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Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is an endangered species, listed as a Grade I protected animal in China. The females rarely successfully develop their gonads from stage II to III in captivity, which handicaps the propagation of cultured Chinese sturgeon. The current study aimed to understand the effects of dietary lipid level on the ovarian development and the related regulation mechanism in female Chinese sturgeon. A 24-month feeding trial was conducted with 10-year-old Chinese sturgeons with ovaries at the developmental stage II, with three experimental diets containing 10, 14 and 18% lipids. Ovary, muscle and serum samples were collected at four time-points (6, 12, 18 and 24 months) for further analyses. Serum metabolomics and ovary transcriptomics analyses were conducted at the 18 months. Results showed that only the 18% lipid diet promoted ovary development to the stage IV. Oocytes at stage II in this group also exhibited higher diameter and more lipid droplets. Serum triglyceride content in the 18% group was significantly higher than in groups 10 and 14% (both at 12 and 18 months). Estradiol content in the group 14% was significantly higher than in 10 and 18% groups, except at 24 months. Metabolomic and transcriptomic results indirectly indicated that 14% of dietary lipids benefited steroid hormone synthesis, while 18% lipid facilitated arachidonic acid metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis and vitellogenesis, although serum cholesterol content did not vary with the dietary lipid level. In conclusion, 18% dietary lipid is the optimal level for improving gonad development of female Chinese sturgeon.
A 230Th/U-dated stalagmite from Hulu Cave was analyzed for δ18O, δ13C, and trace elements. A ~10-yr-resolution δ18O record, spanning 51.7–42.6 ka, revealed Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events 14 to 11. A similar rapid transition and synchronous timing of the onset of DO 12 is evident between the Greenland and Hulu Cave records, which suggests a common forcing mechanism of DO cycles in the North Atlantic and monsoonal region of Asia. Centennial-scale monsoonal oscillations in the cave δ18O record are indicative of hydroclimatic instability during interstadials. After removing the signals of remote moisture sources, the proportion of moisture from nearby sources is found to be higher during stadials than during interstadials. To explain this, we propose that the movement of the westerly jet is an important control on the balance of nearby and distant moisture sources in East Asia. In addition, the records of δ13C and trace element ratios, which are proxies of local environmental changes, resemble the δ18O record on the scale of DO cycles, as well as on even shorter timescales. This suggests that hydrological processes and biological activity at the cave site respond sensitively to the monsoonal changes.
be a positive integer and
an integer prime to
. Multiplication by
induces a permutation over
. Lerch’s theorem gives the sign of this permutation. We explore some applications of Lerch’s result to permutation problems involving quadratic residues modulo
and confirm some conjectures posed by Sun [‘Quadratic residues and related permutations and identities’, Preprint, 2018, arXiv:1809.07766]. We also study permutations involving arbitrary
th power residues modulo
and primitive roots modulo a power of
This study investigated the development of temporal adverbs in early childhood Mandarin. All cases of temporal adverbs indicating the past, present, and future were extracted from the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (168 children in four age groups: 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, 5;6). Data analyses indicated: (1) Mandarin-speaking children produced a repertoire of 21 types of temporal adverbs, and the children in the first age group (M = 2;6) were capable of using temporal adverbs to denote past, present, and future events; (2) within each age group, the children produced significantly more future temporal adverbs than the other two subtypes; and (3) there was a significant age effect that, with increased age, more children were able to produce all subtypes of temporal adverbs. Overall, findings of this corpus-based investigation shed light upon Chinese children's early-attained ability to express the three fundamental notions of time by resorting to the appropriate linguistic devices.
We prove the following two basis theorems for
-sets of reals:
-set has a perfect
-subset if and only if it has a nonthin
-subset, and this is equivalent to the statement that there is a nonconstructible real.
-set has an uncountable
-subset if and only if either every real is constructible or
We also apply the method that proves (2) to show that if there is a nonconstructible real, then there is a perfect
-set with no nonempty
-thin subset, strengthening a result of Harrington .
GH3536 alloy is one of the high-temperature nickel-based alloys and widely applied in aviation and aerospace industries. In this study, a combination of experiment and simulation is proposed to study the effect of processing parameters on the selective laser melting (SLM) of GH3536 powder. It is concluded that the relationship between density and laser input energy during SLM complies with a quadratic function and presents an inverted U-shaped distribution. By fitting density and input power to a quadratic polynomial, the optimal laser input energy during SLM of GH3536 alloy can be obtained. The result shows that using 275 W laser power and 960 mm/s scanning speed, the SLM GH3536 specimens can reach the maximum density. This experimental result is consistent with the simulation result obtained by analyzing molten pool dimension. Furthermore, a full process energy prediction diagram for SLM GH3536 alloy based on the simulated molten pool depth and width is proposed. The result shows that it provides an innovative and efficient method for the selection of processing parameters during SLM of GH3536 powder.
