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X-ray proportional gas detectors are used in X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence and emission analysis. The amplitude of the electrical pulses produced by these detectors is directly proportional to the energy of the incident X-rays. In most instances, the energy of the incident photons will be utilized completely in producing photo-ionization in the outermost shells of the detector atoms. If the energy of these photons is greater than the absorption edge of the atoms in the detector, a certain fraction of them will produce photo-ionization of an inner shell. This in turn results in the production of a characteristic X-ray. If this characteristic X-ray is absorbed by the detector, then the original X-ray may still be considered to have deposited the whole of its energy within the detector. In this case the amplitude of the detector output pulse will be the same as if the original X-ray photon had been absorbed entirely by photo-ionization of the outer shells. Because of the relatively low absorption of a detector for its own characteristic radiation, there is a significant probability that the detector characteristic X-ray will escape from the detector without producing further photo-ionization.
An analytical quality control procedure using x-ray Secondary Emission Spectrometry has been developed to monitor iron, yttrium, and gadolinium metal ion ratios in feed stock solutions. Binary and ternary laboratory standard solutions were analyzed to determine absorption and enhancement effects using approaches suggested by Rasberry-Heinrich, Beattie-Brissey, and Claisse-Quintin. A computation scheme combining these methods is presented which enables the user to improve his ability to predict composition. This approach has yielded relative errors of less than 1.0% for each of the three metals studied.
The instrumentation and software for performing X-ray intensity measurements with a paper tape controlled diffractometer are described. The hardware includes two addressable axis positioners which control Slo-Syn stepping motors on the 2θ and ω) axes of the diffractometer, an addressable scaler-timer, a multiaxis programmer and a Teletype, in addition to the normal counting electronics. This system may be manually controlled with front panel switches or with instructions entered on the Teletype. In the automatic off-line mode instructions for motor speed, motor direction, starting angle, final angle, angular increment and scaler preset (time or counts) punched on paper tape are read and executed in sequence. A Teletype output of 2θ and ω angles, time and counts is obtained at each step. This off-line system was used for the measurement of austenite in H12 hot work die steel austenitized at various conditions and which contained a maximum of 13% austenite. A helium chamber was used to extend the limit of detection to 0.4% austenite. The X-ray analysis involved measuring the areas of the (200) austenite diffraction line and the (200) martensite line. For each of these lines, the system was programmed to integrate the counts over angular intervals corresponding to a low-angle background, the peak and a high-angle background using the ability of the axis positioner to stop the scaler-timer at the end of each angular interval. The additional capability of slewing rapidly between the various diffraction lines reduced the time required for automatic data collection. The present off-line system can be used to simplify other types of X-ray diffraction analysis such as residual stress and microstrain/particle size determinations, since the manual data handling can be eliminated with the computer compatible punched paper tape output. Future development of this instrumentation includes direct computer control of the diffractometer and computerized data reduction, with the advantage of a paper tape back-up system.
Synthetically prepared silicon nitride is one of the more promising ceramic materials for structural components of gas turbines. Typical material may contain a-silicon nitride, Si3N4 (which is believed to always contain oxygen and therefore, according to Grievson, Jack and Wild, is more properly written as Si11.5N15O0.5), β-silicon nitride, Si3N4, silicon oxynitride, Si2ON2, silicon metal, Si, and α-cristobalite, SiO2. Because the physical properties of the ceramic parts are dependent on their phase composition, it is essential that a technique be available for performing a phase analysis. An X-ray diffraction procedure has been, developed for the quantitative phase analysis of synthetically prepared silicon nitride. This procedure converts experimentally measured intensities of selected X-ray diffraction peaks to weight fractions of components using empirically determined intensity coefficients.
The measurement of residual stress, using X-ray diffraction techniques, is based on the change in diffraction angle determined for the Intensity maximum of some suitable reflection from the sample when this is placed consecutively with its surface at two different angles to the diffracting planes. These diffraction angles may be obtained in a variety of ways, but are most often calculated from measurements of three X-ray diffraction intensities at angles selected in the immediate vicinity of the peak maximum at each sample angle and fitting each set of data to a parabolic curve. A simple mathematical expression may be derived relating the diffraction angles, and hence the residual stress, to the measured X-ray intensities; there will, however, be statistical errors in the calculated diffraction angles due to random counting errors in the measurement of the X-ray diffraction intensities. From the expression relating the residual stress to the X-ray intensities an equation has been derived giving the standard deviation in the residual stress due to random counting errors. In addition, a simple approximation has been obtained from this equation showing that the standard deviation is decreased by increasing the number of counts accumulated for each X-ray intensity measurement and by increasing the size of the angular increments between the data points. It will also be shown that, using the approximation, it is possible to estimate in advance the number of accumulated counts at each point necessary to attain a desired standard deviation in a residual stress measurement.
