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The high overall plant-based diet index (PDI) is considered to protect against type 2 diabetes in the general population. However, whether the PDI affects gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among pregnant women is still unclear. We evaluated the association between PDI and GDM risk based on a Chinese large prospective cohort – the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary data were collected at 13–28 weeks of pregnancy by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The PDI was obtained by assigning plant food groups positive scores while assigning animal food groups reverse scores. GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate OR of GDM, with associated 95 % CI, comparing women in different PDI quartiles. Among the total 2099 participants, 169 (8·1 %) were diagnosed with GDM. The PDI ranged from 21·0 to 52·0 with a median of 36·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 33·0–39·0). After adjusting for social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors etc., the participants with the highest quartile of PDI were associated with 57 % reduced odds of GDM compared with women in the lowest quartile of PDI (adjusted OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·77; Pfor trend = 0·005). An IQR increment in PDI was associated with 29 % decreased odds of GDM (adjusted OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·90). Findings suggest that adopting a plant-based diet during pregnancy could reduce GDM risk among Chinese women, which may be valuable for dietary counselling during pregnancy.
The purpose of this study was to construct a glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-mediated, breakable, intracellular, nanoscale drug-delivery carrier via amide and esterification reactions. The structures were identified by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrophotometry. The compatibility and safety of the carrier were evaluated using hemolysis and cytotoxicity tests. The GA-copolymer micelle was prepared using the solvent evaporation method. FTIR and 1H-NMR detection demonstrated the successful construction of the polymer. No hemolysis occurred in any concentration of polymer within 3 h, and the hemolysis rate was less than 5%. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) experimental results showed that the novel polymer reduced the cell survival rate and had significant cytotoxic effects. The blank nanoparticles were liquid with light blue opalescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the empty micelles were uniform spheres, with an average size of 62 nm and a zeta potential of −13 mV. The novel GA-mediated polymeric carrier material developed here has the potential to effectively kill human SMMC-7721 cancer cells within 3 days when the dose is above 500 ug/mL.
Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
The present study explored the mechanism of Zn-methionine (Zn-Met) influencing eggshell quality of laying hens and investigated whether the mechanism was related to Ca deposition. Hyline grey layers (n 384, 38 weeks old) were divided into four groups: 0 mg Zn/kg, 40, 80 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met, and 80 mg Zn/kg as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). Eggshell quality, Zn contents, Zn-containing enzyme activities and expressions of shell matrix proteins in eggshell gland (ESG) were analysed. Zn-Met treatment at 80 mg/kg increased (P < 0·05) egg weight and eggshell strength throughout the experiments. The 80 mg/kg Zn-Met group (P < 0·05) had decreased mammillary knob width and larger relative atomic weight percentage of Ca, stronger signal intensity of Ca in linear distribution and the Ca was more evenly distributed in the transversal surface of eggshell. Zn contents (P < 0·001) in yolk and serum, Ca, albumin (Alb) levels in ESG as well as carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in serum (P < 0·05) and mRNA levels of CA and Ca-binding protein-d28k (CaBP-D28k) (P < 0·001) in the 80 mg/kg Zn-Met group were the highest among all treatments. In conclusion, shell strength as one of eggshell qualities was mostly related to mammillary cone width in ultrastructure caused by the pattern of Ca deposition in eggshell formation. Also, the increase in Zn-Met-induced Ca deposition may be due to the increased Zn contents in serum and tissues, which were attributable to the increased CA concentrations in serum, Ca, Alb levels and up-regulated CA and CaBP-D28k mRNA levels in ESG.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
This article reports on the growth kinetics of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles prepared via a sintering method. By varying the sintering temperatures and periods of time, particle size of CeO2 nanoparticles was tuned from 11 to 100 nm. Ostwald ripening mechanism prevails in the growth process, and the growth kinetics is determined to follow an equation, D5 = 16.25 + 3.6 × 1020 exp(−344.20/RT) in the temperature range of 700 to 1000°C. After dispersing Pt on CeO2 nanoparticles, the size effect for the catalytic performance of the CO oxidation reaction was researched. When temperature and period of time are set at 700 °C and 2 h, respectively, dispersion of Pt onto CeO2 nanoparticles led to the largest quantity of chemisorbed oxygen species on the surface and the best catalytic performance. The findings reported here would provide a feasible path for the preparation of advanced catalysts in the future and moreover to discover novel size-dependent supports for many catalytic applications.
As important epigenetic regulators, microRNA regulate protein expression by triggering the degradation of target mRNA and/or by inhibiting their translation. Dysregulation of microRNA expression has been reported in several cancers, including colorectal cancer. In this study, microRNA-array differential analysis revealed strongly enhanced expression of miR-24-1-5p in the colon tissue of azoxymethane/dextran sulphate sodium-induced mice that were fed with black raspberry anthocyanins for 9 weeks. Overexpression of miR-24-1-5p in human colorectal cancer cells significantly repressed β-catenin expression, and simultaneously decreased cell proliferation, migration and survival. Furthermore, miR-24-1-5p could target β-catenin and trigger a negative regulatory loop for β-catenin and its downstream target genes. β-Catenin signalling is vital to the formation and progression of human colorectal cancer. The current findings therefore identified miR-24-1-5p as a potent regulator of β-catenin, and this may provide a novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for β-catenin signalling-driven colorectal cancer.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
In this paper, we consider several homological dimensions of crossed products AασG, where A is a left Noetherian ring and G is a finite group. We revisit the induction and restriction functors in derived categories, generalizing a few classical results for separable extensions. The global dimension and finitistic dimension of AσαG are classified: global dimension of AσαG is either infinity or equal to that of A, and finitistic dimension of AσαG coincides with that of A. A criterion for skew group rings to have finite global dimensions is deduced. Under the hypothesis that A is a semiprimary algebra containing a complete set of primitive orthogonal idempotents closed under the action of a Sylow p-subgroup S ≤ G, we show that A and AασG share the same homological dimensions under extra assumptions, extending the main results in (Li, Representations of modular skew group algebras, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.367(9) (2015), 6293–6314, Li, Finitistic dimensions and picewise hereditary property of skew group algebras, to Glasgow Math. J.57(3) (2015), 509–517).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
Let Λ be a finite-dimensional algebra and G be a finite group whose elements act on Λ as algebra automorphisms. Assume that Λ has a complete set E of primitive orthogonal idempotents, closed under the action of a Sylow p-subgroup S ≤ G. If the action of S on E is free, we show that the skew group algebra Λ G and Λ have the same finitistic dimension, and have the same strong global dimension if the fixed algebra ΛS is a direct summand of the ΛS-bimodule Λ. Using a homological characterization of piecewise hereditary algebras proved by Happel and Zacharia, we deduce a criterion for Λ G to be piecewise hereditary.
