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Trace elements may play an important role in obesity. This study aimed to assess the plasma and dietary intake levels of four trace elements, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se in a rural Chinese population, and analyse the relationship between trace elements and obesity. A cross-sectional study involving 2587 participants was conducted. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between trace elements and obesity; restricted cubic spline (RCS) models were used to assess the dose–response relationship between trace elements and obesity; the weighted quantile sum (WQS) model was used to examine the potential interaction of four plasma trace elements on obesity. Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma Se concentrations in the fourth quartile (Q4) exhibited a lower risk of developing obesity than the first quartile (Q1) (central obesity: OR = 0·634, P = 0·002; general obesity: OR = 0·525, P = 0·005). Plasma Zn concentration in the third quartile (Q3) showed a lower risk of developing obesity in general obesity compared with the first quartile (Q1) (OR = 0·625, P = 0·036). In general obesity, the risk of morbidity was 1·727 and 1·923 times higher for the second and third (Q2, Q3) quartiles of dietary Mn intake than for Q1, respectively. RCS indicated an inverse U-shaped correlation between plasma Se and obesity. WQS revealed the combined effects of four trace elements were negatively associated with central obesity. Plasma Zn and Se were negatively associated with obesity, and dietary Mn was positively associated with obesity. The combined action of the four plasma trace elements had a negative effect on obesity.
The current study examined if early adversity was associated with accelerated biological aging, and if effects were mediated by the timing of puberty.
In early mid-life, 187 Black and 198 White (Mage = 39.4, s.d.age = 1.2) women reported on early abuse and age at first menstruation (menarche). Women provided saliva and blood to assess epigenetic aging, telomere length, and C-reactive protein. Using structural equation modeling, we created a latent variable of biological aging using epigenetic aging, telomere length, and C-reactive protein as indicators, and a latent variable of early abuse using indicators of abuse/threat events before age 13, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We estimated the indirect effects of early abuse and of race on accelerated aging through age at menarche. Race was used as a proxy for adversity in the form of systemic racism.
There was an indirect effect of early adversity on accelerated aging through age at menarche (b = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03–0.44), in that women who experienced more adversity were younger at menarche, which was associated with greater accelerated aging. There was also an indirect effect of race on accelerated aging through age at menarche (b = 0.25, 95% CI 0.04–0.52), in that Black women were younger at menarche, which led to greater accelerated aging.
Early abuse and being Black in the USA may both induce a phenotype of accelerated aging. Early adversity may begin to accelerate aging during childhood, in the form of early pubertal timing.
Straightplasma channels are widely used to guide relativistic intense laser pulses over several Rayleigh lengths for laser wakefield acceleration. Recently, a curved plasma channel with gradually varied curvature was suggested to guide a fresh intense laser pulse and merge it into a straight channel for staged wakefield acceleration [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 154801 (2018)]. In this work, we report the generation of such a curved plasma channel from a discharged capillary. Both longitudinal and transverse density distributions of the plasma inside the channel were diagnosed by analyzing the discharging spectroscopy. Effects of the gas-filling mode, back pressure and discharging voltage on the plasma density distribution inside the specially designed capillary are studied. Experiments show that a longitudinally uniform and transversely parabolic plasma channel with a maximum channel depth of 47.5 μm and length of 3 cm can be produced, which is temporally stable enough for laser guiding. Using such a plasma channel, a laser pulse with duration of 30 fs has been successfully guided along the channel with the propagation direction bent by 10.4°.
Germplasm innovation can provide materials for breeding sugarcane cultivars. Saccharum officinarum is the main source of high-sugar and high-yield genes in sugarcane breeding. ‘Nobilization’ is the theoretical basis for exploiting S. officinarum, and S. officinarum authenticity directly affects sugarcane nobility breeding efficiency. Herein, the authenticity of 22 SLC-series S. officinarum clones imported from Sri Lanka and preserved in the China National Germplasm Repository of Sugarcane (NGRS) was explored by four-primer amplification-arrested mutation PCR (ARMS PCR) and somatic chromosome number counting. The amplified bands from SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 were the same with those from S. officinarum clone Badila, i.e. a common band of 428 bp and a S. officinarum-specific band of 278 bp, hence they were tentatively assigned as S. officinarum clones. The other 20 SLC clones had both 278 bp (S. officinarum-specific) and 203 bp (S. spontaneum-specific) bands, which are hybrid characteristics. In addition, the chromosome numbers of SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 are both 80, belong to typical S. officinarum. While the chromosome numbers of the other 20 materials are ranging from 101 to 129, consistent with hybrids of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. This molecular cytological characterization indicates that among the 22 introduced SLC-series clones, only two, SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131, were S. officinarum. Future agronomic trait and resistance analyses could facilitate their use as crossing parents in sugarcane breeding.
