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Most of the existing prediction models for COVID-19 lack validation, are inadequately reported or are at high risk of bias, a reason which has led to discourage their use. Few existing models have the potential to be extensively used by healthcare providers in low-resource settings since many require laboratory and imaging predictors. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a multivariable prediction model of death in Mexican patients with COVID-19, by using demographic and patient history predictors. We conducted a national retrospective cohort study in two different sets of patients from the Mexican COVID-19 Epidemiologic Surveillance Study. Patients with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and complete unduplicated data were eligible. In total, 83 779 patients were included to develop the scoring system through a multivariable Cox regression model; 100 000, to validate the model. Eight predictors (age, sex, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression, hypertension, obesity and chronic kidney disease) were included in the scoring system called PH-Covid19 (range of values: −2 to 25 points). The predictive model has a discrimination of death of 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.796–0.804). The PH-Covid19 scoring system was developed and validated in Mexican patients to aid clinicians to stratify patients with COVID-19 at risk of fatal outcomes, allowing for better and efficient use of resources.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
Community engagement (CE) is critical for research on the adoption and use of assistive technology (AT) in many populations living in resource-limited environments. Few studies have described the process that was used for engaging communities in AT research, particularly within low-income communities of older Hispanic with disabilities where limited access, culture, and mistrust must be navigated. We aimed to identify effective practices to enhance CE of low-income Hispanic communities in AT research.
The community stakeholders included community-based organizations, the community healthcare clinic, the local AT project, and residents of the Caño Martín Peña Community in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The CE procedures and activities during the Planning the Study Phase comprised working group meetings with stakeholders to cocreate the funding proposal for the study and address the reviewers’ critiques. During the Conducting the Study Phase, we convened a Community Advisory Board to assist in the implementation of the study. During the Disseminating the Study Results Phase, we developed and implemented plans to disseminate the research results.
We identified seven distinct practices to enhance CE in AT research with Hispanic communities: (1) early and continuous input; (2) building trusting and warm relationships through personal connections; (3) establishing and maintaining presence in the community; (4) power sharing; (5) shared language; (6) ongoing mentorship and support to community members; and (7) adapting to the changing needs of the community.
Greater attention to CE practices may improve the effectiveness and sustainability of AT research with low-income communities.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a critical public health issue. In Bohol, Philippines, we found a high tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive prevalence (weighted prevalence = 6.4%) among 5476 children (<15 years) from 184 villages, with geographically isolated communities having prevalence as high as 29%. Therefore, we conducted a geospatial and hot spot analysis to examine the association between villages with high TST-positive prevalence (⩾6.5%) and access to medical care (distance (in kilometres and minutes of travel time) to the municipal Rural Health Units (RHU)), access to healthcare resources (distance to Provincial Health Office (PHO)) and socioeconomic determinants of health. Hot spot analysis revealed significant clusters of TST-positive prevalence in villages farthest from the PHO. Based on univariate analysis, the following variables associated with high prevalence were included in the multivariate model: minutes of travel time to the PHO, distance to the PHO, island villages and total deprivation based on socioeconomic indicators. In the final model, only distance to PHO in minutes was significant (P = 0.005). When evaluated further, greater than 1-hour drive significantly increased risk for TST-positivity (P = 0.003). Distance to healthcare resources likely increases the risk of TB transmission within the community. Expanding TB control efforts to geographically isolated areas is critical.
To examine the perspectives of librarians and staff about Lunch at the Library, a library-based summer meal programme for children. The study examines: (i) motivating factors behind implementing the meal programme; (ii) issues of feasibility; and (iii) perceived programme outcomes.
One-on-one semi-structured interviews with library stakeholders (librarians and staff) from a purposeful sample of California libraries.
Twenty-two library jurisdictions across California that implemented the Lunch at the Library summer meal programme in 2015 in areas of high financial need.
Twenty-five library stakeholders representing twenty-two of the thirty-three Californian library jurisdictions that implemented Lunch at the Library at their sites.
Library stakeholders recognised the need for a child meal programme during summer. Despite lack of sufficient resources and personnel, they were motivated to implement the programme not only to fill a community need but also to ensure children at their libraries were primed for learning over the summer. Library stakeholders also perceived the public library’s changing role in society as shifting from reference provision to social service provision either directly or by referral.
