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A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 year in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41-60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS) 2011-2013 and 2014-2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e., percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs, and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3-year follow-up [β(SE): 0.322 (0.157), 0.309 (0.142), and 0.303 (0.145), respectively; P < 0.05]. The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all P-trend < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The ‘Wuhan lockdown’ and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
Current understanding of turbulence modulation by solid particles is incomplete as making reliable predictions on the nature and level of modulation remains a challenging task. Multiple modulation mechanisms may be simultaneously induced by particles, but the lack of reliable methods to identify these mechanisms and quantify their effects hinders a complete understanding of turbulence modulation. In this work, we present a full analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation for a turbulent channel flow laden with a few fixed particles near the channel walls, in order to investigate how the wall generated turbulence interacts with the particles and how, as a result, the global turbulence statistics are modified. All terms in the budget equations of total and component-wise TKEs are explicitly computed using the data from direct numerical simulations. Particles are found to modify turbulence by two competing mechanisms: the reduction of the intrinsic turbulence production associated with a reduced mean shear due to the resistance imposed by solid particles (the first mechanism), and an additional TKE production mechanism by displacing incoming fluid (the second mechanism). The distribution of TKE in the wall-normal direction is also made more homogeneous due to the significantly enhanced pressure transport of TKE. Finally, the budget analysis of component-wise TKE reveals an enhanced inter-component TKE transfer due to the presence of particles, which leads to a more isotropic distribution of TKE among three velocity components.
The effects of flow topology on the subgrid-scale (SGS) kinetic energy flux in compressible isotropic turbulence is studied. The eight flow topological types based on the three invariants of the filtered velocity gradient tensor are analysed at different scales, along with their roles in the magnitude and direction of kinetic energy transfer. The unstable focus/compressing (UFC), unstable node/saddle/saddle (UN/S/S) and stable focus/stretching (SFS), are the three predominant topological types at all scales; they account for at least 75 % of the flow domain. The UN/S/S and SFS types make major contributions to the average SGS flux of the kinetic energy from large scales to small scales in the inertial range. The unstable focus/stretching (UFS) topology makes a contribution to the reverse SGS flux of kinetic energy from small scales to large scales. In strong compression regions, the average contribution of the stable node/saddle/saddle (SN/S/S) topology to the SGS kinetic energy flux is positive and is predominant over those of other flow topologies. In strong expansion regions, the UFS topology makes a major contribution to the reverse SGS flux of the kinetic energy. As the turbulent Mach number increases, the increase of volume fraction of the UFS topological regions leads to the increase of the SGS backscatter of kinetic energy. The SN/S/S topology makes a dominant contribution to the direct SGS flux of the compressible component of the kinetic energy, while the UFS topology makes a dominant contribution to the reverse SGS flux of the compressible component of the kinetic energy.
Mastitis, a major infectious disease in dairy cows, is characterized by an inflammatory response to pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. To better understand the immune and inflammatory response of the mammary gland, we stimulated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) with E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we identified 1019 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, fold change ≥2 and P-value < 0.05) and 340 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, fold change ≥1.3 and P-value < 0.05), of which 536 genes and 162 proteins were upregulated and 483 genes and 178 proteins were downregulated following exposure to LPS. These differentially expressed genes were associated with 172 biological processes; 15 Gene Ontology terms associated with response to stimulus, 4 associated with immune processes, and 3 associated with inflammatory processes. The DEPs were associated with 51 biological processes; 2 Gene Ontology terms associated with response to stimulus, 1 associated with immune processes, and 2 associated with inflammatory processes. Meanwhile, several pathways involved in mammary inflammation, such as Toll-like receptor, NF-κB, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were also represented. NLRP3 depletion significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1β and PTGS2 by blocking caspase-1 activity in LPS-induced BMECs. These results suggest that NLR signaling pathways works in coordination with TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways via NLRP3-inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in LPS-induced mastitis. The study highlights the function of NLRP3 in an inflammatory microenvironment, making NLRP3 a promising therapeutic target in Escherichia coli mastitis.
