 cloud (M−0.02−0.07), the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the +20 km s−1 (M−0.13−0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H2O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C18O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km s−1 clouds. The CND is rich in H2O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km s−1 clouds and the CND, the very high H2O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperature, gas-phase shock chemistry. Only three of the molecules are briefly discussed here. For OH and H2O three of the nine observed positions are shown, while a map of the C18O emission is provided. An extensive paper was recently published with Open Access (Karlsson et al. 2013, A&A 554, A141).
Structures comprising single-crystal, iron-carbon-based nanowires encapsulated by multiwall carbon nanotubes self-organize on inert substrates exposed to the products of ferrocene pyrolysis at high temperature. The most commonly observed encapsulated phases are Fe3C, α-Fe, and γ-Fe. The observation of anomalously long-period lattice spacings in these nanowires has caused confusion since reflections from lattice spacings of ≥0.4 nm are kinematically forbidden for Fe3C, most of the rarely observed, less stable carbides, α-Fe, and γ-Fe. Through high-resolution electron microscopy, selective area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy we demonstrate that the observed long-period lattice spacings of 0.49, 0.66, and 0.44 nm correspond to reflections from the (100), (010), and (001) planes of orthorhombic Fe3C (space group Pnma). Observation of these forbidden reflections results from dynamic scattering of the incident beam as first observed in bulk Fe3C crystals. With small amounts of beam tilt these reflections can have significant intensities for crystals containing glide planes such as Fe3C with space groups Pnma or Pbmn.
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
This study describes the epidemiology and symptoms in 271 cryptosporidiosis patients in Stockholm County, Sweden. Species/genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S rRNA genes. Species were C. parvum (n=111), C. hominis (n=65), C. meleagridis (n=11), C. felis (n=2), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype 1 (n=2), and a recently described species, C. viatorum (n=2). Analysis of the Gp60 gene revealed five C. hominis allele families (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, If), and four C. parvum allele families (IIa, IIc, IId, IIe). Most C. parvum cases (51%) were infected in Sweden, as opposed to C. hominis cases (26%). Clinical manifestations differed slightly by species. Diarrhoea lasted longer in C. parvum cases compared to C. hominis and C. meleagridis cases. At follow-up 25–36 months after disease onset, 15% of the patients still reported intermittent diarrhoea. In four outbreaks and 13 family clusters, a single subtype was identified, indicating a common infection source, which emphasizes the value of genotyping for epidemiological investigations.
A widely held view is that a “mini halo” with much less than 108M⊙ in dark matter is unlikely to retain any baryons because even a single SN event is expected to sweep out all of the gas. But we show that a clumpy medium is much less susceptible to SN sweeping (particularly if it is off-centred) because the coupling efficiency of the explosive energy is much lower than for a diffuse interstellar medium. With the aid of the sophisticated 3D hydro code Fyris, we show that baryons are retained and stars are formed in dark matter haloes down to 3 × 106M⊙. The gas survives the SN explosion and is enriched with specific abundance yields of the discrete events. The smallest galaxies may not contribute a large fraction of baryons and dark matter to the formation of galaxies. But they are likely to carry important chemical signatures that were laid down in the earliest epochs of star formation, as we show. We discuss the results in light of the newly discovered, very metal poor, damped Lyα systems and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies.
Feasibility of lo-hi-lo and delta-doped structures for evaluation of high-field silicon carbide material properties is investigated. Delta-doped structures are grown using the hot-wall CVD technique. Aluminum and nitrogen doping profiles are demonstrated with FWHM below 10 nm. Nitrogen doping transients are found to be slower than those for aluminum. The growth interrupt technique has been developed for achieving narrow nitrogen doping peaks. Lo-hi-lo structures were fabricated using the implantation-and-regrowth technique. Structures with confined avalanche multiplication are demonstrated using the lo-hi-lo and delta doping techniques. The effect of substrate imperfections on early avalanche breakdown is investigated using confined avalanche multiplication devices.
We demonstrate that the performance of silicon carbide MESFETs is largely determined by short-channel effects. Parasitic bipolar transistor turn-on limits the operation voltage to a small fraction of the theoretically expected value for an ideal device. Tradeoffs are shown to exist between optimum gate length and on-state current on one hand, and the maximum blocking voltage on the other hand. Composite p-buffers with an elevated doping in the vicinity of the active layer considerably increase the operation voltage. Silicon carbide MESFETs utilizing composite buffers are reported.
Morphological instabilities in thermally grown oxide, observed in a range of thermal barrier systems, have been simulated by developing and using a numerical code. The simulations are based on a range of phenomena and constituent properties, such as plasticity in the bond coat and growth strains in the TGO at high temperature. One of the key implications is that the incidence of reverse yielding upon reheating is a necessary condition for morphological instabilities. That is, whenever the condition for reverse yielding is satisfied during the initial cycles, the imperfection amplitude increases with thermal cycling (ratcheting). Otherwise, shakedown occurs, i.e., the imperfection amplitude stops growing.
This work reviews the dependence of reliability testing results on material processing and properties for polymeric materials used in high density interconnection technologies.Specific data are presented for CyclotenesTM 3022 resins containing divinylsiloxane bisbenzocyclobutene, (CAS 117732-87-3). Silane coupling agents discussed in this study are 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (CAS 01760-24-3)(APTES) and 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (CAS 02530-85-0) (MOP-TMS).
The high energy implantation of boron into n-type Silicon Carbide epitaxial layers of the polytype 4H was investigated for various sample temperatures during implantation and different doping concentrations. Depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry was applied to determine the boron distribution in the as-implanted epilayers and the re-distribution of boron atoms during a half hour heat treatment at a temperature of 1700 °C. The SIMS boron profiles are compared to numerical Monte Carlo calculations using the program TRIM96 and to electrical profiling by scanning capacitance microscopy.
In general we found that boron is moving towards the implantation damage already during the implantation of a profile with four different energies. The defect enhanced diffusion of boron is more pronounced during the high temperature anneal, where a higher concentration of boron diffusing towards the sample surface was observed. Into the bulk of the epilayer the boron diffusion is on a lower level and shows an exponential decay with a length of up to 5 Pm. An out-diffusion of boron during the post implantation anneal was not observed at implantation temperatures up to 500 °C.
Electrical profiling using scanning capacitance microscopy revealed that complicated layer structures with several pn-junctions can occur due to the re-distribution of boron during post implantation anneal.
Low-loped p-type silicon carbide buffer layers are grown by chemical vapor deposition on conducting and semi-insulating substrates. Capacitance-voltage and electrical admittance techniques are developed for accurate non-destructive characterization. The electrical admittance techniques suggested are capable of measuring the resistivity in a very wide range, up to 7 orders of magnitude. MESFET devices using thick buffer layers on conducting substrates are reported with Ft=8.4 GHz and Fmax=32 GHz.