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Understanding the two-way interactions between finite-size solid particles and a wall-bounded turbulent flow is crucial in a variety of natural and engineering applications. Previous experimental measurements and particle-resolved direct numerical simulations revealed some interesting phenomena related to particle distribution and turbulence modulation, but their in-depth analyses are largely missing. In this study, turbulent channel flows laden with neutrally buoyant finite-size spherical particles are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method. Two particle sizes are considered, with diameters equal to 14.45 and 28.9 wall units. To understand the roles played by the particle rotation, two additional simulations with the same particle sizes but no particle rotation are also presented for comparison. Particles of both sizes are found to form clusters. Under the Stokes lubrication corrections, small particles are found to have a stronger preference to form clusters, and their clusters orientate more in the streamwise direction. As a result, small particles reduce the mean flow velocity less than large particles. Particles are also found to result in a more homogeneous distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the wall-normal direction, as well as a more isotropic distribution of TKE among different spatial directions. To understand these turbulence modulation phenomena, we analyse in detail the total and component-wise volume-averaged budget equations of TKE with the simulation data. This budget analysis reveals several mechanisms through which the particles modulate local and global TKE in the particle-laden turbulent channel flow.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Cascades of temperature and entropy fluctuations are studied by numerical simulations of stationary three-dimensional compressible turbulence with a heat source. The fluctuation spectra of velocity, compressible velocity component, density and pressure exhibit the
scaling in an inertial range. The strong acoustic equilibrium relation between spectra of the compressible velocity component and pressure is observed. The
scaling behaviour is also identified for the fluctuation spectra of temperature and entropy, with the Obukhov–Corrsin constants close to that of a passive scalar spectrum. It is shown by Kovasznay decomposition that the dynamics of the temperature field is dominated by the entropic mode. The average subgrid-scale (SGS) fluxes of temperature and entropy normalized by the total dissipation rates are close to 1 in the inertial range. The cascade of temperature is dominated by the compressible mode of the velocity field, indicating that the theory of a passive scalar in incompressible turbulence is not suitable to describe the inter-scale transfer of temperature in compressible turbulence. In contrast, the cascade of entropy is dominated by the solenoidal mode of the velocity field. The different behaviours of cascades of temperature and entropy are partly explained by the geometrical properties of SGS fluxes. Moreover, the different effects of local compressibility on the SGS fluxes of temperature and entropy are investigated by conditional averaging with respect to the filtered dilatation, demonstrating that the effect of compressibility on the cascade of temperature is much stronger than on the cascade of entropy.
Mine rescue teams bear a high risk of injury. To improve medical emergency preparedness and injury prevention, this work analyzed the causes and severity of mine rescue teams’ casualty incidents, the primary injuries, and the link between the causes and the occurrences of the casualty incidents.
A total of 81 cases from 1953 to 2013 were used to analyze the casualty incidents of mine rescue teams based on the frequency of accidents. A panel with 4 rescue experts was set up to ensure the accuracy of the analysis.
The 81 casualty incidents occurred in 7 types of rescue work and were due to 6 causes. Organizational and personal factors were the leading cause, followed by rescue skill and equipment factors. Problems with decision-making and command have gradually become the primary inducement of casualty incidents in recent years, with an average death toll reaching up to 6 to 7 people. The main injuries causing death to team members were blast injury, burns, poisoning, suffocation, blunt trauma, and overwork injury. Some of the injured died because of medical emergency response failure.
The construction of emergency medical teams and the preparedness of disaster medicine need to be improved to reduce the mortality of the injured team members. Actions according to the causes of casualty incidents should be adopted for injury prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;page 1 of 5)
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
A Rotational Inertial Navigation System (RINS) redundant configuration is commonly adopted in high-accuracy marine navigation. Single-axis RINS and dual-axis RINS redundant configurations are good choices with single-axis RINS being a hot backup system, and are trade-offs between position accuracy, reliability as well as cost. However, lack of information fusion between systems is common. Therefore, a novel navigation information fusion method based on an augmented error state Kalman filter is proposed for a RINS redundant configuration. The azimuth gyro drift of a single-axis RINS whose influence cannot be averaged out by single-axis rotation can be estimated, whereby the deterministic position error can be predicted and compensated. Hence, the position accuracy in the event of dual-axis RINS failure can be guaranteed by improving the performance of a single-axis RINS. In addition, an online performance evaluation method is proposed to select the better performance dual-axis RINS as master RINS in a triple RINS configuration, including two sets of dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, which is used in some particularly high reliability applications. Semi-physical simulations and experiments show the proposed method works well.
