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The current study describes the results obtained from clinical examination of over 4700 suckling piglets from 19 individual herds in Germany. In this cohort the prevalence of inflammation and necrosis in the tails, ears, claw coronary bands, heels and teats was determined using a pre-defined scoring system. Results show that already in the 1st days of life, piglets were affected by inflammation and necrosis of the heels (80%), claw coronary bands (50%) and tail base (20%). The praevalences of these alterations in piglets were influenced by genetics (P <0.001) and age, decreasing gradually in the 2nd week of life (P <0.001). Moreover, a correlation between tail length after tail docking and the prevalence of tail necrosis (P⩽0.04) was found. Tail and ear biting as a behavioural trait was not detected during this study. The early onset, appearance and multiple locations of clinical signs of inflammation and the positive correlation with the genetic background of the piglets may suggest an impairment of the innate immune system by infectious and non-infectious agents. This is in contrast to previously described behavioural abnormalities seen in fattening pigs. Considering the obvious reduction of animal welfare due to the described lesions, there is a need to create awareness among pig farmers and to understand the multifactorial causality involved in this inflammation and necrosis syndrome in piglets.
The transformation of global capitalism, labor, and class relations in our own day is having a marked effect on how we study those subjects historically. Yet, as happens repeatedly in our historical discipline, insights gained from the juxtaposition and recognition of deep structural affinities between the present and the past also carry the risk of a distorted mirror effect. What questions we carry to the past and what lessons we, in turn, extract from it must be handled with care. As couriers between worlds of time as well as space, our work as historians inevitably reflects the ignorance as well as intelligence attending the message (as well as the messenger) of the given moment. With these caveats in mind, I want to explore the link between today's global crisis in worker welfare—perhaps most commonly summoned up by the twinned terms “neoliberalism” and the “precariat”—and a new historical preoccupation with coerced laborers of the past. With due deference to the aims of this collection, I will concentrate on the connection between the coolie question, as it developed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with the plight (and possible strategies) of low-wage global workers today.
ESA's Gaia space astrometry mission is performing an all-sky survey of stellar objects. At the beginning of the nominal mission in July 2014, an operation scheme was adopted that enabled Gaia to routinely acquire observations of all stars brighter than the original limit of G~6, i.e. the naked-eye stars. We present the current status and extent of those observations.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24–48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured. Dietary GOS was readily fermented in the colon, leading to a decreased pH, an increase in butyric acid in caecum digesta and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers at day 26. Histomorphological changes were observed in the intestines of piglets fed a GOS diet for 3 or 26 d. In turn, differences in the intestinal disaccharidase activity were observed between control and GOS-fed piglets. The mRNA expression of various tight junction proteins was up-regulated in the intestines of piglet fed a GOS diet and was not accompanied by an increase in protein expression. GOS also increased defensin porcine β-defensin-2 in the colon and secretory IgA levels in saliva. In conclusion, by applying a neonatal piglet model, it could be demonstrated that a GOS-supplemented milk replacer promotes the balance of the developing intestinal microbiota, improves the intestinal architecture and seems to stimulate the intestinal defence mechanism.
Kalahari Group sediments accumulated in the Kalahari basin, which started forming during the breakup of Gondwana in the early Cretaceous. These sediments cover an extensive part of southern Africa and form a low-relief landscape. Current models assume that the Kalahari Group accumulated throughout the entire Cenozoic. However, chronology has been restricted to early–middle Cenozoic biostratigraphic correlations and to OSL dating of only the past ~ 300 ka. We present a new chronological framework that reveals a dynamic nature of sedimentation in the southern Kalahari. Cosmogenic burial ages obtained from a 55 m section of Kalahari Group sediments from the Mamatwan Mine, southern Kalahari, indicate that the majority of deposition at this location occurred rapidly at 1–1.2 Ma. This Pleistocene sequence overlies the Archaean basement, forming a significant hiatus that permits the possibility of many Phanerozoic cycles of deposition and erosion no longer preserved in the sedimentary record. Our data also establish the existence of a shallow early–middle Pleistocene water body that persisted for > 450 ka prior to this rapid period of deposition. Evidence from neighboring archeological excavations in southern Africa suggests an association of high-density hominin occupation with this water body.
