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Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for the largest number of invasive infections due to a multidrug-resistant pathogen. Approximately 10% of hospitalized carriers will experience invasive MRSA disease in the year following discharge incurring antibiotic therapy beyond focused treatment of MRSA. Objective: We aimed to quantify the extent of non-MRSA empiric antibiotics incurred by MRSA infections and further assess the risk of Clostridioides difficile Infection (CDI) as a result of treatment of MRSA infection. Methods: The CLEAR Trial was a postdischarge randomized controlled trial of 2,121 MRSA carriers comparing MRSA education alone to education plus repeated decolonization that demonstrated a 30% reduction in MRSA infection and a 17% reduction in all-cause infection attributable to decolonization in the year following hospital discharge (Huang SS, NEJM 2019). We included all hospitalization outcomes due to MRSA infection in the CLEAR Trial with detailed medication administration records to quantify unintended consequences of MRSA infection related to empiric non-MRSA antibiotic use and resultant CDI. Full-text medical records were reviewed with a standardized abstraction form to collect inpatient administered antibiotics and hospital-associated CDI. Results: In total,154 hospitalizations due to MRSA infection with a mean length-of-stay of 10.6 days were identified. During 25 hospitalizations (16.2%), patients received only anti-MRSA antibiotics. During the remaining 129 (83.8%) hospitalizations, patients received a mean of 1.6 distinct non-MRSA antibiotics totaling a mean of 6.6 days of therapy (DOT). Empiric non-MRSA therapy was given for 3.2 DOT before MRSA culture results became available and was continued for an additional 3.4 DOT afterward. Among all 849 non-MRSA DOT, the most common were due to piperacillin-tazobactam (293 DOT, 34.5%), levofloxacin (105 DOT, 12.4%), and metronidazole (93 DOT, 11.0%). Across all 154 hospitalizations, a mean of 5.5 non-MRSA DOT was calculated per MRSA hospitalization, with 6 CDI cases (3.9%) as a direct sequelae of empiric non-MRSA antibiotics provided for MRSA infection. Conclusions: Hospitalization for MRSA infection results in extensive non-MRSA empiric antibiotic therapy both before and after MRSA culture results are known. This antibiotic use is associated with a 3.9% risk of CDI that exceeds the national risk of acquiring CDI (3.2 per 1,000 admissions) by 12-fold during any hospital stay (Barrett ML, AHRQ 2018). The CLEAR Trial findings that postdischarge decolonization reduces MRSA infection and hospitalization by 30% suggests that decolonization may also reduce non-MRSA antibiotic use and CDI in this population.
The structural changes recent-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects were rarely investigated. This study was to compare temporal and causal relationships of structural changes in recent-onset PTSD with trauma-exposed control (TEC) subjects and non-TEC subjects.
T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 27 PTSD, 33 TEC and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were studied. The causal network of structural covariance was used to evaluate the causal relationships of structural changes in PTSD patients.
Volumes of bilateral hippocampal and left lingual gyrus were significantly smaller in PTSD patients and TEC subjects than HC subjects. As symptom scores increase, reduction in gray matter volume began in the hippocampus and progressed to the frontal lobe, then to the temporal and occipital cortices (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). The hippocampus might be the primary hub of the directional network and demonstrated positive causal effects on the frontal, temporal and occipital regions (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). The frontal regions, which were identified to be transitional points, projected causal effects to the occipital lobe and temporal regions and received causal effects from the hippocampus (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected).
The results offer evidence of localized abnormalities in the bilateral hippocampus and remote abnormalities in multiple temporal and frontal regions in typhoon-exposed PTSD patients.
The emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently a global concern. In this study, our goal was to explore the changing expression levels of acute-phase reaction proteins (APRPs) in the serum of COVID-19 patients and to elucidate the immunological characteristics of COVID-19. In the study design, we recruited 72 COVID-19 patients, including 22 cases of mild degree, 38 cases of moderate degree and 12 cases of severe degree. We also recruited 20 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 20 normal control subjects as a comparison. Fasting venous blood was taken to detect the content of complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and prealbumin (PA). When compared the COVID-19 group with the CAP and normal control groups, respectively, the mean value of CRP and SAA in the COVID-19 group (including mild, moderate and severe patients) had increased significantly (P < 0.01), whereas the mean values of C3, C4 and PA decreased (P < 0.01). For the asymptomatic or mild symptomatic patients with COVID-19, the actual aggravation of disease may be more advanced than the clinical appearances. Meanwhile, the statistical analyses indicated that the development of COVID-19 brought about a significant increase in the content of CRP and SAA (P < 0.01), and a decline in the content of C3, C4 and PA (P < 0.01). These findings suggested that the changes in the level of APRPs could be used as indicators to identify the degree and progression of COVID-19, and the significant changes might demonstrate the aggravation of disease. This study provided a new approach to improve the clinical management plan and prognosis of COVID-19.
Little is known about methylphenidate (MPH) use and mortality outcomes.
To investigate the association between MPH use and mortality among children with an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis.
This population-based cohort study analysed data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 68 096 children and adolescents aged 4–17 years with an ADHD diagnosis and prescribed MPH between 2000 and 2010 were compared with 68 096 without an MPH prescription, matched on age, gender and year of first ADHD diagnosis. All participants were followed to death, migration, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance programme or 31 December 2013. MPH prescriptions were measured on a yearly basis during the study period, and the association between MPH use and mortality was analysed using a repeated-measures time-dependent Cox regression model. The outcome measures included all-cause, unnatural-cause (including suicide, accident and homicide) and natural-cause mortality, obtained from linkage to the National Mortality Register in Taiwan.
The MPH group had lower unadjusted all-cause, natural-, unnatural- and accident-cause mortality than the comparison group. After controlling for potential confounders, MPH use was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67–0.98, P = 0.027), delayed use of MPH was associated with higher mortality (AHR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09) and longer MPH use was associated with lower mortality (AHR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.70–0.98).
MPH use is associated with a reduced overall mortality in children with ADHD in this cohort study, but unmeasured confounding cannot be excluded absolutely.
A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 years in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41–60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study 2011–2013 and 2014–2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e. percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3 years of follow-up (β 0·322 (se 0·157), 0·309 (se 0·142) and 0·303 (se 0·145), respectively; P < 0·05). The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all Ptrend < 0·05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
To overcome the steric effect of norbornene (NB), first-generation Grubbs’ catalyst (GC1) was used as the catalyst to graft NB onto the polypropylene (PP) chain by reactive extrusion. Instead of harsh reaction conditions, such as anhydrous, which was the general method to synthesize NB polymers, this convenient method would be easier to industrialize. The mechanism of grafting was studied by using Fourier Transform InfraRed spectra and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that GC1 could initiate the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of NB to obtain short NB chain-grafted PP-g-NB. The rheological behavior showed that the grafted NB short chains on PP-g-NB increase the shear thinning of the polymers and decrease the system viscosity.
Since December 2019, China has experienced a widespread outbreak of COVID-19. However, at the early stage of outbreak, investigations revealed a variety of patterns resulting in the transmission of COVID-19. Thus, it is essential to understand the transmission types and the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. Moreover, the information regarding the characteristics of transmission helps in coordinating the current screening programme, and controlling and containing measures, and also, helps in deciding the appropriate quarantine duration. Thus, this investigation reports an outbreak of COVID-19 in a family residing in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China during the month of January−February 2020.
In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The ‘Wuhan lockdown’ and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.