The existence of a maximum drag enhancement (MDE) asymptote at high rotation ($Ro$) and Weissenberg ($Wi$) numbers in turbulent viscoelastic spanwise-rotating plane Couette flow has been demonstrated. Specifically, it is shown that above a critical $Wi$, drag enhancement plateaus and the MDE asymptote is realized in a broad range of $Ro$. The mean velocity profiles at MDE appear to closely follow a log-law profile that has a nearly identical slope but different intercepts as a function of $Ro$. Much like the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, the logarithmic function in MDE is closely followed if the mean velocity is plotted using the traditional inner variable scaling; however, the logarithmic function is not well defined when examined by the indicator function. Hence, in this study, we have used the logarithmic fit as a visual guide for the mean velocity profile. Last and perhaps the most intriguing finding of this study is that MDE occurs in the elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) flow state; hence, it is mainly sustained by elastic forces much like the MDR flow state. To that end, a universal picture of elastically induced drag modification asymptotes is emerging, namely these asymptotic states are an inherent property of the elastically sustained EIT flow state.
The resurgence and outbreaks of mumps occur frequently in many countries worldwide in recent years, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. In this study, a descriptive and spatiotemporal clustering analysis at the township level was conducted to explore the dynamic spatiotemporal aggregation and epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wuhan. During 2005 and 2019, there were 40 685 cases reported in Wuhan, with an average annual morbidity of 28.11 per 100 000 populations. The morbidity showed a fluctuating tendency, and peaked in 2010 and 2018. Bimodal seasonality was found, with a large peak between May and July, and a mild peak from November to January in the following year. Male students aged 5–9-year-old were the main risk group of mumps infection. Significant global spatial auto-correlation was detected except in 2007, 2009 and 2015. The spatial and temporal scan statistics indicated that the hot-spots mainly located at the western and southern areas of Wuhan with variations almost every year. Our findings could assist the public health authorities to develop and improve targeted health strategies, and allocate health resources rationally.
In this paper, a frequency selective surface (FSS) based shared-aperture antenna is designed for 5G/Wi-Fi applications. The 5G and Wi-Fi channel are separated to achieve different polarizations and simultaneous work. The proposed antenna is of ±45°-polarization in the 5G N79 band and vertical polarization in the Wi-Fi5.8 GHz band. The antenna is vertically stacked with the N79 band antenna located above the Wi-Fi band antenna. The N79 antenna is composed of FSS units with transmissive characteristics in the Wi-Fi band, and serves as an electromagnetically transparent surface to avoid blocking the Wi-Fi antenna. A prototype of our design is fabricated, assembled and tested, and measured results show that the prototype is able to cover the entire N79 band (4.1–5.2 GHz, 23.7%) and Wi-Fi5.8 GHz band (5.73–5.89 GHz, 2.8%). Measured average gain is 8.2 and 7.8 dBi in the N79 and Wi-Fi band, respectively, and radiation efficiency is over 86 and 80%. The proposed design exhibits separated channels, tri-polarizations, high gain and compact size, which is sufficient for regular 5G/Wi-Fi applications. The antenna also achieves a relatively wide and highly consistent signal coverage in the two bands, making it suitable for 5G/Wi-Fi multi-function communication and indoor 5G blind compensation.
COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.
It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS).
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively.
Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively).
This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM's effectiveness in various population.
Lower-crust-derived adakitic rocks in the Gangdese belt provide important constraints on the timing of Tibetan crustal thickening and on the relative contributions of magmatic and tectonic processes. Here we present geochronological and geochemical data for the Wangdui porphyritic monzogranites in the western Gangdese belt. Zircon U–Pb dating yields emplacement ages of 46–44 Ma. All samples have high Sr (321–599 ppm), low Yb (0.76–1.33 ppm) and Y (10.6–18.3 ppm) contents, with high La/Yb (51.1–72.3) and Sr/Y (21.0–51.4) ratios, indicating adakitic affinities. The low MgO (0.97–1.76 wt %), Cr (7.49–53.6 ppm) and Ni (4.75–29.1 ppm) contents, as well as high 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7143–0.7145), low ϵNd(t) (−10.4 to −9.8) and zircon ϵHf(t) (−17.7 to 0.4) values, suggest that the Wangdui pluton most likely originated from partial melting of the thickened ancient lower crust. In combination with previously published data, despite the east–west-trending heterogeneity of crustal composition in the Gangdese belt, the La/Yb ratios of magmatic rocks reveal that both western and eastern segments experienced remarkable crustal thickening in the Eocene. However, in contrast to the thickened juvenile lower crust in the eastern segment formed by the underplating of mantle-derived magmas, tectonic shortening plays a more crucial role in thickening of the ancient basement in western Gangdese. In fact, such Eocene-thickened ancient lower-crust-derived adakitic rocks are widely distributed in the central Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. This, together with the extensive development of fold–thrust belts, suggests that tectonic shortening might be the main mechanism accounting for the crustal thickening associated with the India–Asia collision.