Vegetable production systems are often characterized by excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization and the incorporation of large amounts of post-harvest crop residues. This makes them particularly prone to ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Yet, urgently needed management strategies that can reduce these harmful emissions are missing, because underlying processes are not fully understood. The present study therefore focuses on the effects of residue placement on NH3 and N2O emissions. For this, cauliflower leaf residues (286 kg N/ha) were either applied as surface mulch (mulch) or mixed with the topsoil (mix) and in situ NH3 and N2O emissions were investigated. The experiment took place on a sandy soil in Northeastern Germany during summer 2012. Residue application created a high peak in N2O emissions during the first 2 weeks, irrespective of residue placement. There was no significant difference in the emission sums over the experimental period (65 days) between the mix (5·8 ± 0·68 kg N2O-N/ha) and the mulch (9·7 ± 1·53 kg N2O-N/ha) treatment. This was also the case for NH3 emissions, which exhibited a lower initial peak followed by a prolonged decline. Measured emission sums were 4·1 ± 0·33 (mix) and 5·1 ± 0·73 (mulch) kg NH3-N/ha. It was concluded that substantial NH3 and N2O emissions can occur after high input of available organic carbon and N even in a coarse-textured soil with low water-holding capacity. Other than expected, surface-application does not enhance NH3 emissions at the expense of N2O emissions compared with residue mixing into the soil, at least under the conditions of the present study.
The Dead Sea fault (DSF) is one of the most active plate boundaries in the world. Understanding the Quaternary history and sediments of the DSF requires investigation into the Neogene development of this plate boundary. DSF lateral motion preceded significant extension and rift morphology by ~10 Ma. Sediments of the Sedom Formation, dated here between 5.0 ± 0.5 Ma and 6.2−2.1+inf Ma, yielded extremely low 10Be concentrations and 26Al is absent. These reflect the antiquity of the sediments, deposited in the Sedom Lagoon, which evolved in a subdued landscape and was connected to the Mediterranean Sea. The base of the overlying Amora Formation, deposited in the terminal Amora Lake which developed under increasing relief that promoted escarpment incision, was dated at 3.3−0.8+0.9 Ma. Burial ages of fluvial sediments within caves (3.4 ± 0.2 Ma and 3.6 ± 0.4 Ma) represent the timing of initial incision. Initial DSF topography coincides with the earliest Red Sea MORB's and the East Anatolian fault initiation. These suggest a change in the relative Arabian–African plate motion. This change introduced the rifting component to the DSF followed by a significant subsidence, margin uplift, and a reorganization of relief and drainage pattern in the region resulting in the topographic framework observed today.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are clinically challenging, threaten patient safety, and represent an emerging public health issue. CRE reporting is not mandated in Michigan.
The Michigan Department of Community Health–led CRE Surveillance and Prevention Initiative enrolled 21 facilities (17 acute care and 4 long-term acute care facilities) across the state. Baseline data collection began September 1, 2012, and ended February 28, 2013 (duration, 6 months). Enrolled facilities voluntarily reported cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli according to the surveillance algorithm. Patient demographic characteristics, laboratory testing, microbiology, clinical, and antimicrobial information were captured via standardized data collection forms. Facilities reported admissions and patient-days each month.
One-hundred two cases over 957,220 patient-days were reported, resulting in a crude incidence rate of 1.07 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Eighty-nine case patients had test results positive for K. pneumoniae, whereas 13 had results positive for E. coli. CRE case patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 51% were male. Urine cultures (61%) were the most frequently reported specimen source. Thirty-five percent of cases were hospital onset; sixty-five percent were community onset (CO), although 75% of CO case patients reported healthcare exposure within the previous 90 days. Cardiovascular disease, renal failure, and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported comorbid conditions. Common ris k factors included surgery within the previous 90 days, recent infection or colonization with a multidrug-resistant organism, and recent exposures to antimicrobials, especially third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins.