Structural distortions at the nanoscale are delicately linked with many exotic properties for ferroic thin films. Based on advanced aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observe BiFeO3 thin films with variant tensile strain states and demonstrate at an atomic scale the interplay of intrinsic spontaneous structural distortions with external constraints. Structural parameters (the rhombohedral distortion and domain wall shear distortion) under zero (BiFeO3/GdScO3) and 1.5% (BiFeO3/PrScO3) lateral strain states are quantitatively analyzed which are suppressed within a few unit cells near the film/substrate interfaces. In particular, an interfacial layer with asymmetrical lattice distortions (enhanced and reduced out-of-plane lattice spacing) on the two sides of 109° domain wall is resolved. These structural distortions near the film/substrate interface in ferroic thin films reveal intense tanglement of intrinsic distortions of BiFeO3 with external boundary conditions, which could provide new insights for the development of nanoscale ferroelectric devices.
The effect of nitrogen gas addition in Ar-based double-layer shielding gas on the impact toughness of welded ultra-ferritic stainless steel during an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was investigated. The nitrogen behavior was proposed. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture surface morphology of the weld metals have been evaluated. More equiaxed crystals, refined grain, narrow HAZ width, and increased microhardness were produced with nitrogen addition. Experimental findings indicated that nitrogen diffused into HAZ and dissolved into weld pool. The solute distribution was changed thus bringing significant constitutional supercooling and decreased temperature gradient of weld pool, which contributed to fine microstructure. Impact toughness at room temperature was enhanced from 2J to 9J (welds), 5J–13J (HAZ). Ductile fracture zone was produced about 0.3–0.5 mm thickness distance from the weld surface. A significant increased impact toughness of weld metal was due to the refinement of microstructure and element addition.
The lithium ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operated at slightly higher and safer potentials. In this critical review, metal oxides-based materials for lithium ion battery anodes are reviewed in detail together with the progress which is made in my lab on that topic. Their advantages, disadvantages, and performance in lithium ion batteries are discussed through extensive analysis of the literature, and new trends in materials development are also reviewed. Two important future research directions are proposed and performed in my lab, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured metal oxides to overcome the major challenge posed by the high capacity of metal oxide anodes.
For modern management and full resource sharing among libraries and scientific departments both in Chinese and worldwide observatories, we established the computer system of library management and information retrieval during the period 1984-1987.
The system is composed of ten component sub-systems:
1.Book ordering system. This system can produce orders for books and periodicals, balance accounts, produce statistics as well as claims for outstanding book orders.
2.Book cataloguing system. This system can catalogue books under certain rules while appending new records of books to the databases. It can also produce catalogue cards and produce written reports about the new books.
3.Book retrieval system has the ability to search for a specific book in several ways.
4.Book lending or circulation system. This system is a complete circulation system; including book lending, renewals, waiting lists, and recall of borrowed books.
5.Periodical management system. This system is in charge of processing of periodicals and magazines in the library, including cataloguing, management, and lending.
6.Scientific information retrieval system. One can retrieve scientific information by keywords or in many other ways.
7.Internal material booking system. It can make orders of internal materials, claims for materials outstanding and make exchanges with other observatories and institutions both in or outside the country.
8.Internal material management system. It can do the work that is analogous to that done with books and periodicals.
9.Information relationship system. It handles exchanges of information between institutions. Computer system of library management ... at Shaanxl 183
10.Scientific information network management system. It manages affairs within a certain information network.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii is often used as a traditional medicine in China. In our recent work, we found that the ethanol crude extract of Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii could reduce phytotoxicity of acetochlor on rice. The crude extract of Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii was isolated and purified by activity-guided fractionation. Two coumarins, isopimpinellin and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) were identified, and their bioactivity was tested in a growth chamber. The results showed that the two coumarins increased herbicide tolerance of rice shoots, and 5-MOP demonstrated better protection than isopimpinellin. The treatment of 5-MOP at 50 g ai ha−1 recovered the shoot height of rice from 42.6% (treated with acetochlor only) to 81.6% of the control treated without acetochlor, whereas the phytocidal activity of acetochlor on barnyardgrass was not impaired by 5-MOP. Further study suggested that 5-MOP increases herbicide tolerance of rice by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase level of activity in rice. Our findings suggest that isopimpinellin and 5-MOP have the potential to be applied as safeners for rice.
