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Numerous Late Carboniferous – Early Permian dykes are found in West Junggar and represent an important part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. In this contribution, we use these dykes to assess the tectonic regime and stress state in the Late Carboniferous – Early Permian. The West Junggar dykes are mainly diorite/dioritic porphyrite with minor diabase and were formed in 324–310 Ma. They have been divided into two groups based on their orientation, petrology and geochronology. Group 1 dykes mostly comprise WNW-striking dioritic porphyrite and NE-striking diorite with minor diabase and resemble the Karamay-Baogutu sanukitoid. They were probably formed from depleted mantle at a relatively high temperature and pressure with the addition of 1–2% sediment/sedimental partial melt and 0–5% trapped oceanic crust-derived melts. Group 2 dykes are ENE-striking and are similar to sanukite in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt. These dykes were also derived from depleted mantle at a shallow depth but high temperature with the addition of 2–3.5% sediment/sedimental partial melt. Magma banding and injection folds in dykes and host granitoids indicate magma flow. Paleostress analysis reveals that both groups of dykes were formed in a tensile stress field. Their emplacement is favoured by presence of pre-existing joints or fractures in the host granitoids and strata. We conclude that large-scale asthenosphere mantle upwelling induced by trapped oceanic slab-off can explain the magmatism and significant continental crustal growth of West Junggar during Late Carboniferous to Early Permian.
Pyrophyllite is an important layered phyllosilicate material that is used in many fields due to its beneficial physicochemical and mechanical properties. Due to the presence of multiple defects in pyrophyllite, an in-depth investigation was conducted using density functional theory to explore the effects of Na(I), K(I), Mg(II), Ca(II) and Fe(II) doping on the atomic structure, electronic properties and mechanical characteristics of pyrophyllite. The results demonstrated that, among the studied defects, K(I) doping had the most pronounced effects on the lattice constants and bonding lengths of pyrophyllite, while the least significant effects were observed in the case of Fe(II) doping. Moreover, the partial and total densities of states and band structures of the five kinds of doped pyrophyllite also changed significantly due to the redistribution of electrons. Finally, the elastic constants of the doped pyrophyllite were lower than that of the undoped pyrophyllite. Doping with Na(I), K(I), Mg(II), Ca(II) and Fe(II) reduced the deformation resistance, stiffness and elastic wave velocity but increased the degree of anisotropy in pyrophyllite. The observed effects on the mechanical properties of pyrophyllite followed the order: Mg(II) > Fe(II) > Ca(II) >K(I) > Na(I).
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by both clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits. Prior studies have typically examined either symptoms or cognition correlated with brain measures, thus causing a notable paucity of stable brain markers that capture the full characteristics of MDD. Brain controllability derived from newly proposed brain model integrating both metabolism (energy cost) and dynamics from a control perspective has been considered as a sensitive biomarker for characterizing brain function. Thus, identifying such a biomarker of controllability related to both symptoms and cognition may provide a promising state monitor of MDD.
To assess the associations between two multi-dimensional clinical (symptoms and cognition) and brain controllability data of MDD in an integrative model.
Sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA) was used to investigate the association between brain controllability at a network level and both clinical symptoms and cognition in 99 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The potential mediation effect of cognition on relationship between controllability and symptoms was also tested.
Average controllability was significantly correlated with both symptoms and cognition (rmean=0.54, PBonferroni=0.03). Average controllability of dorsal attention network (DAN) (r=0.46) and visual network (r=0.29) had the highest correlation with both symptoms and cognition. Among clinical variables, depressed mood (r=-0.23) , suicide(r=-0.25), work and activities(r=-0.27), gastrointestinal symptoms (r=-0.25) were significantly negatively associated with average controllability, while cognitive flexibility (r=0.29) was most strongly positively correlated with average controllability. Additionally, cognitive flexibility fully mediated the association between average controllability of DAN and depressed mood (indirect effect=-0.11, 95% CI [-0.18, -0.04], P=0.001) in MDD.
Brain average controllability was correlated with both clinical symptoms and cognition in first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The results suggest that average controllability of DAN and visual network reached high associations with clinical variates in MDD, thus these brain features may serve as stable biomarkers to control the brain functional states transitions to be relevant to cognitions deficits and clinical symptoms of MDD. Additionally, altered average controllability of DAN in patients could induce impairment of cognitive flexibility, and thus cause severe depressed mood, indicating that controllability of DAN may be a potential intervention target for alleviating depressed mood through improving cognitive flexibility in MDD.
