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We evaluated the host suitability and related traits of Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is nonnative in North America, for the native parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and the nonnative parasitoid Cotesia vanessae Reinhard (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). For the larval parasitoid C. sonorensis and C. vanessae trials, three-day-old larvae of both hosts were used, whereas one-day-old eggs of both hosts were used for the egg–larval parasitoid C. floridanum trial. For suitability parameters on each host exposed separately to each of the three parasitoid species, we measured parasitoid emergence (parasitoid success), parasitoids that did not emerge (parasitoid cocoon mortality), the proportion of male offspring (parasitoid sex ratio), hosts that developed into moths (host success), hosts that died without developing into moths or producing a parasitoid (host mortality), parasitoids emerging from cocoon masses (brood size), and the developmental times of parasitoids and hosts. For C. sonorensis, the native host and the nonnative host were found to be similarly suitable. For C. vanessae, the native host was more suitable than the nonnative host. For C. floridanum, the native host was suitable, whereas the nonnative host was not; however, sublethal effects on both the native and nonnative hosts were observed. The differential suitability of the hosts observed in this study contributes to the understanding of this measure as a dynamic factor in the expansion of parasitoids into novel host species.
Background: Trauma care represents a complex patient journey, requiring multi-disciplinary coordinated care. Team members are human, and as such, how they feel about their colleagues and their work affects performance. The challenge for health service leaders is enabling culture that supports high levels of collaboration, cooperation and coordination across diverse groups. Aim Statement: We aimed to define and set the agenda for improvement of the relational aspects of trauma care at a large tertiary care hospital. Measures & Design: We conducted a mixed-methods collaborative ethnography using the Relational Coordination survey – an established tool to analyze the relational dimensions of multidisciplinary teamwork – participant observation, interviews, and narrative surveys. Findings were presented to clinicians in working groups for further interpretation and to facilitate co-creation of targeted interventions designed to improve team relationships and performance. Evaluation/Results: We engaged a complex multidisciplinary network of ~500 care providers dispersed across seven core interdependent clinical disciplines. Initial findings highlighted the importance of relationships in trauma care and opportunities to improve. Narrative survey and ethnographic findings further highlighted the centrality of a translational simulation program in contributing positively to team culture and relational ties. A range of 16 interventions – focusing on structural, process and relational dimensions – were co-created with participants and are now being implemented and evaluated by various trauma care providers. Discussion/Impact: Through engagement of clinicians spanning organizational boundaries, relational aspects of care can be measured and directly targeted in a collaborative quality improvement process. We encourage health care leaders to consider relationship-based quality improvement strategies, including translational simulation and relational coordination processes, in their efforts to improve care for patients with complex, interdependent journeys.
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.
Mefloquine is being used as malaria prevention by Plasmodium Falciparum in chloroquine-resistant zones. We describe a woman who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms during mefloquine treatment.
Methods and results
A 26-year-old Spanish woman had been working in Mali for the last six months and had started antimalarial prevention with mefloquine. In Mali, the clinical picture had a sudden debut and she related: excessive happiness, incapacity to sleep, and megalomania (she believed to have special powers and to be the mother of all the children). She was admitted in a hospital in Mali for seven days and received treatment with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Then, she was repatriated to Spain without treatment and she continued suffering the same symptoms. After 15 days, she went to our hospital and she was admitted. Treatment started with risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) and clonazepam (up to 1.5 mg/day). At admission Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 25 points. Physical examination and complementary tests were normal, and was orientated as a manic episode with psychotic symptoms secondary to mefloquine. She had a quick symptomatic improvement (after 7 days of treatment YMRS was 5 points) and was discharged after 15 days.
Mefloquine more frequent adverse neuropsychiatric effects are: dizziness, vivid dreams and insomnia. Others are confusion, and auditory hallucinations. Side effects are dose dependent. Psychotic symptoms are frequently auto-limited when mefloquine is suppressed but treatment with atypical antipsychotics is often needed. MDR1/ABCB1 polymorphisms may play a role in neuropsychiatric side effects
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
The aim of this work was to identify factors associated with homelessness status in patients admitted to the psychiatric emergency ward of a French public teaching hospital over the 6-year study period (2001-2006).
The study was based on a retrospective review of the psychiatric emergency ward's administrative and medical computer databases. Each emergency care episode had accompanying data including demographic, financial, clinical, and management information.
During this 6-year study, the psychiatric service recorded 16,754 care episodes concerning 8,860 different patients, of which 591 were homeless (6.7%) and 8,269 were non-homeless (93.3%). The mean ± SD number of visits to the psychiatric emergency service was higher for homeless (4.9±12.3) than for non-homeless patients (1.7±2.4) (p< .001). A total of 331 homeless patients (56%) had more than one care episode, versus 2,180 (26%) for non-homeless patients. Factors associated with homelessness included male sex, single status, and the reception of social financial assistance. Schizophrenia (43.7%) and substance use disorders (31.0%) were the most frequent disorders in homeless patients. Aggressive behaviour and violence were reported equally in homeless and non-homeless patients. Homeless patients were hospitalized less often after having received care in the emergency ward.