This paper presents a soft robot which can imitate the crawling locomotion of an earthworm. Locomotion of the robot can be achieved by expanding and contracting the body that is made of flexible material. A link of the earthworm-like robot is combined with three modules, and a multi-cavity earthworm-like soft robot is combined with multiple links. The multiple links of the earthworm-like soft robot are fabricated by silicone in the three-dimensional printed customized molds. Experiments on a single module, two-links, and three-links show that the soft robot can move and bend on condition of modules extension and contraction in a specified gait. The development of the earthworm-like soft robot shows a great prospect in many complicated environments such as pipeline detection.
Disasters such as an earthquake, a flood, and an epidemic usually lead to large numbers of casualties accompanied by disruption of the functioning of local medical institutions. A rapid response of medical assistance and support is required. Mobile hospitals have been deployed by national and international organizations at disaster situations in the past decades, which play an important role in saving casualties and alleviating the shortage of medical resources. In this paper, we briefly introduce the types and characteristics of mobile hospitals used by medical teams in disaster rescue, including the aspects of structural form, organizational form, and mobile transportation. We also review the practices of mobile hospitals in disaster response and summarize the problems and needs of mobile hospitals in disaster rescue. Finally, we propose the development direction of mobile hospitals, especially on the development of intelligence, rapid deployment capabilities, and modularization, which provide suggestions for further research and development of mobile hospitals in the future.
In this research paper we filter and verify miRNAs which may target silent information regulator homolog 2 (SIRT2) gene and then describe the mechanism whereby miRNA-212 might regulate lipogenic genes in mammary epithelial cell lines via targeting SIRT2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the bovine SIRT2 gene is regulated by three miRNAs: miR-212, miR-375 and miR-655. The three miRNAs were verified and screened by qRT-PCR, western blot, and luciferase multiplex verification techniques and only miR-212 was shown to have a targeting relationship with SIRT2. The results of co-transfecting miR-212 and silencing RNA (siRNA) showed that by targeting SIRT2, miR-212 can regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBP1) but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Measurement of triglyceride (TAG) content showed that miR-212 increased the fat content of mammary epithelial cell lines. The study indicates that miR-212 could target and inhibit the expression of the SIRT2 gene to promote lipogenesis in mammary epithelial cell lines.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may contribute to cognitive deficits in stroke. Cognitive impairment that does not meet the criteria for dementia (cognitive impairment no dementia [CIND]) is common in stroke, and patients with such impairment can revert to normal cognition.
To investigate the association of CMBs and remission of poststroke CIND.
To understand the evolution of poststroke cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) is bi-directional.
143 patients with CIND at three months after stroke were recruited and followed up for one year. Remission of CIND was defined as a conversion of cognitive status from CIND to cognitively intact at follow-up. MRI variables in terms of infarction, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and hippocampal volume were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to find the predictors of the remission of poststroke CIND.
30 (21.0%) out of the 143 patients converted to cognitive intact at follow-up. In univariate comparisons, subjects with remission of CIND had younger age (67.1 ± 9.5 vs.73.6 ± 7.6 years, p < 0.001) and higher education years (5.1 ± 4.0 vs.3.6 ± 4.0, p = 0.039). They also had lower WMHs volume (8.2 ± 8.2 vs. 18.6 ± 19.7 cm3, p < 0.001), lower frequency of CMBs (10.0% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.021) and lower volume of the lateral ventricle (33.3 ± 16.5 vs.42.6 ± 19.4 cm3, p = 0.017). In logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.913, 95%C.I. = 0.866–0.962, p = 0.001) and absence of CMBs (OR = 4.292, 95%C.I. = 1.174–15.625, p = 0.028) were significant predictors of remission of CIND.
Younger age and absence of CMBs predict the remission of poststroke CIND.
Longitudinal studies of predicting dementia conversion of poststroke cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) are limited.
To investigate the clinical and imaging predictors of dementia conversion in poststroke patients with CIND.
To understand dementia conversion of CIND.
143 patients with CIND (defined as impairment in at least one cognitive domain without meeting the criteria of dementia) at three months after stroke were recruited and followed up for one year. Dementia was diagnosed using the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, DSM-IV). MRI measurements including infarction, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and hippocampal volume were conducted. Logistic regression was performed to find the predictors of dementia at follow-up.