CRE are found throughout Michigan healthcare facilities. Implementing a regional, coordinated surveillance and prevention initiative may prevent CRE from becoming hyperendemic in Michigan.
Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants’ reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual’s own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)
The discovery of γ-ray emission from 5 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies revealed the presence of a possible emerging third class of AGNs with relativistic jets, in addition to blazars and radio galaxies. The existence of relativistic jets also in this subclass of Seyfert galaxies opened an unexplored research space for our knowledge of the radio-loud AGNs. Here, we discuss the radio-to-γ-rays properties of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, also in comparison with the blazar scenario.
Citizen science, broadly speaking, is the involvement of amateur (i.e. unpaid, but not necessarily unskilled) participants in the process of scientific studies, typically with data collection or data processing (Cooper et al. 2007, Silvertown 2009). The benefits of citizen-science monitoring programs for public engagement and education are often emphasized (Chapter 23), but here we focus on programs sharing the same primary motivation as those discussed in the rest of this volume: obtaining data and information needed for managing and understanding ecological systems. Often, “amateur” monitoring may be the only or the most cost-effective approach for obtaining such information. For example, an important role for citizen science in monitoring of animals or plants follows from the fact that identification of species is currently difficult or impossible to automate, although technological inroads are being made (e.g. Brower 2006, Sarpola et al. 2008). Thus, if the goal is to monitor over large geographical areas such as most or all of a species’ range, data will often need to be collected by a large number of people, and volunteer-dependent monitoring will be the only logistically feasible approach (with very few exceptions, e.g. Smith 1995).
While creating opportunities for monitoring, volunteer-based approaches also can introduce challenges for the design of studies and analyses of the resultant data (Box 21.1). Challenges are created by three common characteristics of data that come from citizen-science projects. First, the wide geographic and temporal scope of studies mean that attention must be paid to maintaining consistency in data-collection protocols and checking for potential spatial and temporal sources of bias. Second, data often must be collected using protocols that are potentially not as demanding of the data collectors as are protocols for professionally collected data. Third, data are often collected for surveillance monitoring and the general nature of such data may allow their re-use for multiple purposes, necessitating additional steps in analyses to investigate the possibility that biases exist for which the study design does not adequately control. Although we do not wish to imply that volunteer-collected data will always have these characteristics, we believe that these traits are present frequently enough in citizen-science monitoring to warrant their place in motivating the topics discussed in this chapter. In contrast, if data from a citizen-science project can be collected with a tightly controlled survey design and are well-suited to answering a focused question using a well thought out parametric statistical model or with a design-based analysis, then there is nothing to distinguish such a project from any other monitoring initiative discussed in this volume. Aside from issues discussed under Data Collection and Management, below, we will not discuss these “targeted” projects.
Several progenitor scenarios have been suggested for Type Ia supernovae. Here we discuss the consequences for the explosion mechanism and for observables of some of them, which are explored by means of multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and radiation transfer simulations. While the observables predicted from delayed detonations of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs agree reasonably well with the data, the corresponding progenitor systems may be too rare to account for the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae. Several alternatives are investigated of which violent mergers of two white dwarfs and, perhaps, double detonations of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs hold promise for reproducing the observables of normal Type Ia supernovae.