In this study, a thermal–elastic–plastic finite element model is proposed to investigate the effect of volume energy density on the temperature field, molten pool size, and residual stress distribution in the selective laser melting (SLM) process of Inconel 718 alloy. A temperature-dependent thermal–mechanical property of materials is considered, as well as the properties conversion between powder layer and solidified alloy. Within the scope of the study parameters, the simulated molten pool size increases with increasing volume energy density and exhibits linear growth relationship, which are validated by the experimental results and show a good agreement. In addition, five scanning strategies are adopted to study the effect of these scanning strategies on the residual stress distribution in this research. The results show that the residual stress distribution of SLM Inconel 718 specimen largely depends on the scanning strategy. Finally, to reveal the mechanism of residual stress formation, the restraint bar model is used to further analyze the formation mechanism of residual stress during the SLM process.
Cognitive impairment in late-life depression is common and associated with a higher risk of all-cause dementia. Late-life depression patients with comorbid cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or related risk factors may experience higher risks of cognitive deterioration in the short term. We aim to investigate the effect of CVDs and their related risk factors on the cognitive function of patients with late-life depression.
A total of 148 participants were recruited (67 individuals with late-life depression and 81 normal controls). The presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia was defined as the presence of comorbid CVDs or related risk factors. Global cognitive functions were assessed at baseline and after a one-year follow-up by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Global cognitive deterioration was defined by the reliable change index (RCI) of the MMSE.
Late-life depression patients with CVDs or related risk factors were associated with 6.8 times higher risk of global cognitive deterioration than those without any of these comorbidities at a one-year follow-up. This result remained robust after adjusting for age, gender, and changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores.
This study suggests that late-life depression patients with comorbid CVDs or their related risk factors showed a higher risk of cognitive deterioration in the short-term (one-year follow up). Given that CVDs and their related risk factors are currently modifiable, active treatment of these comorbidities may delay rapid cognitive deterioration in patients with late-life depression.
A priori attitude information can improve the success rate and reliability of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) multi-antennae attitude determination. However, a priori attitude information is nonlinear, and integrating a priori information into the objective function rigorously will increase the complexity of an ambiguity domain search, such as the Multivariate Constrained-Least-squares Ambiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (MC-LAMBDA) method. In this paper, a new method based on attitude domain search is presented to make use of the a priori attitude angle information with high efficiency. First, the a priori information of pitch and roll is integrated into the search process to derive the analytic search step for attitude angle, and the integer candidates are determined by traversal search in the three-dimensional attitude domain. Then, the objective function is parameterised with Euler angles, and a non-iterative approximate method is utilised to simplify the iterative computation in calculating objective function values. Experimental results reveal that compared to the MC-LAMBDA method, our new method has the same success rate and reliability, but higher efficiency in making use of a priori attitude information.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Theoretical investigations on ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with asymmetric electrodes and a composite barrier are presented. A large tunneling electroresistance effect exists for the Pt/SrTiO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 junction; on the other hand, exchange of the dielectric and ferroelectric layer stacking sequence can seriously degrade the performance. These correlations are rationalized by the proposed concept of an asymmetry factor, defined as the ratio between the average barrier heights of FTJs for two opposite polarization orientations. We show that a large asymmetry factor is beneficial to FTJs. This work may provide a way to enhance the performance of FTJs by structure engineering.
The microstructure and oxidation behavior at high temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1100 °C of equiatomic CrMoNbTaV high-entropy alloy produced by vacuum arc melting were investigated. The phase component, microstructure, and microhardness of the alloy were examined by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope, and Vickers hardness tests, respectively. The as-cast alloy consists of a single body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metal solid solution due to the high mixing entropy effect and exhibits a dendritic microstructure. The alloy has a very high microhardness value of 923 HV due to the strong solid solution strengthening effect. The average microhardness in interdendrites (950 HV) was higher than that in dendrites (896 HV) because of composition segregation. The oxidation kinetic curves of the alloy after exposure to air at 900 and 1000 °C follow the pseudo-parabolic rate law, while the mass gain increases first and then decreases at 1100 °C. The thickness of the oxide layer increases with the increasing of oxidation time. The long rod-shaped oxidation products are composed of Nb2O5, NbO2, CrTaO4, CrNbO4, Ta9VO25, Nb9VO25, and TaO after oxidation at 900 and 1000 °C for 25 h. The oxides of CrTaO4 and CrNbO4 disappear as the oxidation temperature elevated to 1100 °C.
One-dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure arrays show unique semiconducting, piezoelectric, and wetting properties, and how they interact with cells is critical for their biomedical applications. In this work, we prepare ZnO nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) and study their interactions with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes either as a substrate or patch. We find that ZnO NRAs can (1) inhibit cell adhesion and spreading as a substrate and (2) selectively kill underneath cells as a patch. We further identify surface nanomorphology as the dominant factor responsible for the inhibitory effect. These discoveries suggest potential application of ZnO NRAs as a cell inhibitory biointerface.
