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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, persists in many countries. In the UK and Ireland, efforts to control TB through culling of badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, have failed and there is significant interest in vaccination of badgers as an alternative or complementary strategy. Using a simulation model, we show that where TB is self-contained within the badger population and there are no external sources of infection, limited-duration vaccination at a high level of efficacy can reduce or even eradicate TB from the badger population. However, where sources of external infection persist, benefits in TB reduction in badgers can only be achieved by ongoing, annual vaccination. Vaccination is likely to be most effective as part of an integrated disease management strategy incorporating a number of different approaches across the entire host community.
Experimental measurements of the spatial distribution of the spontaneous
emission produced inside the cavity of a 4° 980 nm tapered laser
presented and compared with the results of a 2.5 D half-space, hot-cavity
simulation. A custom device with a windowed n-contact was designed and
fabricated for this work. The effectiveness of this windowed contact was
investigated and appears to be satisfactory. The measurement system for
photo- and electroluminescence microscopy imaging was quantitatively
calibrated with an error of < ±15%. Good agreement between the
experimental and simulated results are presented, with an error of
in the carrier density at the output facet.
The process-induced stress in interconnects within integrated circuits (IC) has a direct influence on the mean time to failure of the devices. Since measurement of stress in individual metallised lines is not possible by existing techniques, another approach has been adopted where a test structure is generated during fabrication based on a micro-rotating cantilever sensor. To support the design, finite element modeling (FEM) has been performed. By comparing the rotation predicted by FEM simulations and that observed experimentally, a clear discrepancy is observed which is critically dependent on the details of the sensor design, the pattern transfer of the lithographic process and on the dry etching processing.
As the trend for miniaturisation in the microelectronics field continues, metallisation connecting components has smaller and smaller dimensions, especially width and thickness. The mechanical properties of the deposited metal are very different from those of the bulk material and it is important to evaluate them accurately if the reliability of the metallisation is to be optimised. The assessment of the mechanical properties of thin aluminium metallisation is possible by nanoindentation but to extract properties useful for lifetime prediction such as yield stress or creep relaxation behaviour additional modelling is necessary using finite elements analysis (FEA). In this study evaporated aluminium layers from 50nm to 600nm thick on (100) silicon were indented to various depths. Proportional loading was used to minimise the effect of creep. The loading curves were then simulated by FEA and the results compared to identify the yield properties of the coating. Modelling data for thicker samples closely follows experimental data but for thinner coatings there is a considerable gradient in properties through the film thickness.
The within-row dispersion characteristics of larvae of Antitrogus mussoni (Blackburn), A. parvulus Britton, Lepidiota crinita Brenske, L. negatoria Blackburn, L. noxia Britton and L. picticollis Lea in sugarcane were determined in studies in southern Queensland, Australia. The Poisson distribution, negative binomial distribution, Iwao's regression model and Taylor's power law analysis were used to determine the relationship between mean and variance of larval counts. All methods examined showed that the larvae were slightly aggregated. Taylor's power law generally gave equivalent or better fits to the population dispersion compared with the other models. The power law relationship for L. picticollis differed from those of the other five species, and a common relationship for those five species was determined. Relationships to determine sample sizes for fixed levels of precision and fixed-precision-level stop lines for sequential sampling were developed for both L. picticollis and the other five species. There were functional relationships between the variance and mean of untransformed population counts for all species, and the suitability of transformation functions is discussed.