Using a multiple regression procedure, X-ray fluorescence analysis has been applied to a 15-element system associated with ceramic supported automobile emissions catalysts. An equation taking inter-element effects into account was used to relate the concentrations and X-ray intensities of the active elements and contaminants deposited on the ceramic substrate. The major elements present in the substrate were intentionally excluded from the regression. The regression coefficients were determined from a set of 240 calibration standards using a multiple linear least-square regression. Elemental concentrations in the standards ranged from 0.05 to ten weight percent. The ceramic matrix was the same in both the standards and the unknowns to be analyzed and constituted at least 85 percent of the total weight of each sample. The regression coefficients were then used to solve for the contents of the elements in unknown samples. Limits of accuracy were determined by using the set of available standards. The performance of the regression was improved in certain cases by imposing constraints on the regression.
In view of the importance of obtaining optimum conditions for the X-ray fluorescence analysis of light elements, an investigation has been made of the effects of varying the X-ray tube target, the target take-off angle, the tube voltage, and the tube window thickness. The effects of these parameters have been observed by measurement of the intensity of fluorescence of two light elements using the Ray max 60 demountable tube and vacuum path spectrometer. The results obtained are compared with those given by theoretical calculations based on consideration of the relevant parameters; good qualitative agreement has been obtained. It is shown that a high primary X-ray intensity is obtained with a high target take-off angle, a low angle of incidence of the electron beam on the target, and an optimum setting of tube voltage. It is further shown that the most suitable target to use for the fluorescence analysis of light elements is markedly dependent on the thickness of the X-ray tube window.
The relative intensities of the Kα characteristic radiation obtained from copper-target X-ray diffraction tubes have been calculated for a range of tube accelerating voltages and take-off angles. The calculations employ an over-voltage function, and absorption and atomic number corrections similar to those used in electron microprobe analysis. They apply only to constant potential X-ray generators. Measurements of actual intensities obtained on a Picker diffractometer using a sodium chloride monochromator gave relative intensities in close agreement with those calculated. The calculations and measurements show that there is an optimum tube voltage, with respect to intensity, for each take-off angle. This voltage increases with increasing take-off angle. The application of these results to the consideration of the relative intensities obtainable from broad, standard and fine focus copper-target X-ray diffraction tubes is discussed.
The Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) operating system RSX-11M has recently been installed on a DEC PDP 11/34 computer which is used for the control of, and to acquire and process data from, three X-ray diffractometers, one X-ray fluorescence analysis unit and an electron microprobe. The RSX-11M system replaced the modified DEC 1 - 8 User BASIC previously employed, thus replacing an operating system which was known in detail only to its writer by a system which is supported by the computer manufacturer. There are three major advantages in the use of RSX-11M over 1 - 8 User BASIC: an improved handling of program scheduling, the integration of the software driver for the computer - X-ray electronics interface into the operating system without a major modification of the latter, and the ability of RSX-11M to undertake concurrent execution of instrument control, data acquisition, and data reduction. The 11/34 - RSX-11M system has been implemented to use FORTRAN; a BASIC interpreter has, however, been added which allows users to interact on-line with the computer. A command interpreter which can accept a command line from a terminal has been included.
The angular dependent factors which affect the intensities of X-ray diffraction line profiles, as observed on a Standard X-ray diffractometer, are well established. They are the Lorentz factor, the polarization factor, the atomic scattering factor, and the temperature factor. For residual stress analysis, in which measurements are made at non-zero omega (psi) angles, an absorption factor must be added to this list. It is usual, however, in residual stress analysis, to omit two of these factors: the atomic scattering factor and the temperature factor. The omission of these two factors appreciably alters the change in the combined correction factor with change of diffraction angle. The proper angular dependent corrections are in the opposite sense to those customarily employed. The effect of the additional factors on measurements of residual stress are discussed.
An X-ray fluorescence analysis unit has been automated with a multi-position sample changer, a stepping motor to position the spectrometer, and computer addressable switches to control the selection of crystal, detector, collimator, and beam filter. The unit can be controlled off-line through a Teletype or on-line with a computer. This computer utilizes a multi-user program for the simultaneous operation of the fluorescence analysis unit and two diffractometers. Programming the system for any desired analytical or research procedure is accomplished using an expanded version of BASIC.
The design, construction and operation of toroidal focusing X-ray monochromators have been described in detail by Marcus, et al. (1980) and by Furnas, et al. (1982), Marcus, et al. used 100 mechanically damaged, singly bent LiF (200) (2d = 4.02 Å) single crystals in a toroidal array to focus Cu Kα characteristic X-rays (8.04 keV, 1.54 Å, Θ = 22.6 deg). The diameter of the LiF toroid was 166 mm and the source-detector distance was 400 mm. Furnas, et al. used a series of singly bent, highly oriented graphite (2d = 6.72 Å) crystals, also in a toroidal array, to focus Pb Lα, Se Kα, Th Lα and U Lα X-rays (10.5 - 13.6 keV, 1.18 - 0.91 Å, Θ= 10.1 - 7.8 deg). Their system dimensions were not disclosed. The LiF and graphite crystals were both curved along the direction of X-ray propagation. That is, the cylindrical axes were orthogonal to the X-ray path.