The public library is an ideal place to provide social services because of its accessibility to all. Librarians and library staff are motivated to address the social needs of their communities. This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing new social programmes at public libraries. Funding to support these programmes would increase the library’s capacity to address other community needs.
To describe validation process of the new apathy scale for institutionalized dementia patients (APADEM-NH).
100 elderly, institutionalized patients with diagnosis of probable Alzheimer Disease (AD) (57%), possible AD (13%), AD with cerebral vascular disease (CVD) (17%), Lewy Bodies Dementia (11%) and Parkinson associated to dementia (PDD) (2%). All stages of the disease severity according to the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were assessed. The Apathy Inventory (AI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Cornell scale for depression, and the tested scale were applied. Re-test and inter-rater reliability was carried out in 50 patients. The feasibility and acceptability, reliability, validity, and measurement precision were analyzed.
APADEM-NH final version consists of 26 items and 3 dimensions: Deficit of Thinking and Self-Generated behaviors (DT): 13 items, Emotional Blunting (EB): 7 items, and Cognitive Inertia (CI): 6 items. Mean application time was 9.56 minutes and 74% of applications were fully computable. All subscales showed floor and ceiling effect lower than 15%. Internal consistency was excellent for each dimension (Cronbach’s α DT = 0.88, α EB = 0.83, α CI= 0.88);Test-retest reliability for the items was kW=0,48-0,92; Inter-rater reliability reached kW values 0.84-1.00; The APADEM-NH total score showed a low/moderate correlation with apathy scales (Spearman ρ, AI =0.33; NPI-Apathy= 0,31), no correlation with depression scales (NPI-Dementia = -0.003; Cornell= 0,10), and high internal validity (ρ =0.69 0.80).
APADEM-NH is a brief, psychometrically acceptable, and valid scale to assess apathy in patients from mild to severe dementia and discerning between apathy and depression.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can affect central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. The use of corticosteroids for the management of SLE may induce psychiatric disorders.
Differential diagnosis of the origin of psychosis in patients with SLE (CNS lupus vs. induced by corticosteroid therapy).
Methods and results
A 22 year old female patient presented asthenia, oral bleeding, epistaxis, metrorrhagia, bicytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, low complement, with anti-DNA > 300, ANA, IgG Anticardiolipin, Anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Ro, Anti-La and Anti-Histone positive.
A diagnosis of SLE was made. She presented also diffuse grade IV nephritis. There were administered 3 iv 6-methylprednisolone pulse therapies (750 mg/day) with a cycle of cyclophosphamide. Subsequently she continued with oral prednisone 60 mg/day. Four days after the end of the pulses, the patient developed anxiety, suspicion, injury delusions, auditory hallucinations and behavioral disinhibition. A MRI was normal. Risperidone was started up to 6 mg/day and oral prednisone was tapered. After a progressive improvement she was discharged.
Corticosteroids induce psychiatric disorders in 3–10% of patients. Low levels of complement, hypoalbuminemia and a positive ratio (≥ 9) of albumin in CSF x103/serum albumin are indicators of blood brain barrier damage and psychosis induced by corticosteroids. The presence of ac Antiribosoma P, ac antineuronals, MRI or EEG abnormals suggest the diagnosis of CNS lupus (lupus psychosis)
Differential diagnosis between lupus psychosis vs. psychosis induced by corticosteroids is complicated. In case of doubt, some authors advocate increasing the dose of steroids and awaiting a clinical response. Others advocate rapid tapering and stopping steroids.
Pregnancy and postpartum both imply high risk for developing psychiatric disorders in women.
To study the relationship between life events (LE) and social support degree (SS) during pregnancy and depressive symptoms in early postpartum period.
A cross-sectional study of 309 consecutive Spanish women, evaluated the second day postpartum. They were all over 18 years old and have signed the informed consent. We excluded: illiteracy, cognitive impairment or severe medical illness, psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and decease of the newborn. We collected socio-demographic and obstetrical data, as well as family and personal psychiatric history, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), LE (Saint Paul Ramsey) and SS (DUKE-UNK).