Although there is near-universal access to free mental health care in France, our findings suggest that the quality and adequacy of subsequent care were not always guaranteed. Multidisciplinary and collaborative solutions are needed to improve the management of homeless patients.
There is a significant incidence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, the most common after receiving the diagnosis. We describe a man who was admitted for a first episode psychosis and a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made moreover.
A 24-year-old man was admitted with a paranoid delusion, auditory hallucinations with emotional response and the believe that their thoughts were being interfered. Blood test and cranial CT were normal. Risperidone was started. He developed ataxia and sensitive disturbances on the right arm. A cranial and spinal cord MRI revealed multiple T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions located in supra and infratentorial white matter, lesions in C3, and one lesion in right basal ganglia that enhanced with gadolinium. CSF analysis showed oligoclonals bands. Three years ago the patient had had transient sensitive symtoms. A diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was made and was started methyl-prednisolone intravenously. Risperidone was changed for amisulpride 800 mg/day because lack of response. He was discharged after 25 days. Six months later he has attenuated psychotic symptoms without news lesions in MRI. Glatiramer acetate has been started.
Results and conclusions
The most frequent disorder associated to multiple sclerosis is depression (prevalence of 20%). Psychosis is unusual, transient, sometimes as the onset relapse followed by remission. There's evidence of correlation between psychosis in multiple sclerosis and multiple lesions in temporal periventricular area. We suggest that in our case these two disorders are two separated entities since the enhanced lesion does not correpond with clinical findings.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
Mefloquine is being used as malaria prevention by Plasmodium Falciparum in chloroquine-resistant zones. We describe a woman who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms during mefloquine treatment.
Methods and results
The case describes a 26-year-old Spanish woman who had been working in Mali for the last six months and had started antimalarial prevention with mefloquine. In Mali, the clinical picture had a sudden debut and she related: excessive happiness, incapacity to sleep, and megalomania (she believed to have special powers and to be the mother of all the children). She was admitted in a hospital in Mali for seven days and received treatment with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Then, she was repatriated to Spain without treatment and she continued suffering the same symptoms. After 15 days, she went to our hospital and she was admitted. Treatment started with risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) and clonazepam (up to 1.5 mg/day). At admission Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 25 points. Physical examination and complementary tests were normal, and was orientated as a manic episode with psychotic symptoms secondary to mefloquine. She had a quick symptomatic improvement (after 7 days of treatment YMRS was 5 points) and was discharged after 15 days.
Mefloquine more frequent adverse neuropsychiatric effects are: dizziness, vivid dreams and insomnia. Others are confusion, and auditory hallucinations. Side effects are dose dependent. Psychotic symptoms are frequently auto-limited when mefloquine is suppressed but treatment with atypical antipsychotics is often needed. MDR1/ABCB1 polymorphisms may play a role in neuropsychiatric side effects.
Twenty-four new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon ages from sediment cores in nine lakes associated with the Shipshewana and Sturgis moraines in northern Indiana and southern Michigan estimate when recession of the Saginaw Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was underway in the southern Great Lakes region, USA. Average OSL ages of 23.4 ± 2.2 ka for the Shipshewana Moraine and 19.7 ± 2.2 ka for the Sturgis Moraine are considered minimum limiting deglacial ages for these recessional moraines. The much younger radiocarbon ages are consistent with other regional radiocarbon ages from lakes, and record climate amelioration around ~16.5 cal ka BP. Early recession of the interlobate Saginaw Lobe was well underway by 23.4 ± 2.2 ka, when the adjacent Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes were a few hundred kilometers farther south and near their maximum southerly limits. The results provide the first time constraints when sediment from the Lake Michigan and Huron-Erie lobes began filling the accommodation space left by the Saginaw Lobe. The difference between the oldest radiocarbon and OSL age is 7400 yr for the Shipshewana Moraine and 3400 yr for the Sturgis Moraine.
The introduction of the first atypical antipsychotic with a long acting formulation has open new therapeutic options for the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Our objective consists of comparing psychopathology levels and global functioning in patients with paranoid schizophrenia treated in monotherapy either with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) or conventional depot antipsychotics (DA).
Patients attending at the community mental health center during the six-month recruitment period were eligible to enter the study. Scores achieved in positive and negative subscales of PANNS and EEAG scale of (Global Activity Evaluating Scale) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months later. Six patients treated with RLAI and six patients treated with DA were recruited. Data were analyzed both with the real sample (N=6 per group) and extrapoling the same results to a bigger sample size (N=24 per group).