Two recent improvements in energy dispersive spectrometry are the development of time variant amplifiers and the introduction of pulsed X-ray sources. Either pulsed X-ray tubes or electron beams with fast beam blanking may be used.
Time variant amplifiers designed by Kandiah (1 ,2) used control logic to co-ordinate charge restoration of the detector preamplifier, pole-zero cancellation and baseline restoration. In the pulse shaping circuit, time constants are switched during the processing of each pulse to optimize throughput, baseline stability and pileup rejection. Pulse processing techniques have been discussed by Statham (3) .
The role of statistics in certain areas of X-ray fluorescence analysis is considered. The topics discussed include: calculating the standard deviation associated with the result of an analysis; optimizing experimental parameters for both wavelength and energy dispersive analyses; evaluating limits of detection, limits of decision, and limits of determination; and weighting in the least squares fitting of data in single element polynomial relationships and in multi-element multiple regression analysis.
The chaotic dynamics of low-dimensional systems, such as Lorenz or Rössler flows, is guided by the infinity of periodic orbits embedded in their strange attractors. Whether this is also the case for the infinite-dimensional dynamics of Navier–Stokes equations has long been speculated, and is a topic of ongoing study. Periodic and relative periodic solutions have been shown to be involved in transitions to turbulence. Their relevance to turbulent dynamics – specifically, whether periodic orbits play the same role in high-dimensional nonlinear systems like the Navier–Stokes equations as they do in lower-dimensional systems – is the focus of the present investigation. We perform here a detailed study of pipe flow relative periodic orbits with energies and mean dissipations close to turbulent values. We outline several approaches to reduction of the translational symmetry of the system. We study pipe flow in a minimal computational cell at
, and report a library of invariant solutions found with the aid of the method of slices. Detailed study of the unstable manifolds of a sample of these solutions is consistent with the picture that relative periodic orbits are embedded in the chaotic saddle and that they guide the turbulent dynamics.
Changes to host behaviour induced by some trematode species, as a means of increased trophic transmission, represents one of the seminal examples of host manipulation by a parasite. The amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach, 1815) is infected with a previously undescribed parasite, with infected individuals displaying positive phototaxic and negative geotaxic behaviour. This study reveals that the unknown parasite encysts in the brain, nerve cord and the body cavity of E. marinus, and belongs to the Microphallidae family. An 18 month population study revealed that host abundance significantly and negatively correlated with parasite prevalence. Investigation of the trematode's influence at the transcriptomic level revealed genes with putative neurological functions, such as serotonin receptor 1A, an inebriated-like neurotransmitter, tryptophan hydroxylase and amino acid decarboxylase, present consistent altered expression in infected animals. Therefore, this study provides one of the first transcriptomic insights into the neuronal gene pathways altered in amphipods infected with a trematode parasite associated with changes to its host's behaviour and population structure.
The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2 syntax and also considers how the neural circuits underlying L2 syntax vary among learners who exhibit different levels of performance on linguistic and cognitive tasks. Results suggest that when exposed to a L2 under an implicit context, some learners are able to quickly rely on neural circuits associated with first language grammar and procedural memory, whereas other learners increasingly use extralinguistic neural circuits related to control mechanisms to process syntax. Thus, there may be multiple ways in which L2 is represented neurally, at least when learned under implicit contexts.
Immobilisation for patients undergoing brain or head and neck radiotherapy is achieved using perspex or thermoplastic devices that require direct moulding to patient anatomy. The mould room visit can be distressing for patients and the shells do not always fit perfectly. In addition the mould room process can be time consuming. With recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies comes the potential to generate a treatment shell directly from a computer model of a patient. Typically, a patient requiring radiotherapy treatment will have had a computed tomography (CT) scan and if a computer model of a shell could be obtained directly from the CT data it would reduce patient distress, reduce visits, obtain a close fitting shell and possibly enable the patient to start their radiotherapy treatment more quickly.
This paper focuses on the first stage of generating the front part of the shell and investigates the dosimetric properties of the materials to show the feasibility of 3D printer materials for the production of a radiotherapy treatment shell.
Materials and methods:
Computer algorithms are used to segment the surface of the patient’s head from CT and MRI datasets. After segmentation approaches are used to construct a 3D model suitable for printing on a 3D printer. To ensure that 3D printing is feasible the properties of a set of 3D printing materials are tested.
The majority of the possible candidate 3D printing materials tested result in very similar attenuation of a therapeutic radiotherapy beam as the Orfit soft-drape masks currently in use in many UK radiotherapy centres. The costs involved in 3D printing are reducing and the applications to medicine are becoming more widely adopted. In this paper we show that 3D printing of bespoke radiotherapy masks is feasible and warrants further investigation.