Mean age (SD) was 31.6 (4.7). Most of women were married, had intermediated or high level of education. Sixty-one percent were primiparous. Twenty-six percent had family history and 22% had personal psychiatric history. Mean (SD) of LE was 0.95 (0.89) and of SS was 53.1 (7.6). The prevalence of depressive symptoms according to EPDS scores was 18%. This subgroup of depressed women had more psychiatric family history (p=0.046), less LE (p< 0.001) and more SS during pregnancy (p=0.048). Logistic regression analysis showed that SS was the only significant variable (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-0.994; p=0.001). LE did not achieve statistical significance (OR=1.085; 95%CI=0.997-1.180; p=0.059).
Low social support degree during pregnancy is associated with depressive symptoms during immediate postpartum.
This study has been done in part with grants Instituto Carlos III: G03/184, FIS: PI04178; 05/2565.
In 2009, Joan Y. Chiao, one of the leading experts in Cultural Neuroscience, labeled the research field as „a once and future discipline”. Ten years ago neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena applying functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Since then the number of publications and research grants related to this topic has tremendously increased. This was reason enough to examine the concepts of culture implicated, but rarely explicitly discussed, in these studies. Therefore we analyzed 42 English language manuscripts of original fMRI studies spanning from the advent of Cultural Neuroscience in the year 2000 to 2010 published in peer-reviewed journals (indexed in large databases [MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed). Common to all of them were cultural comparisons between divided groups and communities, as e.g. black vs. white, easterners vs. westerners, Asian vs. Caucasian, Americans vs. Turks.
We reviewed the manuscripts with regard to the following aspects: type of comparison, the conveyed concept of culture using the classification by Reckwitz [normative, totality-oriented, differentiation-theoretical and the meaning- and knowledge-oriented], implicit valuation of the comparisons, and the artifact of the comparison. We extracted two main lines of reasoning:
1) Universal models for the interaction between cultures and
2) investigations pursuing a differentiation of divided cultural groups.
Both lines tend to simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits, specificities or biological diversities. We argue against the rigid understanding of culture, point out its disguised valuation and risks considering the Hackingian ‘looping effect’.
To examine the predictive diagnostic value of affective symptomatology in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample with 5 years’ follow-up.
Affective dimensions (depressive, manic, activation, dysphoric) were measured at baseline and 5 years in 112 FEP patients based on a factor structure analysis using the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients were classified as having a diagnosis of bipolar disorder at baseline (BDi), bipolar disorder at 5 years (BDf), or “other psychosis”. The ability of affective dimensions to discriminate between these diagnostic groups and to predict a bipolar disorder diagnosis was analysed.
Manic dimension score was higher in BDi vs. BDf, and both groups had higher manic and activation scores vs. “other psychosis”. Activation dimension predicted a bipolar diagnosis at 5 years (odds ratio = 1.383; 95% confidence interval, 1.205–1.587; P = 0.000), and showed high levels of sensitivity (86.2%), specificity (71.7%), positive (57.8%) and negative predictive value (90.5%). Absence of the manic dimension and presence of the depressive dimension were both significant predictors of an early misdiagnosis.
The activation dimension is a diagnostic predictor for bipolar disorder in FEP. The manic dimension contributes to a bipolar diagnosis and its absence can lead to early misdiagnosis.
Raised rates of psychoses among ethnic minorities have been reported. Exposure to antipsychotic medications can give information on mental illness management and ethnic-related differences.
To compare exposure to antipsychotic medications in immigrant and native-born populations in Spain.
Descriptive cross-sectional study of the dispensation of antipsychotic medications to the population aged 15 to 64 years, in a Spanish Health Region during 2008.
1.9% of the native-born population was exposed to antipsychotic medications as compared to 0.4% of the immigrant population. Native-born women were exposed from 1.8 to 5.3 times more and native-born men from 3.6 to 6.3 times more than immigrants of the same gender. The least exposed were persons from Eastern Europe and men from sub-Saharan Africa. Active ingredients prescribed were similar between the two groups. Of the immigrant group, 15.7% were admitted to a psychiatric ward as compared to 6.4% of the native-born population. In the former, non-specific diagnoses were predominant.
All immigrant groups had lower exposure to antipsychotic medications, were admitted to inpatient care more often and had less specific diagnoses. Both diagnostic processes and adherence to treatment need improvement in the regional immigrant population.