The three-dimensional flow over a low-aspect-ratio (low-$A\!R$) trapezoidal plate is investigated experimentally with a focus on how the tip effects impact the structure and dynamics of the separation bubble. The chord-based Reynolds number is $5800$, and the angle of attack varies from $4^\circ$ to $10^\circ$. Once the flow separates, the separation bubble emerges and features a swallow-tailed structure that shrinks near the midspan, which is first found for the flows over low-$A\!R$ plates. This structure develops into the conventional single-tailed structure as the angle of attack increases. Moreover, the vortex shedding within the swallow-tailed separation bubble is restored from multiple asynchronously measured local velocity fields. It is revealed that the leading-edge vortex undergoes the novel transformation from a C-shape vortex into an M-shape vortex. This vortex transformation stems from the mass transport of the near-wall spanwise flow, which affects the fluid motion on the windward side of the C-shape vortex head, strengthening and accelerating the vortex head. The strengthened vortex head facilitates the entrainment of high-momentum fluid from the outer flow. This is responsible for the formation of the swallow-tailed structure. These findings help to fill the gaps left by the downwash at low angles of attack for low-$A\!R$ wings, and are of value in improving the cruising and gliding performance of micro-air vehicles.
We present the results of two population surveys conducted 10 years apart (December 2010–February 2011 and December 2020–January 2021) of the Critically Endangered white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus in the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. In the first survey, we recorded 818 individuals in 105 groups and 16 solitary adult males. In the second survey, we recorded 1,183 individuals in 128 groups and one solitary adult male. As a result of government policies, poaching for food and traditional medicine is no longer a primary threat to these langurs. However, severe forest loss and fragmentation caused by human activities could limit any future increase of this langur population.
As intense, ultrashort, kHz-repetition-rate laser systems become commercially available, pulse cumulative effects are critical for laser filament-based applications. In this work, the pulse repetition-rate effect on femtosecond laser filamentation in air was investigated both numerically and experimentally. The pulse repetition-rate effect has negligible influence at the leading edge of the filament. Clear intensity enhancement from a high-repetition pulse is observed at the peak and tailing edge of the laser filament. As the repetition rate of the laser pulses increases from 100 to 1000 Hz, the length of the filament extends and the intensity inside the filament increases. A physical picture based on the pulse repetition-rate dependent ‘low-density hole’ effect on filamentation is proposed to explain the obtained results well.
In recent years, children’s travel behaviour, including active school transport (AST, such as walking and cycling), has attracted researchers from varying disciplines, such as urban planning, transportation and public health. Previous studies have shown that those who often walk or cycle to and from school are much more active than those who are driven and have more knowledge regarding their neighborhood environment (Mackett 2013). Research has also reported that AST plays a vital role in promoting children’s physical activity and can prevent and reduce childhood obesity (Mendoza et al. 2011). Furthermore, AST can contribute to children’s physical activity levels and positively impact children’s mental and psychological health (Fusco et al. 2012). In addition, it was estimated that as much as 10–14% of morning traffic is generated by parents driving their children to schools (McDonald et al. 2011). Similar trends have been documented in developing countries. It is also found that the traffic congestion indices of two weeks before and after school in Beijing can rise from 3–6 to 6–9 points (above six means moderate or severe congestion). And the capacity of the three-lane road around the school will drop 38% under the influence of student shuttle vehicle trips (Shi et al. 2014).
The problem caused by this traffic congestion on the roads near schools may create hazardous conditions for children traveling by non-motorized means and increase tail gas of automobiles that will contaminate the air that children breathe in and around their school. Despite AST’s significant health and environmental implications, AST has declined over the past few decades internationally (Buliung et al. 2011; Witten et al. 2013). For example, in the United States, the rate of AST declined from 47.7% in 1969 to 12.7% in 2009 (McDonald et al. 2011), and the share of children aged 5–9 who walked to school has decreased from 57.7% in 1971 to 25.5% in 2003 in Australia (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008).
