To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) confers protection against nutritional challenges that predispose obesity and metabolic risks through involvement of circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput genes and gut microbiome, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of TRF on metabolic markers and circadian rhythm associated with gut microbiota in healthy males. Two groups (TRF, n 56; non-TRF, n 24) of male adults were enrolled. The TRF group provided blood at pre-TRF and post-TRF, while non-TRF one time after 25 d of trial. Serum lipid and liver profiles were determined. Real time-PCR was applied for circadian and inflammatory gene expression. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced on the Illumina Miseq v3 platform to comprehensively catalogue the composition and abundance of bacteria in stool. We showed that TRF ameliorated the serum lipid and liver profiles of the individuals. In the TRF group, gut microbial richness was significantly enhanced, with enrichment of Prevotellaceae and Bacteroideaceae. TRF enhanced circadian gene expression probably by activation of sirtuin-1, which is positively associated with gut microbiome richness. TRF could be a safe remedy for the prevention of metabolic diseases related to dyslipidaemia, as it regulates circadian rhythm associated with gut microbiome modulation.
This study aimed to identify the important capacities that were most urgently needed during emergency response and factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) professionals’ field coping-capacity for public health emergency.
Professional workers (N = 1854) from 40 CDC institutions were chosen using the stratified cluster random sampling method in all 13 municipalities of Heilongjiang Province, China. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used.
Of 10 key capacities, the 3 that were most urgently needed during emergency response fieldwork as identified by respondents were crisis communication capacity, personal protection capacity, and laboratory detection capacity. Overall, 38.1% of respondents self-rated as “poor” on their coping-capacity. The logistic regression found that proficiency in emergency preparedness planning, more practical experiences in emergency response, effectiveness in training and drills, a higher education level, and a higher professional position were significantly associated with the individual’s field coping-capacity.
This study identified CDC professionals’ most urgent capacity need and the obstructive factors and highlighted the importance of enhancing the capacity in crisis communication, personal protection, and laboratory detection. Intervention should be targeted at sufficient fund, formalized, and effective emergency training and drills, more operational technical guidance, and all-around supervision and evaluation.
Nutrition therapy is considered an important treatment of burn patients. The aim of the study was to delineate the nutritional support in severe burn patients and to investigate association between nutritional practice and clinical outcomes. Severe burn patients were enrolled (n 100). In 90 % of the cases, the burn injury covered above 70 % of the total body surface area. Mean interval from injury to nutrition start was 2·4 (sd 1·1) d. Sixty-seven patients were initiated with enteral nutrition (EN) with a median time of 1 d from injury to first feed. Twenty-two patients began with parenteral nutrition (PN). During the study, thirty-two patients developed EN intolerance. Patients received an average of about 70 % of prescribed energy and protein. Patients with EN providing <30 % energy had significantly higher 28- d and in-hospital mortality than patients with EN providing more than 30 % of energy. Mortality at 28 d was 11 % and in-hospital mortality was 45 %. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that EN providing <30 % energy and septic shock were independent risk factors for 28- d prognosis. EN could be initiated early in severe burn patients. Majority patients needed PN supplementation for energy requirement and EN feeding intolerance. Post-pyloric feeding is more efficient than gastric feeding in EN tolerance and energy supplement. It is difficult for severe burn patients to obtain enough feeding, especially in the early stage of the disease. More than 2 weeks of underfeeding is harmful to recovery.
For one-dimensional nanomaterials, the performances are strongly related to the diameters, lengths, morphologies, and structures, implying that it is of great significance to understand the related growth mechanisms and thus to achieve the desired nanostructures. Thermal oxidation of copper has been widely used to fabricate CuO nanowires (NWs), whereas the growth mechanism still remains controversial in spite of the extensive investigations. Therefore, this review aims to offer a critical discussion about the growth mechanisms. First, the effects of different growth conditions on the growth of CuO NWs are introduced for basic understanding. Subsequently, the proposed mechanisms in different literature studies, i.e., the vapor–solid, self-catalyzed growth, stress-induced growth, stress grain boundary (GB) diffusion, and oxygen concentration gradient, are discussed and summarized. It seems that the combination of “stress GB diffusion” and “oxygen concentration gradient” mechanisms could be relevant for the growth of CuO NWs via thermal oxidation of copper.
Obesity and insulin resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mg intake is linked to a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; people with NAFLD or alcoholic liver disease are at high risk of Mg deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate whether Mg and Ca intakes were associated with risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes by alcohol drinking status.
We analysed the association between Ca or Mg intake and fatty liver disease, prediabetes or both prediabetes and fatty liver disease in cross-sectional analyses.
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) follow-up cohort of US adults.
Nationally representative sample of US adults in NHANES (n 13 489).
After adjusting for potential confounders, Mg intake was associated with approximately 30 % reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes, comparing the highest intake quartile v. the lowest. Mg intake may only be related to reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes in those whose Ca intake is less than 1200 mg/d. Mg intake may also only be associated with reduced odds of fatty liver disease among alcohol drinkers.
The study suggests that high intake of Mg may be associated with reduced risks of fatty liver disease and prediabetes. Further large studies, particularly prospective cohort studies, are warranted to confirm the findings.
To improve the antimicrobial properties of ZnO, ZnO-supported 13X zeolite (X-ZnO) was prepared via the facile chemical method. Antimicrobial activities of X-ZnO and ZnO were tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. X-ZnO showed noticeable antimicrobial activities against E. coli and S. aureus under visible light conditions, especially against E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of X-ZnO against E. coli was 0.12–0.24 mg/mL. However, there were still much bacteria alive in the nano-ZnO suspensions at the same concentration. To elucidate the antimicrobial activities of X-ZnO, the average concentration of the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Zn2+ ions released from X-ZnO and nano-ZnO were quantitatively analyzed. The obtained results indicated that the average concentration of ROS produced by supported ZnO was much higher than that of nano-ZnO. And the released Zn2+ ions from X-ZnO and nano-ZnO suspensions were much lower than the MIC of Zn2+. Thus, it is believed that the production of ROS in X-ZnO and nano-ZnO suspensions resulted in the difference of antibacterial activities.