The coordinate transformation offers a remarkable way to design cloaks that can steer electromagnetic fields so as to prevent waves from penetrating into the cloaked region (denoted by Ω0, where the objects inside are invisible to observers outside). The ideal circular and elliptic cylindrical cloaked regions are blown up from a point and a line segment, respectively so the transformed material parameters and the corresponding coefficients of the resulted equations are highly singular at the cloaking boundary ∂Ω0. The electric field or magnetic field is not continuous across ∂Ω0. The imposition of appropriate cloaking boundary conditions (CBCs) to achieve perfect concealment is a crucial but challenging issue.
Based upon the principle that a well-behaved electromagnetic field in the original space must be well-behaved in the transformed space as well, we obtain CBCs that intrinsically relate to the essential “pole” conditions of a singular transformation. We also find that for the elliptic cylindrical cloak, the CBCs should be imposed differently for the cosine-elliptic and sine-elliptic components of the decomposed fields. With these at our disposal, we can rigorously show that the governing equation in Ω0 can be decoupled from the exterior region , and the total fields in the cloaked region vanish under mild conditions. We emphasize that our proposal of CBCs is different from any existing ones.
Using the exact circular (resp., elliptic) Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) non-reflecting boundary conditions to reduce the unbounded domain to a bounded domain, we introduce an accurate and efficient Fourier-Legendre spectral-element method (FLSEM) (resp., Mathieu-Legendre spectral-element method (MLSEM)) to simulate the circular cylindrical cloak (resp., elliptic cylindrical cloak). We provide ample numerical results to demonstrate that the perfect concealment of waves can be achieved for the ideal circular/elliptic cylindrical cloaks under our proposed CBCs and accurate numerical solvers.
This paper proposes a model, the linear model, for randomly generating logic programs with low density of rules and investigates statistical properties of such random logic programs. It is mathematically shown that the average number of answer sets for a random program converges to a constant when the number of atoms approaches infinity. Several experimental results are also reported, which justify the suitability of the linear model. It is also experimentally shown that, under this model, the size distribution of answer sets for random programs tends to a normal distribution when the number of atoms is sufficiently large.
The protective effect of dietary carotenoid intake on the risk of breast cancer is inconclusive. Moreover, data on dietary carotenoids in relation to breast cancer in non-Western populations are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary carotenoid intake and the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 561 cases and 561 controls who were frequency matched by age (5-year interval) and residence were recruited in the present case–control study. Dietary intake information was collected by a face-to-face interview using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariate logistic regression after adjusting for various potential confounders. An inverse association was observed between the consumption of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk of breast cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0·61 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·88) for α-carotene, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·38, 0·78) for β-carotene, 0·38 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·52) for β-cryptoxanthin and 0·49 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·71) for lutein/zeaxanthin. Lycopene intake was not found to be associated with the risk of breast cancer, with the adjusted OR of 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30). These inverse associations were more evident among pre-menopausal women and women who were exposed to second-hand smoke. The protective effect of specific carotenoid intake was observed for all subtypes of hormone receptor status of breast cancer. The present study indicated that a greater intake of specific carotenoids was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women residing in Guangdong.
Ketoacids (KA) are known to improve muscle mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on a low-protein diet (CKD-LPD), but the mechanism of its preventive effects on muscle atrophy still remains unclear. Since muscle atrophy in CKD may be attributable to the down-regulation of the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and the activation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and the apoptotic signalling pathway, a hypothesis can readily be drawn that KA supplementation improves muscle mass by up-regulating the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and counteracting the activation of the UPS and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Rats with 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % KA for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats with NPD intake were used as the control. The results demonstrated that KA supplementation improved protein synthesis and increased related mediators such as Wnt7a, phosphorylated Akt and p70S6K in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. It also inhibited protein degradation, withheld the increase in ubiquitin and its ligases MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger-1) as well as attenuated proteasome activity in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Moreover, KA supplementation gave rise to a reduction in DNA fragment, cleaved caspase-3 and 14 kDa actin fragment via the down-regulation of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. The beneficial effects unveiled herein further consolidate that KA may be a better therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy in CKD-LPD.
Round spermatid injection (ROSI) into mammalian oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. One current limitation to this technique is the identification of suitable round spermatids. In the current paper, round spermatids were selected from testicular cells with phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and ROSI was performed in two strains of mice. The rates of fertilization, embryonic development and offspring achieved were the same in all strains. Significantly, round spermatids selected by PCM and FACS were effectively used to rescue the infertile Pten-null mouse. The current results indicate that FACS selection of round spermatids can not only provide high-purity and viable round spermatids for use in ROSI, but also has no harmful effects on the developmental capacity of subsequently fertilized embryos. It was concluded that round spermatids selected by FACS are useful for mouse strain rederivation and rescue of infertile males; ROSI should be considered as a powerful addition to the armamentarium of assisted reproduction techniques applicable in the mouse.