To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in Guangdong Province, South China, 1440 fecal samples were collected from 10 farms and screened for Cryptosporidium with PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 4.38% (63/1440), and the infection rates in preweaned calves, postweaned calves, heifers and adults were 6.4% (19/297), 6.19% (33/533), 1.48% (4/271) and 2.06% (7/339), respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 33), Cryptosporidium bovis (n = 22) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n = 8) were detected by DNA sequence analysis of the 63 positive samples, and C. andersoni was identified as the most common species on the dairy cattle farms. In preweaned calves, C. bovis was the most prevalent species (9/19, 47.4%). In contrast, C. andersoni was the predominant species (19/33, 57.6%) in postweaned calves and the only species found in heifers and adults. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was not detected in this study. Twenty-four C. andersoni isolates were successfully classified into three multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes. MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 was the predominant subtype, and MLST subtype A2,A5,A2,A1, previously found in sheep, was detected in cattle for the first time. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the C. andersoni isolates had a clonal genetic population structure. However, further molecular studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Guangdong.
Moral obligation, reciprocity, and affection contribute to the development of strong interpersonal relationships. An indigenous notion in Chinese culture, jiangyiqi, captures these three component principles of strong relationship development in one concept. Jiangyiqi has been held anecdotally as a common code of conduct for building strong, trustworthy relationships in China. We explore the possible integration of these three components of interpersonal relationships in Chinese society in our introduction of the construct of jiangyiqi, based upon Confucian ethics and the circles of relationships delineated in past literature on Chinese societies. Drawing from social exchange theory as well as the perspective of reciprocal altruism in evolutionary biology, we propose that jiangyiqi makes an individual a good candidate for developing strong non-kin relationships. We discuss the managerial implications of jiangyiqi for relationship building in a Chinese cultural context.
The influences of pressure and aging treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr alloys were studied. It was found that the nucleation rate, solid solubility of Nd and Zn in the α-Mg matrix, and dislocation density were increased with increasing applied pressure. After aging treatment, the amount of the Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with increasing pressure; β″ phase and β′ precipitates were observed in the RSC alloy and finer β′ precipitates formed in the permanent mold casting (PMC) alloy. The mechanical properties of as-cast alloys were initially increased and then decreased with increasing pressure, while the properties of T6-treated alloys were increased continuously. Due to the larger grain boundary strengthening contribution, the T6-treated RSC sample showed higher mechanical properties than the PMC sample, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation could reach 165 MPa, 309 MPa, and 5.7%, respectively.
Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide and in Asia. Sacubitril/valsartan reduces cardiovascular death and hospitalizations for HF. However, decision makers need to determine whether its benefits are worth the additional costs, given the low-cost generic status of current standard of care.
Using a Markov model, we projected lifetime clinical and economic outcomes of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril for 66-year-old patients with HF in Singapore. Key health states included New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes; patients in each state incurred a monthly risk of hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular death. Probabilities of events were based on the PARADIGM-HF trial. The uncertain treatment effect of sacubtril/valsartan in Asian patients was modelled using a hazard ratio (HR) of 1 as upper limit in sensitivity analyses. Utilities were obtained from published literature. Local national epidemiological and cost data were applied. Analyses were conducted from the Singapore healthcare payer's perspective. Both one-way and Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA) based on 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations were performed.
Compared to enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SGD74k (USD52k) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan was highly dependent on its effectiveness in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death. However, this was uncertain, particularly in the Asian subgroup, where results were not statistically significant. In sensitivity analyses using results from Asian patients, the ICERs ranged from SGD41k (USD30k) to SGD1.3 million (USD 0.94 million) per QALY gained. PSA showed the probability of sacubitril/valsartan being cost-effective was below 1 percent, 12 percent and 71 percent at thresholds of SGD20k (USD14k), SGD50k (USD36k) and SGD100k (USD 72k) per QALY gained, respectively.
Given the uncertain ICER, sacubtril/valsartan may not provide good value for money compared to enalapril in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with HF at the current daily cost. Our study highlights the cost-benefit trade-off that healthcare professionals and patients face when considering HF therapy.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The effect of mold temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr (NZ30K) alloy were investigated. The results indicated that the rise of mold temperature contributed to the increase of particle size and alloy density and the decrease of dislocation density. The rapid coarsening and then the normal growth of the particles during solution treatment were observed, and the long-rod-like Zn2Zr3 phase occurred. After age treatment, rod-like β′ precipitate was found in the conventional squeeze casting (CSC) alloy, while two types of precipitates including β′ phase and small plate-like β″ phase were observed in the RSC alloy. The amount of Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with rising mold temperature. Compared with the T6-treated CSC sample, the T6-treated RSC sample presented higher mechanical properties due to the larger precipitation strengthening contribution, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were up to 160 MPa, 296 MPa, and 7.7%.
The demand for accurate indoor positioning continues to grow but the predominant positioning technologies such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are not suitable for indoor environments due to multipath effects and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) conditions. This paper presents a new indoor positioning system using artificial encoded magnetic fields, which has good properties for NLOS conditions and fewer multipath effects. The encoded magnetic fields are generated by multiple beacons; each beacon periodically generates unique magnetic field sequences, which consist of a gold code sequence and a beacon location sequence. The position of an object can be determined with measurements from a tri-axial magnetometer using a three-step method: performing time synchronisation between sensor and beacons, identifying the beacon field and the beacon location, and estimating the position of the object. The results of the simulation and experiment show that the proposed system is capable of achieving Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional (3D) accuracy at sub-decimetre and decimetre levels, respectively.