Deglaciation chronologies for some sectors of former ice sheets are relatively poorly constrained because of the paucity of features or materials traditionally used to constrain the timing of deglaciation. In areas without good deglaciation varve chronologies and/or without widespread occurrence of material that indicates the start of earliest organic radiocarbon accumulations suitable for radiocarbon dating, typically only general patterns and chronologies of deglaciation have been deduced. However, mid-latitude ice sheets that had warm-based conditions close to their margins often produced distinctive deglaciation landform assemblages, including eskers, deltas, meltwater channels and aligned lineation systems. Because these features were formed or significantly altered during the last glaciation, boulder or bedrock samples from them have the potential to yield reliable deglaciation ages using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) for exposure age dating. Here we present the results of a methodological study designed to examine the consistency of TCN-based deglaciation ages from a range of deglaciation landforms at a site in northern Norway. The strong coherence between exposure ages across several landforms indicates great potential for using TCN techniques on features such as eskers, deltas and meltwater channels to enhance the temporal resolution of ice-sheet deglaciation chronologies over a range of spatial scales.
Here we report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of fiber containing an internal crystalline non-centrosymmetric phase enabling piezoelectric functionality over extended fiber lengths . A ferroelectric polymer layer of 30 μm thickness is spatially confined and electrically contacted by internal viscous electrodes and encapsulated in an insulating polymer cladding hundreds of microns in diameter. The structure is thermally drawn in its entirety from a macroscopic preform, yielding tens of meters of piezoelectric fiber. Electric fields in excess of 50V/μm are applied through the internal electrodes to the ferroelectric layer leading to effective poling of the structure. To unequivocally establish that the internal copolymer layer is macroscopically poled we adopt a two-step approach. First, we show that the internal piezoelectric modulation indeed translates to a motion of the fiber’s surface using a heterodyne optical vibrometer at kHz frequencies. Second, we proceed to an acoustic wave measurement at MHz frequencies: a water-immersion ultrasonic transducer is coupled to a fiber sample across a water tank, and frequency-domain characterizations are carried out using the fiber successively as an acoustic sensor and actuator. These measurements establish the broadband piezoelectric response and acoustic transduction capability of the fiber. The potential to modulate sophisticated optical devices is illustrated by constructing a single-fiber electricallydriven device containing a high-quality-factor Fabry-Perot optical resonator and a piezoelectric transducer.
We present direct terrestrial evidence of ice volume change of the Darwin and Hatherton glaciers which channel ice from the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Ice Shelf. Combining glacial geomorphology with cosmogenic exposure ages from 25 erratics indicates a pre-LGM ice volume at least 600 m thicker than current Hatherton ice elevation was established at least 2.2 million years ago. In particular, five erratics spread across a drift deposit at intermediate elevations located below a prominent moraine feature mapped previously as demarcating the LGM ice advance limits, give a well-constrained single population with mean 10Be age of 37.0 ± 5.5 ka (1σ). At lower elevations of 50–100 m above the surface of Lake Wellman, a further five samples from within a younger drift deposit range in exposure age from 1 to 19 ka. Our preferred age model interpretation, which is partly dependent on the selection of a minimum or maximum age-elevation model, suggests that LGM ice volume was not as large as previously estimated and constrains LGM ice elevation to be within ± 50 m of the modern Hatherton Glacier ice surface, effectively little different from what is observed today.
New and old species and genera of the family Guadalupiidae (spherulitic hypercalcified demosponges of the order Agelasida) are described or redescribed from the West Texas Permian. The entire family is reviewed and observations are made on the epibionts, growth patterns, functional morphology, ecological relationships, morphologic variability, modular structure, and evolutionary history of these largely reef-dwelling sponges. The stratigraphic distribution of species is also noted; many are limited and can define zones. The new genera Exovasa and Incisimura and the new species Guadalupia auricula, G. cupulosa, G. ramescens, G. microcamera, G. vasa, Cystothalamia megacysta, Lemonea simplex, Incisimura bella, and Exovasa cystauletoides are described. Almost all previously published taxa are redescribed and in some cases redefined. The Guadalupiidae are unique among hypercalcified sponges in having a modular thalamid layer (thalamidarium) covered on the exhalant surface by a non-modular stromatoporoid-like layer (trabecularium).