Synthetic jets have received extensive attention due to their superior mixing property. However, its mechanisms have not been investigated from the perspective of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI). To shed new light on this issue, the entrainment and TNTI properties of a synthetic jet are experimentally investigated and compared with a continuous jet at $Re_j = 3150$. The fuzzy clustering method is applied to select an appropriate vorticity threshold to detect the TNTI. Statistically, it is revealed that the entrainment coefficients of the two jets significantly differ in the near field, while they become almost identical in the far field. Instead of the vortex ring, the ‘breakdown of the vortex ring’ enhances the entrainment in the present synthetic jet. Instantaneously, the TNTI more violently fluctuates in the near field of the synthetic jet, which leads to a larger fluctuation in the TNTI radial position, a higher fractal dimension and enhanced local entrainment. Moreover, the transition of the probability density function of the TNTI orientation from the unimodal distribution in the near field to the bimodal distribution in the far field is found in both jets. The multi-scale analysis reveals a new mechanism for the bimodal distribution caused by the TNTI-thickness-scale structures.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic behavioral and cognitive features. Abnormal brain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) has been associated with the disorder. The full spectrum of ADHD-related variation of brain dynamics and its association with behavioral and cognitive features remain to be established.
We sought to identify patterns of brain dynamics linked to specific behavioral and cognitive dimensions using sparse canonical correlation analysis across a cohort of children with and without ADHD (122 children in total, 63 with ADHD). Then, using mediation analysis, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive deficits mediate the relationship between brain dynamics and ADHD-associated behaviors.
We identified four distinct patterns of dFC, each corresponding to a specific dimension of behavioral or cognitive function (r = 0.811–0.879). Specifically, the inattention/hyperactivity dimension was positively associated with dFC within the default mode network (DMN) and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the sensorimotor network (SMN); the somatization dimension was positively associated with dFC within DMN and SMN; the inhibition and flexibility dimension and fluency and memory dimensions were both positively associated with dFC within DMN and between DMN and SMN, and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the fronto-parietal network. Furthermore, we observed that cognitive functions of inhibition and flexibility mediated the relationship between brain dynamics and behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity.
These findings document the importance of distinct patterns of dynamic functional brain activity for different cardinal behavioral and cognitive features related to ADHD.
This paper presents systematic molecular dynamics modelling of Na-montmorillonite subjected to uniaxial compression and unidirectional shearing. An initial 3D model of a single-cell Na-montmorillonite structure is established using the Build Crystal module. The space group is C2/m, and COMPASS force fields are applied. Hydration analysis of Na-montmorillonite has been performed to validate the simulation procedures, where the number of absorbed water molecules varied with respect to the various lattice parameters. A series of uniaxial compression stress σzz and unidirectional shear stress τxy values are applied to the Na-montmorillonite structure. It is shown that the lattice parameter and hydration degree exhibit significant influence on the stress–strain relationship of Na-montmorillonite. The ultimate strain increases with increases in the lattice parameter but decreases in the number of water molecules. For saturated Na-montmorillonite, more water molecules result in a stiffer clay mineral under uniaxial compression and unidirectional shearing.
The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.
Persistent psychological distress associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been well documented. This study aimed to identify pre-COVID brain functional connectome that predicts pandemic-related distress symptoms among young adults.
Baseline neuroimaging studies and assessment of general distress using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were performed with 100 healthy individuals prior to wide recognition of the health risks associated with the emergence of COVID-19. They were recontacted for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in the period of community-level outbreaks, and for follow-up distress evaluation again 1 year later. We employed the network-based statistic approach to identify connectome that predicted the increase of distress based on 136-region-parcellation with assigned network membership. Predictive performance of connectome features and causal relations were examined by cross-validation and mediation analyses.
The connectome features that predicted emergence of distress after COVID contained 70 neural connections. Most within-network connections were located in the default mode network (DMN), and affective network-DMN and dorsal attention network-DMN links largely constituted between-network pairs. The hippocampus emerged as the most critical hub region. Predictive models of the connectome remained robust in cross-validation. Mediation analyses demonstrated that COVID-related posttraumatic stress partially explained the correlation of connectome to the development of general distress.