This paper discusses a planar 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) parallel kinematic machine with actuation redundancy. Its inverse dynamic model is constructed by utilizing the Newton–Euler method based on the kinematic analysis. However, the dynamic model cannot be solved directly because the number of equations is less than the number of unknowns, which is due to the redundant force. In order to solve this problem, the relationship between the deformations of the links and the position errors of the moving platform are further explored. Then a novel method, which aims at minimizing the position errors of the machine, is proposed to optimize the redundant force. It also enables to solve the dynamic model. Finally, the dynamic performance analyses of this machine and its non-redundant counterpart are provided by numerical examples. Besides, another optimization method proposed for minimizing the constraint forces is also applied for comparison. The results show the effectiveness of the novel methods in improving the position precision of the machine.
Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breast milk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-β1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and γ-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.
Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35–70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week. The results showed that inclusion of the three oily fish significantly increased the intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) while decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Compared to the control group, significant increases of DHA, EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFA in plasma choline phosphoglyceride were observed in the three oily fish groups. Plasma TAG levels were significantly reduced only in the salmon and herring groups. When compared to the baseline level, the three oily fish diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of TAG, apoB, apoCII and apoCIII, but only the salmon and herring diets significantly lowered TNF-α and raised adiponectin levels in serum. The salmon diet additionally decreased the serum concentration of IL-6. To conclude, dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish can effectively increase serum n-3 LC-PUFA content and are associated with favourable biochemical changes in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, and these beneficial effects are mainly associated with n-3 LC-PUFA contents.
In this paper we first prove a theorem on the nonexistence of pyramidal
polynomial basis functions. Then we present a new symmetric composite pyramidal finite element which yields a better convergence than the nonsymmetric one. It has fourteen degrees of freedom and its basis functions are incomplete piecewise triquadratic polynomials. The space of ansatz functions contains all quadratic functions on each of four subtetrahedra that form a given pyramidal element.
To investigate the possible dietary risk factors for anaemia in rural elderly women.
Case–control study conducted in 2005. Cases and matched controls were interviewed in person to elicit information on lifestyle, diet and individual health. Main foods and nutrients were calculated by three 24 h recalls; intake data of tea, edible oils and spices were from an FFQ.
Fourteen villages in two counties of Guangxi Province, south-west China.
Four hundred and twenty anaemic cases and 433 matched controls, aged 50–75 years.
The mean consumption of animal foods for cases (82·4 g/d) was significantly lower than for controls (91·0 g/d), similarly for egg consumption (3·8 g/d for cases and 5·8 g/d for controls; P < 0·05). The absolute value of the Dietary Balance Index, low bound score (DBI_LBS) was significantly higher for cases than for controls (P < 0·05). Intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A (retinol equivalents, RE), vitamin B1, riboflavin and Ca were significantly lower in cases than in controls (P < 0·05). There was no significant difference in Fe intake between the two groups. High intake of vitamin A (RE) was inversely associated with anaemia (quartile 4 v. quartile 1: OR = 0·6, P for linear trend = 0·02). The absolute value of DBI_LBS was positively related to anaemia (quartile 4 v. quartile 1: OR = 0·4, P for linear trend < 0·0001).
For rural elderly women in south-west China, anaemia had a strong positive association with undernutrition and a negative association with vitamin A intake. Dietary Fe intake was not found to be an independent risk factor for anaemia.
This paper deals with the dynamic model and force control of the redundantly actuated parallel manipulator of a 5-DOF hybrid machine tool. The inverse dynamic model is derived by using the Newton–Euler method. The driving force is optimized by the least-square method. Based on the kinematic and dynamic models, the redundant chain is controlled by force mode and other chains by position mode. The redundantly actuated parallel manipulator is incorporated into a 5-DOF hybrid machine tool which also includes a worktable with a translational DOF and a rotational DOF. The experiments wherein the machine moves along a straight-line trajectory and a circular trajectory show that the machine has a good contouring performance.
This paper addresses the dynamic dexterity of a planar 2-degree of freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with virtual constraint. Without simplification, the dynamic formulation is derived by using the virtual work principle. The condition number of the inertia matrix of the dynamic equation is presented as a criterion to evaluate the dynamic dexterity of a manipulator. In order to obtain the best isotropic configuration of the dynamic dexterity in the whole workspace, two global performance indices, which consider the mean value and standard deviation of the condition number of the inertia matrix, respectively, are proposed as the objective function. For a given set of geometrical and inertial parameters, the dynamic dexterity of the parallel manipulator is more isotropic in the center than at the boundaries of the workspace.