Mean increase in scores for both PANNS positive and negative subscales were lower in patients treated with RLAI that in those treated with DA (positive subscale: 0.018±0.06 vs. 0.048±0.03, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.387; negative subscale: 0.232±0.076 vs. 0.3095±0.123, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.579). EEAG scores were higher for patients treated with RLAI than those treated with DA (1.250±0.56 vs. 0.333±0.225, p=0.144). When these results are extrapolated to a sample of 24 patients per group, differences in EEAG reach statistical significance (p=0.034).
After 6 months of treatment, patients treated with RLAI tend to show a greater improvement in their global activity than those treated with DA.
Clozapine is an atypical dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic used for resistant schizophrenia. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy are rarely reported complications of clozapine treatment. The incidence of clozapine-related myocarditis has been variably reported at between 0.03% and 0.19% Myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening complication of clozapine.
We reported a case of a 30-year-old female patient who developed reversible myocarditis a few weeks after we began the treatment with clozapine for chronic resistant schizophrenia (as specified in DSM-IVTR), characterized by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction that resulted in congestive heart failure.
After the immediate discontinuation of the clozapine, along with aggressive supportive care, resulted in almost complete recovery to baseline.
Patients taking clozapine who develop dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain or collapse should be screened for myocarditis, especially during the first weeks of treatment. Health professionals should be aware of this uncommon but serious side effect of clozapine since failure to recognize the association may result in adverse clinical outcome. Myocarditis should be suspected when cardiac dysfunction appears suddenly, and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be undertaken promptly.
The psychopathological profile in a sample of 43 adult chronic asthmatic outpatients is analyzed. The SCL-90-R Self-Report Questionnaire was applied. The symptomatic profile in our sample is characterized by a main elevation of the dimension of somatization (1.80) followed by the areas of depression (1.64), obsession-compulsion (1.53) and anxiety (1.45). These dimensions contribute to the leading features of psychopathology in our patients.
Interest in the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients is well established in the psychiatric literature. The relationship between personality disorders and acute phase proteins (APP) in schizophrenia is not well known.
Investigating the relationship among acute phase proteins and personality disorders in schizophrenic patients in a sample of adult schizophrenic patients under psychiatric treatment in a general hospital health setting.
Material and Methods:
37 adult paranoid schizophrenics undergoing treatment in the University Hospital of the Canary Islands with DSM-IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia are included. Years from onset 9.20 s.d. 6.29, age at onset 19.75 s.d. 4.73. The record of personality disorders as a secondary diagnosis in the medical chart was taking into account. A blood sample as routine standard analysis was carried out in each patient.
In 21 patients (56.7%) a personality disorder, mainly with paranoid and schizotypal traits, was registered. The percentage of each personality disorder is as follows, Schizotypal (16.2%), Paranoid (13.5%), Schizoid (2.7%), Paranoid and Schizotypal (24.3%). The results point to no significant correlation according to APP (C3, C4, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-glicoprotein, ceruloplasmin) in the different diagnostic groups.
Discussion and conclusions:
In our study there is no evidence to support a significant correlation among APP and the different personality disorders in our sample of schizophrenics in spite of a positive correlation of APP and some psychopathology dimensions that has been communicated earlier elsewhere. In order to set some possible specificity of acute phase proteins and other clinical features in schizophrenia further research is required.
Reduced Glutathion Peroxidase (GSH) is a common biologic marker of antioxidant status frequently used in schizophrenic research. Data regarding GSH levels in schizophrenic patients are controversial. Our objective is to study whether or not GSH levels have seasonal or circadian fluctuations in schizophrenic outpatients.
23 clinically stable treated chronic schizophrenic outpatients were studied in summer and winter. The same day in July and January, blood samples were extracted between 8:30 and 9:00 after one night fasting. The same routine was followed during the two experimental sessions.
GSH plasma levels were not significant different between summer and winter. There was no significant difference between nocturnal and diurnal GSH levels in neither winter nor summer.
Plasma GSH does not present seasonal levels either a circadian rhythm.
Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a common biologic marker of oxidative stress used in psychiatric research. Data regarding MDA levels in healthy subjects are controversial. One factor affecting MDA levels may stem from the existence of a circadian rhythm of MDA formation. The objective of this study consists of investigating whether MDA formation has a circadian rhythm of formation in healthy human subjects.
The sample was comprised by 9 healthy male subjects. None of them had a history of medical or neurological disease and routine laboratory parameters were normal. The study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and all subjects gave written informed consent before their inclusion. Blood samples were extracted at 12:00 and 2:00 in December 2004. The same routine was followed during the two experimental sessions. Serum MDA was determined by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) according to the method of Ohkaba et al (1979).
The sample was comprised by 9 male healthy subjects (age 33.0±11.7). There were significant differences in MDA levels between 12:00 and 2:00 (2.33±1.01 vs. 1.58±0.48, p<0.015).
MDA has a circadian rhythm of formation with higher levels at 12:00 than 2:00. This variation in circadian MDA levels of formation should be accounted when researching in this field.