During the first postnatal week in rodents, cholinergic retinal waves initiate in starburst amacrine cells (SACs), propagating to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and visual centers, essential for visual circuit refinement. By modulating exocytosis in SACs, dynamic changes in the protein kinase A (PKA) activity can regulate the spatiotemporal patterns of cholinergic waves. Previously, cysteine string protein-α (CSPα) is found to interact with the core exocytotic machinery by PKA-mediated phosphorylation at serine 10 (S10). However, whether PKA-mediated CSPα phosphorylation may regulate cholinergic waves via SACs remains unknown. Here, we examined how CSPα phosphorylation in SACs regulates cholinergic waves. First, we identified that CSPα1 is the major isoform in developing rat SACs and the inner plexiform layer during the first postnatal week. Using SAC-specific expression, we found that the CSPα1-PKA-phosphodeficient mutant (CSP-S10A) decreased wave frequency, but did not alter the wave spatial correlation compared to control, wild-type CSPα1 (CSP-WT), or two PKA-phosphomimetic mutants (CSP-S10D and CSP-S10E). These suggest that CSPα-S10 phosphodeficiency in SACs dampens the frequency of cholinergic waves. Moreover, the level of phospho-PKA substrates was significantly reduced in SACs overexpressing CSP-S10A compared to control or CSP-WT, suggesting that the dampened wave frequency is correlated with the decreased PKA activity. Further, compared to control or CSP-WT, CSP-S10A in SACs reduced the periodicity of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in neighboring RGCs, suggesting that these RGCs received the weakened synaptic inputs from SACs overexpressing CSP-S10A. Finally, CSP-S10A in SACs decreased the PSC amplitude and the slope to peak PSC compared to control or CSP-WT, suggesting that CSPα-S10 phosphodeficiency may dampen the speed of the SAC-RGC transmission. Thus, via PKA-mediated phosphorylation, CSPα in SACs may facilitate the SAC-RGC transmission, contributing to the robust frequency of cholinergic waves.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented global health crisis that may cause mental health problems and heighten suicide risk. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on trends in suicide attempts and suicide deaths in New Taipei City, Taiwan.
The current study used the official daily data on suicide attempts and deaths in New Taipei City, Taiwan (4 million inhabitants) between 2015 and 2020 from the Taiwan National Suicide Prevention Reporting System. Interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses with parameters corrected by the estimated autocorrelations were applied on weekly aggregated data to examine whether the suicide trends during the early COVID-19 pandemic (late January to July 2020) deviated from previous trends (January 2015 to late January 2020). The impact due to the suicide prevention policy change was also examined (since August 2020).
ITS analyses revealed no significant increases in both mean and trend on weekly suicide deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic and after the policy change. In contrast, there was a significant increasing trend in weekly suicide attempts since the COVID-19 outbreak at the rate of 1.54 attempts per week (95% confidence interval 0.49–2.60; p = 0.004). Sex difference analysis revealed that, however, this increasing trend was observed only in females not in males.
The COVID-19 pandemic has different impacts on suicides attempts and deaths during the early pandemic in New Taipei City, Taiwan. The COVID-19 outbreak drastically increased the trend of suicide attempts. In contrast, the number of suicide deaths had remained constant in the investigated periods.