In this study, the behaviours of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence are investigated with direct numerical simulations when an isotropic turbulence is brought to interact with imposed rapid waves. A partition of the velocity field is used to decompose the SGS stress into three parts, namely, the turbulent part
, the wave-induced part
and the cross-interaction part
. Under strong wave straining,
is found to follow the Kolmogorov scaling
is the filter width. Based on the linear Airy wave theory,
and the filtered strain-rate tensor due to the wave motion,
, are found to have different phases, posing a difficulty in applying the usual eddy-viscosity model. On the other hand,
and the filtered strain-rate tensor due to the turbulent motion,
, are only weakly wave-phase-dependent and could be well related by an eddy-viscosity model. The linear wave theory is also used to describe the vertical distributions of SGS statistics driven by the wave-induced motion. The predictions are in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation results. The budget equation for the turbulent SGS kinetic energy shows that the transport terms related to turbulence are important near the free surface and they compensate the imbalance between the energy flux and the SGS energy dissipation.
Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ADSCs can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. At 30 days after ADSCs transplantation, injured endometrium was significantly improved, with increased microvessel density, endometrial thickness and glands when compared with the model group. Furthermore, the fertility of rats with injured endometrium in ADSCs group was improved and had a higher conception rate (60% vs 20%, P = 0.014) compared with the control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. However, there was no difference in the control group compared with the sham group. In addition, expression levels of the oestrogen receptor Eα/β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) detected by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were higher in the ADSCs group than in the PBS group. Taken together, these results suggested that ADSC transplantation could improve endometrial injury as a novel therapy for IUA.
Understanding the two-way interactions between finite-size solid particles and a wall-bounded turbulent flow is crucial in a variety of natural and engineering applications. Previous experimental measurements and particle-resolved direct numerical simulations revealed some interesting phenomena related to particle distribution and turbulence modulation, but their in-depth analyses are largely missing. In this study, turbulent channel flows laden with neutrally buoyant finite-size spherical particles are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method. Two particle sizes are considered, with diameters equal to 14.45 and 28.9 wall units. To understand the roles played by the particle rotation, two additional simulations with the same particle sizes but no particle rotation are also presented for comparison. Particles of both sizes are found to form clusters. Under the Stokes lubrication corrections, small particles are found to have a stronger preference to form clusters, and their clusters orientate more in the streamwise direction. As a result, small particles reduce the mean flow velocity less than large particles. Particles are also found to result in a more homogeneous distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the wall-normal direction, as well as a more isotropic distribution of TKE among different spatial directions. To understand these turbulence modulation phenomena, we analyse in detail the total and component-wise volume-averaged budget equations of TKE with the simulation data. This budget analysis reveals several mechanisms through which the particles modulate local and global TKE in the particle-laden turbulent channel flow.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Cascades of temperature and entropy fluctuations are studied by numerical simulations of stationary three-dimensional compressible turbulence with a heat source. The fluctuation spectra of velocity, compressible velocity component, density and pressure exhibit the
scaling in an inertial range. The strong acoustic equilibrium relation between spectra of the compressible velocity component and pressure is observed. The
scaling behaviour is also identified for the fluctuation spectra of temperature and entropy, with the Obukhov–Corrsin constants close to that of a passive scalar spectrum. It is shown by Kovasznay decomposition that the dynamics of the temperature field is dominated by the entropic mode. The average subgrid-scale (SGS) fluxes of temperature and entropy normalized by the total dissipation rates are close to 1 in the inertial range. The cascade of temperature is dominated by the compressible mode of the velocity field, indicating that the theory of a passive scalar in incompressible turbulence is not suitable to describe the inter-scale transfer of temperature in compressible turbulence. In contrast, the cascade of entropy is dominated by the solenoidal mode of the velocity field. The different behaviours of cascades of temperature and entropy are partly explained by the geometrical properties of SGS fluxes. Moreover, the different effects of local compressibility on the SGS fluxes of temperature and entropy are investigated by conditional averaging with respect to the filtered dilatation, demonstrating that the effect of compressibility on the cascade of temperature is much stronger than on the cascade of entropy.
