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The acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear underlies the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. Women have higher lifetime prevalence and greater risk of PTSD than men. Such sex differences may be attributed to a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene encodes an enzyme that metabolizes catechol compounds, including dopamine. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the enzymatic activity of dopamine and has been associated with altered fear memory performance. Besides, when estrogen secretion is elevated, women show a greater extinction of conditioned fear than men. Here, we investigated the relationship between the COMT genotype and sex in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In a 3-day cued fear conditioning experiment, acquisition and extinction performance of 75 healthy men (21.8 years) and 45 healthy women in follicular phase (21.2 years) were examined. Visual cues and electric shocks were used as the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, respectively. Subjects with Met/Met homozygotes showed less fear acquisition (p < .0001). Female Val carriers showed more extinction (p = .009) and less reconsolidation (p < .0001) than male Val carriers. Women with Val/Val homozygotes were less affected by a reinforcing stimulus than men with Val/Val homozygotes (p = .0001). These findings suggest a clear interaction between the COMT gene and sex in fear memory function, and that women have a greater tolerance for aversive experiences than men. Higher estrogen levels mediate increased dopaminagic activity, potentially optimizing the prefrontal function known to contribute to the fear-related symptomatology of PTSD.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
This study aimed to predict eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis prognosis by investigating changes in the blood eosinophil count and other disease biomarkers after surgery.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 levels were measured in 22 eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients before and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and compared with equivalent measures in non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps patients. Differences between well-controlled eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and those who experienced recurrence were also assessed.
Blood eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin-5 level decreased after surgery in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. In this patient group, blood eosinophil counts before surgery were significantly higher in patients who experienced recurrence (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 443.9 ± 76.6 cells/μl, p < 0.05), and decreased significantly after surgery (825.7 ± 26.1 vs 76.7 ± 25.8 cells/μl, p < 0.05).
Blood eosinophil numbers may reflect disease severity in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis patients and their prognosis after surgery.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The Galactic centre region shows outstanding non-circular motion unlike the Galactic disk. As scenarios describing this non-circular motion, resonance orbits formed by the Galactic bar potential or expanding motion by past activity of the central BH are proposed. However, these both scenarios are based on line-of-sight velocities of molecular clouds in this region, and such one-dimension velocity information is insufficient to separate these scenarios.
To reveal dynamics of the Galactic centre region, we conducted astromertic observations of 22 GHz water maser sources toward the Galactic centre direction. We conducted astrometric observations toward water maser source associated with Sgr D HII region. As a result, we succeeded to measure the parallax and proper motion of the maser source. The measured distance was 2.36(+0.58/-0.39) kpc. This result clearly indicates that this source is not associated with the Galactic centre, but located on the Galactic disk.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolution on millisecond scales, resolving structures within 100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* , similar to the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from 2013 January to trace the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in an ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed the pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and the newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We have used the Japanese VLBI array VERA to perform high-precision astrometry of an H2O maser source in the Galactic superbubble NGC 281. We successfully detected a trigonometric parallax of 0.355±0.030 mas, corresponding to a source distance of 2.82±0.24 kpc. The source distance as well as the absolute proper motions were used to demonstrate the 3D structure and expansion of the NGC 281 superbubble, ∼650 pc in size parallel to the Galactic disk, indicating the superbubble expansion may be confined to the disk. We estimate the expansion velocity of the superbubble as ∼20 km s−1 both perpendicular to and parallel to the Galactic disk with a consistent timescale of ∼20 Myr.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
In 2011 February, a burst of the 22 GHz H2O maser in Orion KL was reported. In order to identify the bursting maser features, we have been carrying out observations of the 22 GHz H2O maser in Orion KL with VERA, a Japanese VLBI network dedicated for astrometry. The bursting maser turns out to consist of two spatially different features at 7.58 and 6.95 km s−1. We determine their absolute positions and find that they are coincident with the shocked molecular gas called the Orion Compact Ridge. We tentatively detect the absolute proper motions of the bursting features toward the southwest direction, perpendicular to the elongation of the maser features. It is most likely that the outflow from the radio source I or another young stellar object interacting with Compact Ridge is a possible origin of the H2O maser burst. We will also carry out observations with ALMA in the cycle 0 period to monitor the submillimeter H2O maser lines in the Orion Compact Ridge region. These follow-up observations will provide novel information on the physical and chemical properties of the mastering region.
After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the disaster countermeasures concerning medical care in Japan changed drastically. In 2005, the Japanese government began to develop a domestic, rapid, medical response system called Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) for the purpose of rapid medical correspondence in the acute phase. As of 12 July 2010, 393 institutions and 734 teams (3,700 persons) were trained. A DMAT is important not only to the response to large disasters such as earthquakes, but also the response to local disasters. It is important to establish the DMAT system of each prefecture and district.
The DMAT system at the local level was described at the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine. During the present Congress, the development and activities of the DMAT system over the past three years will be reported.