16 (11.2%) out of the 143 patients developed dementia 15 months after stroke. In univariate comparisons, subjects with dementia at follow-up had older age (78.0 ± 5.3 vs.71.5 ± 8.5 years, p = 0.003) and higher NIHSS score (7.1 ± 3.5 vs.4.7 ± 3.3, p = 0.005) on admission. They also had higher frequency of old infarcts in the thalamus (31.3% vs. 11.0%, p = 0.025), larger volume of old infarcts (4.2 ± 11.2 vs. 0.7 ± 2.6 cm3, p < 0.001) and WMHs volume (33.2 ± 34.0 vs. 14.2 ± 14.1 cm3, p = 0.016). In logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] =1.203, 95%C.I.=1.054-1.373, p = 0.006), NIHSS score on admission (OR = 1.324, 95%C.I.=1.082-1.619, p = 0.006) and WMHs volume (OR = 1.045, 95%C.I.=1.007-1.084, p = 0.019) were significant predictors of dementia at follow-up.
WMHs volume predicts dementia in poststroke patients with CIND, suggesting subcortical ischemic vascular disease was an important origin of poststroke delayed dementia.
Prefrontal cortex and sex difference are involved in verbal fluency network described in normal participants. Stroke patients often have prefrontal cortex atrophy.
To investigate whether atrophy in subdivisions of prefrontal cortex and sex difference contribute to verbal fluency in non-aphasic stroke patients.
To understand the relationship between the atrophy of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and verbal performance in elderly poststroke women.
30 elderly (age> = 60 years old) women with non-aphasic ischemic stroke and 30 age-controlled stroke men recruited. Automatic segmentation methods were used to assess the volume of both sides of the whole prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex and dorsalateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as white matter lesions (WMLs) volume. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and semantic verbal fluency test (VFT, category: foods and animals) were administered at 3 and 15 months after the index stroke.
The mean (s.d) age was 73.3 ± 7.2 in women and 72.1 ± 6.9 in men. Men had higher education years, less diabetes and higher MMSE scores (p < 0.05). At 3 months after stroke, volume of the left DLPFC was significantly correlated with VFT score in women rather than men, even after controlled by age, education years, neurological deficit, diabetes, WMLs volume and infarct location (partial r = 0.477, p = 0.018). At 15 months, this correlation remained significant (partial r = 0.548, p = 0.006) in women.
Sex difference may be present in the neuropsychological mechanism of verbal fluency impairment in patients with cerebrovascular disease.
To investigate the plasma levels of IL-18, MIP-1α, MCP-1, SDF-1 and RANTES in major depression before and after treatment.
Twenty healthy volunteers and 40 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were involved in the current study. Depressed subjects had moderate or major depression according to the DSM-IV criteria. The HAMD scale was used to measure the efficacy after the 8-week treatment with fluoxetine hydrochloride. All subjects gave their written informed consents and were recruited from outpatients and inpatients of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital between October 2004 and November 2005.The plasma levels of IL-18, MIP-1α, MCP-1, SDF-1 and RANTES in major depression were measured by ELISA before and after fluoxetine treatment.
HAMD score were significantly decreased after the treatment (P<0.001), there were seven cases score of after treatment <7,. At the time of admission, the plasma levels of IL-18, MCP-1, MIP-1α, SDF-1 and RANTES were significantly higher in the MDD than those in the healthy controls (P<0.001). In MDD, the cytokine values were significantly decreased after the treatment, including IL-18 (P=0.005), MCP-1 (P=0.001), MIP-1α (P<0.001, SDF-1 (P=0.004) and RANTES (P<0.001), but still significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (P<0.001).
These findings suggest that major depression is accompanied by the immune activation, and the antidepressant treatments have anti-inflammatory effects. The remaining depression symptom after treatment may be related to the higher level of cytokines.
Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.