An increase of suicide rates have been associated with periods of economic crisis. Suicide rates in Spain are the first cause of nonnatural death, having surpassed traffic crash rates.
To study if the economic crisis affected the suicide rates and antidepressant consumption.
Suicide rates were extracted from the Spanish Statistic National Institute. Data about antidepressant consumption were extracted from the web page of the Spanish Department of National Health. Mean rate of suicide and mean rate of antidepressant consumption prior (2005–2007) and during the economic crisis (2008–2010) were compared. Data on antidepressant consumption are presented as antidepressant units per 100 people/year. Suicide rates are presented as rate per 100.000 people/year. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.
Unemployment mean rate was 9.2 ± 1.4 before the economic crisis, while it was 17.7 ± 20.5 during the economic crisis (p = 0.03). Mean rate of suicide before the economic crisis was 7.7 ± 0.19 while during the crisis was 7.2 ± 0.14 (p = 0.15). Antidepressant consumption increased significantly (p = 0.02) before the crisis (48.5 ± 11.9) compared to the crisis period (59.7 ± 16.7).
Our data show that during the Spanish economic crisis there was not an increase in the suicide rate but the antidepressant consumption increased significantly. Our results point to the fact that the Spanish population in time of economic crisis tend to take antidepressants instead of committing suicide.
Several studies associated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). Serum IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased in subjects with MDD and with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). Moreover, ketamine, a drug with fast-acting antidepressant properties, has proven to reduce IL-6 levels in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, despite the clear influence of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of depression and in antidepressant response, studies evaluating the impact of IL-6 functional genetic polymorphisms on treatment response phenotypes are scarce.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL6-174G>C, IL6-6331T>C and IL6R D358A A>C functional polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and TRD.
We genotyped the referred polymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 18 months.
We found that patients carrying IL6-174 GG genotype are more prone to develop TRD (OR=4.125; 95%CI: [1.151-14.786]; p=0.038). We also observed that patients carrying IL6-6331 TC genotype have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022), and present a lower time to relapse, TC: 26 weeks vs. TT: 45 weeks (p=0.041, Log-rank test). No association was found between IL6R D358A genetic polymorphism and any of treatment phenotypes.
The IL6-174G>C and IL6-6331T>C polymorphisms influence antidepressant treatment response in our subset of MDD patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-6 levels found in patients with TRD. This research was partially supported by an AstraZeneca Grant
Recent studies suggested that immune activation and cytokines might be involved in depression. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is less reported in depression but is still relevant since it is expressed in the brain and serum levels of IL-18 have been found to be increased in patients with moderate to severe depression. Therefore, it seems reasonable that IL-18 promoter SNPs may have an effect in antidepressant response phenotypes.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>Cpromoter polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and treatment resistant depression (TRD).
We genotyped the referredpolymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months.
We found that patients carrying IL18-607CA or AA genotypes are more prone to relapse after AD treatment (OR=4.145; 95%CI: [1.038-16.555]; p=0.043) and present a lower time to relapse than patients carrying CC genotype (69 vs 115 weeks, p=0.019, Log-rank test). We also observed that patients carrying IL18-137GC or CC genotypes have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022) and display relapse earlier than the ones carrying GG genotype (64 vs 112 weeks, p=0.006, Log-rank test). No association was found between the evaluated genetic polymorphisms and remission or TRD.
The IL18-607A>C and IL18-137G>Cpolymorphisms seems to influence relapse after antidepressant treatment in our subset of depressed patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-18 levels found in patients with moderate to severe depression.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin fundamentally involved in the differentiation and growth during brain development. BDNF has pathogenically been linked to the schizophrenia neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Several studies have found lower BDNF blood levels in chronic schizophrenia than controls. Few studies suggest that BDNF levels in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are lower than in healthy controls (HC).
Comparing serum BDNF levels in a group of antipsychotic-naive FEP with HC and determining the serum BDNF pattern during the first year illness evolution.
Serum BDNF levels at admission of 28 inpatients with FEP were compared with 28 age/gender matched HC. BDNF was also measured at discharge, three, six, nine and twelve months. After discharge, antipsychotics were gradually decreased. Results are presented as mean±sd. and BDNF levels in ng./ml.