Mine rescue teams bear a high risk of injury. To improve medical emergency preparedness and injury prevention, this work analyzed the causes and severity of mine rescue teams’ casualty incidents, the primary injuries, and the link between the causes and the occurrences of the casualty incidents.
A total of 81 cases from 1953 to 2013 were used to analyze the casualty incidents of mine rescue teams based on the frequency of accidents. A panel with 4 rescue experts was set up to ensure the accuracy of the analysis.
The 81 casualty incidents occurred in 7 types of rescue work and were due to 6 causes. Organizational and personal factors were the leading cause, followed by rescue skill and equipment factors. Problems with decision-making and command have gradually become the primary inducement of casualty incidents in recent years, with an average death toll reaching up to 6 to 7 people. The main injuries causing death to team members were blast injury, burns, poisoning, suffocation, blunt trauma, and overwork injury. Some of the injured died because of medical emergency response failure.
The construction of emergency medical teams and the preparedness of disaster medicine need to be improved to reduce the mortality of the injured team members. Actions according to the causes of casualty incidents should be adopted for injury prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:695–699)
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
A Rotational Inertial Navigation System (RINS) redundant configuration is commonly adopted in high-accuracy marine navigation. Single-axis RINS and dual-axis RINS redundant configurations are good choices with single-axis RINS being a hot backup system, and are trade-offs between position accuracy, reliability as well as cost. However, lack of information fusion between systems is common. Therefore, a novel navigation information fusion method based on an augmented error state Kalman filter is proposed for a RINS redundant configuration. The azimuth gyro drift of a single-axis RINS whose influence cannot be averaged out by single-axis rotation can be estimated, whereby the deterministic position error can be predicted and compensated. Hence, the position accuracy in the event of dual-axis RINS failure can be guaranteed by improving the performance of a single-axis RINS. In addition, an online performance evaluation method is proposed to select the better performance dual-axis RINS as master RINS in a triple RINS configuration, including two sets of dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, which is used in some particularly high reliability applications. Semi-physical simulations and experiments show the proposed method works well.
Structural distortions at the nanoscale are delicately linked with many exotic properties for ferroic thin films. Based on advanced aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observe BiFeO3 thin films with variant tensile strain states and demonstrate at an atomic scale the interplay of intrinsic spontaneous structural distortions with external constraints. Structural parameters (the rhombohedral distortion and domain wall shear distortion) under zero (BiFeO3/GdScO3) and 1.5% (BiFeO3/PrScO3) lateral strain states are quantitatively analyzed which are suppressed within a few unit cells near the film/substrate interfaces. In particular, an interfacial layer with asymmetrical lattice distortions (enhanced and reduced out-of-plane lattice spacing) on the two sides of 109° domain wall is resolved. These structural distortions near the film/substrate interface in ferroic thin films reveal intense tanglement of intrinsic distortions of BiFeO3 with external boundary conditions, which could provide new insights for the development of nanoscale ferroelectric devices.
The effect of nitrogen gas addition in Ar-based double-layer shielding gas on the impact toughness of welded ultra-ferritic stainless steel during an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. The nitrogen behavior was proposed. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture surface morphology of the weld metals have been evaluated. More equiaxed crystals, refined grain, narrow HAZ width, and increased microhardness were produced with nitrogen addition. Experimental findings indicated that nitrogen diffused into HAZ and dissolved into weld pool. The solute distribution was changed thus bringing significant constitutional supercooling and decreased temperature gradient of weld pool, which contributed to fine microstructure. Impact toughness at room temperature was enhanced from 2J to 9J (welds), 5J–13J (HAZ). Ductile fracture zone was produced about 0.3–0.5 mm thickness distance from the weld surface. A significant increased impact toughness of weld metal was due to the refinement of microstructure and element addition.
The lithium ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operated at slightly higher and safer potentials. In this critical review, metal oxides-based materials for lithium ion battery anodes are reviewed in detail together with the progress which is made in my lab on that topic. Their advantages, disadvantages, and performance in lithium ion batteries are discussed through extensive analysis of the literature, and new trends in materials development are also reviewed. Two important future research directions are proposed and performed in my lab, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured metal oxides to overcome the major challenge posed by the high capacity of metal oxide anodes.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.