A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
Traditionally, the strata of the Luonie Valley, Dechang County, SW Sichuan, China, are considered to contain a suite of felsic volcanic rocks (the Huili Group) that erupted after c. 1050 Ma. However, we report here new age constraints, elemental and Lu–Hf isotope geochemistry for a different suite of older basaltic agglomerate lava, basaltic tuff lava and basalt from the same area, which we name the Luonie Formation. New dating results show that the basaltic volcanic suite of the upper part of the Luonie Formation formed at 1126.1 ± 9.9 Ma, significantly earlier than deposition of the Huili Group, but comparable in age to the 1142 ± 16 Ma Laowushan Formation in central Yunnan Province. Granite intrusion into the Luonie Formation dated 1050.7 ± 12.7 Ma provides crucial supporting evidence for this earlier depositional age. We also report a maximum sedimentary age of c. 1158 Ma for the underlying arkose, implying stratigraphic conformity with the basaltic volcanic rock suite.
The ϵHf(t) values of the basaltic volcanic rocks are mainly positive, indicating that the rocks are mainly derived from the depleted mantle and slightly stained by crustal materials. The characteristics of P*, Nb* and Zr* anomalies also support this view. The distribution patterns of trace and rare earth elements indicate that the basaltic volcanic rocks formed in an extensional setting. The Zr/4–Y–2Nb and Th–Nb/16–Zr/117 discrimination diagrams also provide evidence for this understanding. Lithofacies analysis shows that basaltic volcanic wrocks with the characteristics of both continental and marine facies should be formed in a littoral–neritic environment. We propose here that the evidence is consistent with a phase of continental extension that preceded the convergence of the SW Yangtze Block to form part of Rodinia.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Direct numerical simulation of spanwise-rotation-driven flow transitions in viscoelastic plane Couette flow from a drag-reduced inertial to a drag-enhanced elasto-inertial turbulent flow state followed by full relaminarization is reported for the first time. Specifically, this novel flow transition begins with a drag-reduced inertial turbulent flow state at a low rotation number $0\leqslant Ro \leqslant 0.1$, and then transitions to a rotation/polymer-additive-driven drag-enhanced inertial turbulent regime, $0.1\leqslant Ro \leqslant 0.3$. In turn, the flow transitions to a drag-enhanced elasto-inertial turbulent state, $0.3\leqslant Ro \leqslant 0.9$, and eventually relaminarizes at $Ro=1$. In addition, two novel rotation-dependent drag enhancement mechanisms are proposed and substantiated. (1) The formation of large-scale roll cells results in enhanced convective momentum transport along with significant polymer elongation and stress generated in the extensionally dominated flow between adjacent roll cells at $Ro\leqslant 0.2$. (2) Coriolis-force-generated turbulent vortices cause strong incoherent transport and homogenization of significant polymer stress in the bulk via their vortical circulations at $Ro=0.5 - 0.9$.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
The flow physics of inertio-elastic turbulent Taylor–Couette flow for a radius ratio of $0.5$ in the Reynolds number ($Re$) range of $500$ to $8000$ is investigated via direct numerical simulation. It is shown that as $Re$ is increased the turbulence dynamics can be subdivided into two distinct regimes: (i) a low $Re \leqslant 1000$ regime where the flow physics is essentially dominated by nonlinear elastic forces and the main contribution to transport and mixing of momentum, stress and energy comes from large-scale flow structures in the bulk region and (ii) a high $Re \geqslant 5000$ regime where inertial forces govern the flow physics and the flow dynamics is mainly governed by small-scale flow structures in the near-wall region. Flow–microstructure coupling analysis reveals that the elastic Görtler instability in the near-wall region is triggered via significant polymer extension and commensurately high hoop stresses. This instability gives rise to small-scale elastic vortical structures identified as elastic Görtler vortices which are present at all $Re$ considered. In fact, these vortices develop herringbone streaks near the inner wall that have a longer average life span than their Newtonian counterparts due to their elastic origin. Examination of the budgets of mean streamwise enstrophy, mean kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress demonstrates that increasing fluid inertia hinders the generation of elastic stresses, leading to a monotonic reduction of the elastic-related effects on the flow physics.
Although democratic governance imposes temporal constraints, the timing of government policy making activities such as bill initiation is still poorly understood. This holds especially under coalition governments, in which government bills need to find approval by a partner party in parliament. We propose a dynamic temporal perspective in which ministers do not know whether they face a cooperative or competitive partner at the beginning of a term, but they learn this over time and use their agenda control to time further bill initiation in response. A circular regression analysis using data on more than 25,000 government bills from 11 parliamentary democracies over 30 years supports this temporal perspective, showing that ministers initiate bills later in the term when their previous bills have experienced greater scrutiny. Ministers further delay bill initiation when coalition parties’ incentives to deviate from compromise increase and when they have less power to constrain their bills’ scrutiny.