Brain functional connectome may fingerprint individuals with vulnerability to psychological distress associated with the COVID pandemic. Individuals with brain neuromarkers may benefit from the corresponding interventions to reduce the risk or severity of distress related to fear of COVID-related challenges.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
The modulations of high/low-speed large-scale motions (H/L-SMs) on the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) and turbulent entrainment are investigated in turbulent boundary layers via both experimental and numerical studies. The spanwise locations of large-scale motions can be locked by the spanwise heterogeneity, so the boundary layers over such a configuration are investigated first as an instructive case. In the engulfment process, it is found that irrotational ‘bubbles’ near the TNTI are more likely to originate from engulfment, while bubbles far from the TNTI could be produced by the local turbulence itself. Additionally, H-SMs are found to enhance the engulfment by the sweep flow. In the nibbling process, a competition relationship is observed: L-SMs induce stronger instantaneous ‘nibbling’ events by transporting more fluids towards the TNTI, while the H-SMs induced a more distorted TNTI. Consequently, the integral nibbling flux is greater above H-SMs. Furthermore, the explored mechanisms are verified to be insensitive to the wall shapes such as smooth and homogeneous roughness walls, which demonstrates that these modulations are universal for turbulent boundary layers. Finally, a conceptual modulation model is proposed to illustrate the entrainment process above the large-scale motions.
The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is sweeping the world, threatening millions of lives and drastically altering our ways of living. According to current studies, failure to either activate or eliminate inflammatory responses timely and properly at certain stages could result in the progression of the disease. In other words, robust immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critical. However, they do not theoretically present in some special groups of people, including the young, the aged, patients with autoimmunity or cancer. Differences also do occur between men and women. Our immune system evolves to ensure delicate coordination at different stages of life. The innate immune cells mainly consisted of myeloid lineage cells, including neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells and mast cells; they possess phagocytic capacity to different degrees at different stages of life. They are firstly recruited upon infection and may activate the adaptive immunity when needed. The adaptive immune cells, on the other way, are comprised mainly of lymphoid lineages. As one grows up, the adaptive immunity matures and expands its memory repertoire, accompanied by an adjustment in quantity and quality. In this review, we would summarise and analyse the immunological characteristics of these groups from the perspective of the immune system ‘evolution’ as well as ‘revolution’ that has been studied and speculated so far, which would aid the comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 and personalised-treatment strategy.
Subthreshold depression could be a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. However, reliable estimates of the prevalence and its contribution to developing major depression under different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression have to be established.
By searching PubMed and Web of Science using predefined inclusion criteria, we included 1 129 969 individuals from 113 studies conducted. The prevalence estimates were calculated using the random effect model. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) was estimated by measuring the ratio of individuals with subthreshold depression who developed major depression compared to that of non-depressed individuals from 19 studies (88, 882 individuals).
No significant difference in the prevalence among the different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression (Q = 1.96, p = 0.5801) was found. By pooling the prevalence estimates of subthreshold depression in 113 studies, we obtained a summary prevalence of 11.02% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.78–12.33%]. The youth group had the highest prevalence (14.17%, 95% CI 8.82–20.55%), followed by the elderly group (12.95%, 95% CI 11.41-14.58%) and the adult group (8.92%, 95% CI 7.51–10.45%). Further analysis of 19 studies' incidence rates showed individuals with subthreshold depression had an increased risk of developing major depression (IRR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.33–3.73), and the term minor depression showed the highest IRR compared with other terms (IRR = 3.97, 95% CI 3.17–4.96).
Depression could be a spectrum disorder, with subthreshold depression being a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. Proactive management of subthreshold depression could be effective for managing the increasing prevalence of major depression.
The complex sea ice conditions in Arctic waters has different impacts on the legs of the Arctic passage, and ships of specific ice classes face different navigation risks. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of the navigation risks faced in different legs has important practical significance. Based on the POLARIS introduced by IMO, the sea ice condition data from 2011 to 2020 was used to quantify the navigation risk of the Arctic Northeast passage. The risk index outcome (RIO) of the Arctic Northeast Passage were calculated. The navigable windows of the route for ice class 1A ships sailing independently under different sea ice conditions in the last decade were determined, with a navigable period of 91 days under normal sea ice conditions, approximately 175 days under light sea ice conditions and only week 40 close to navigation under severe sea ice conditions. The three critical waters affecting the safety of ships were identified. Combined with the navigable windows and critical waters, recommendations on ship's navigation and manipulation and recommendations for stakeholders were given. The method and results provided reference and support for the assessment of the navigation risk of ships in the Northeast Passage and safety navigation and operations of ships, and satisfied the needs of relevant countries and enterprises to rationally arrange shipment dates and sailing plans based on different ice classes of ships.