At admission, patients BDNF levels were significantly lower than controls (18.06±4.06 vs 26.55±3.22, p>0.001). At discharge FEP levels increase until HC levels without significant differences between gropus (25.95±3.93 vs 26.55±3.22, p=0.539). Upon the following determinations, BDNF FEP levels progressively decreased, reaching the admission values, and being significantly lower than the controls and that levels at discharge (patients: three months: 19.68±3.88; six months: 19.02±4.13; nine months: 17.64±5.24; twelve months: 17.51±3.45 vs controls: 26.55±3.22, all p>0.001).
Our results confirm the studies that found lower BDNF levels in chronic schizophrenia. Serum BDNF levels could be considered as a biological marker of treatment and evolution of FEP. Further studies with FEP patients with and without treatment are warranted.
Tapentadol is a centrally-acting synthetic analgesic which acts as a mu-opioid receptor agonist as well as a norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor. It is use to treat cronic pain. Most prevalence adverse effects are gastrointestinal and nervous symptoms. Furthermore, it has objectified, with less frequency, psychiatric disturbances.
To analyse the relationship between a maniac episode and tapentadol.
Forty-nine-year-old female, with personal history of dyslipidemia and lumbar herniated discs in L4-L5, L5-S1, in treatment with tapentadol 200 mg/day for 20 days and no past psychiatric history. She was admitted to the Psychiatry Department due to a maniac episode, with desinhibition, pressure and loud speech, euphoria, megalomaniac delusion and sleep disturbance for the last 10 days. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 36 points. Olanzapina 15 mg/day was introduced and tapentadol was removed. Symptoms remitted quickly and 6 days later, at discharge, YMRS was 4 points. One year later, the patient continued to be asymptomatic.
Opioids can produce psychiatric disorders like hallucination, sleep disorders, depressed mood, disorientation, agitation, nervousness, restlessness, euphoric mood. Secondary mania to tapentadol mechanism is unknown, but having opiate cases described, it is possible to attribute this episode to tapentadol.
– Secondary mania is associated with various medical conditions, including vitamin B12 deficiency, brain injury, HIV infection and drugs such as alcohol, caffeine, sympathomimetics, steroids, bupropion, isoniazid, clarithromycin and opioids.
– Further research is required to determine if the maniac episode was only isolated by the tapentadol or it is the beginning of a bipolar disorder.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Recently, a renaissance of interest in ‘negative symptoms’ as emotional withdrawal or blunted affect, has occurred. Some investigators believe that these symptoms are important indicators of outcome, of response to treatment and of a distinct underlying pathologic process.
Research on the negative-symptom syndrome in schizophrenia has been handicapped until recently.
This research aims at studying whether acute phase proteins, precisely, Alpha1-glycoprotein, can be considered as a marker of negativesymptom in Schizophrenia.
29 chronic schizophrenics were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A routine blood test including Alpha1-glycoprotein levels was carried out.
Alpha1-glycoprotein shows a positive correlation, according to Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Negative Scale at an almost significant level (p=.05), and at a significant level in the following items, Blunted affect (p=.03), Passive/apathetic Social Withdrawal (p=.01) of the Negative spectrum and Poor Attention (p=.02) of the General Psychopathology Scale.
There is a significant correlation with two Negative variables and an almost significant one, spite of the small sample, with the Negative Scale. Further studies with bigger samples are needed in order to consider alpha1-glycoprotein as a schizophrenia negative psychopathology marker.
Circadianity is a characteristic of several human biological variables, such as testosterone, melatonin and cortisol. There is little information whether or not S100B serum protein presents a circadian rhythm.
Material and methods:
44 healthy subjects (24 female and 20 male, age 39.7 ± 9.4) participated in the study. Blood was sampled in July at 09:00, 12:00 and 24:00 h. Blood was centrifuged and serum was aliquot in Eppendorf tubes and frozen at −70° C. Serum S100B was measured by ELISA.
Serum S100B concentrations at 09:00 (56.3 ± 18.1 pg/ml), 12:00 (53.8 ± 23.1 pg/ml) and 24:00 h. (55.3 ± 20.3 pg/ml) were not significantly different.
Our results point to the absence of a circadian rhythm of S100B serum protein concentrations. the lack of the disadvantage may allow researchers on this area to sample subjects at any time of the day.