Results and Conclusion
Eight local districts in the DMAT system have been developed, and progress has been made in the fields of policy, operative plans, and agreement among each province. The system of inter-prefecture mutual aid must be built upon in the near future.
David Ames, Professor of Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne,
Eleanor Flynn, Senior Lecturer in Medical Education, University of Melbourne,
Maria Alekxandrova, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Medical University Pleven,
Kaloyan Stoychev, Consultant Psychiatrist, University Hospital Pleven,
Kenneth Shulman, Professor of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Toronto,
Ross Upshur, Professor of Primary Care, University of Toronto,
Kirsten Abelskov, Old-Age Psychiatrist, Aarhus University Hospital,
Kaj Sparle Christensen, General Practitioner, Institut for Almen Medicin, University of Aarhus,
Philippe H. Robert, Professor of Psychiatry,
Michel Benoit, Psychiatrist Centre Mémoire de Ressources et de Recherche, Nice,
Florence Cabane, General Practitioner Nice,
Geneviève Ruault, Geriatrician Nice,
Helen F. K. Chiu, Professor of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
D. K. T. Li, Family Physician, Past President Hong Kong College of Family Physicians,
Syuichi Awata, Psychiatrist and Director Division of Neuropsychiatry and Center for Dementia, Sendai City Hospital,
Akira Honma, Psychiatrist, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology,
Els Licht-Strunk, General Practitioner, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam,
Marijke Bremmer, Consultant Psychiatrist, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam,
Knut Engedal, Professor of Old-Age Psychiatry, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo,
Harald Sanaker, Specialist in Family Medicine, Kongsvegen Legesenter, Brummunddal,
Nicoleta Tătaru, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Forensic Hospital Ştei, Bihor,
Monica Bălan, Primary Care Physician Oradea,
Alexandru Dicker, Senior Consultant in Internal Medicine Psychiatric Hospital, Nucet, Bihor,
Raimundo Mateos, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Santiago de Compostela,
Jose Antonio Ferreiro Guri, Specialist in Family and Community, Medicine University of Santiago de Compostela,
Tom Campbell, Professor of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, NY,
Jeffrey M. Lyness, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, NY
The editors summarized the contributions written by colleagues in different parts of the world (Chapter 6) to illustrate the similarities, and occasional differences, in the management of depression in older people described in all the contributions. This appendix allows the reader to read the individual contributions.
This 82-year-old woman is chronically disabled by pain and breathlessness and appears to have become socially disengaged. She has several symptoms of depression, including persistent low mood, loss of energy (which sounds to be out of proportion to her medical state), early morning waking, loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities, and persistent feelings that life is not worth living. The vignette does not provide information about her appetite and weight, concentration, any psychomotor changes, guilt feelings or confidence levels, but even so it is clear that, provided the symptoms have been present for two weeks (and this seems highly likely), she meets both DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and ICD-10 criteria for a depressive episode.
Australian health-care system
Within the Australian health-care system, in which specialists are accessible only after referral from a general practitioner (GP), this woman would normally be managed by her GP who in all likelihood will already be engaged in the management of her troublesome osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She might well attend a respiratory outpatient clinic or rheumatology clinic in a public hospital, or (less likely as fewer than one-third of the elderly have private health insurance) be seeing a private medical specialist with expertise in one or both of these two areas.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v=1 and 2 J=1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We succesfully detected a parallax of 0.87 ± 0.08 mas, corresponding to the distance of 1.15 +0.10−0.09 kpc using H2O masers. As the result of phase-referencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both H2O masers and SiO masers. The H2O maser features show rapid expansion off the central star.
VERA aims at astrometric observations using phase referencing VLBI techniques, whose goal is a 10 micro arc-second accuracy for annual parallax measurements. VERA has four 20-m diameter VLBI radio telescopes in Japanese archipelago with the maximum baseline length of 2,300 km. They have the two-beam observing system, which makes simultaneous observations of two objects possible. This leads to very accurate phase referencing VLBI observations. An important science goal is to make a 3-dimensional map of the Galaxy and reveal its dynamics. In order to achieve this, VERA has the 22GHz and 43GHz bands for H2O and SiO maser objects, respectively. Maser objects are compact and suitable for astrometry observations. VERA's construction was started in 2000 and the array became operational in 2004. We have already measured annual parallaxes and proper motions of some galactic objects. In the future, VERA will collaborate with Korean and Chinese VLBI stations.
We present results of astrometric observations of S269 H2O maser performed with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). We have monitored the positions of S269 H2O masers for 1 year and successfully detected its parallax to be 189±8 micro-arcsecond. This corresponds to a source distance of 5.28+0.24−0.22 kpc, and is the smallest parallax (and thus the largest distance) that has ever been measured by means of annual parallax. Proper motions of S269 H2O maser were also measured and used to determine the Galactic rotation velocity at the position of S269. Our measurements show that the Galactic rotation velocity at S269 is the same to that at the Sun within 3%, indicating that the Galactic rotation curve is flat out to R~13 kpc.