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In “Risky choice framing: Task versions and a comparison of prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory”, Kühberger and Tanner (2010) examined the impacts of removing stated zero/non-zero complements of risky options on the gain/loss framing effect. They also tested two rival theoretical explanations for this effect: prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory. The present study aimed to examine the reliability and robustness of the evidence provided by Kühberger and Tanner by precise replication in Study 1. The original findings were reported for conditions in which the probability of the risky option was fixed, and the expected value of the two alternatives was approximately equivalent. The present study also aimed to examine the generality of their findings under additional conditions in which large, medium and small probabilities of the risky option were assigned, and the expected value of the certain or risky options differed. The main findings of Kühberger and Tanner (2010) were successfully replicated and confirmed under the original and additional conditions. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Thrombocytopenia occasionally occurs following the closure of some giant patent ductus arteriosus cases. Unfortunately, there is no associated research describing the associated risk factors for thrombocytopenia post-procedure.
We reviewed all patients who received occluders with sizes ≥10/12 mm between January 2013 and June 2019. All the data and information on the characteristics of the patients and their follow-up were recorded. Univariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves, and linear regression were used to analyse the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and the predictors of hospitalisation stay.
Finally, 32 patients (17.5%) suffered from thrombocytopenia. Univariate analysis revealed the ratio between occluder disc size (mm) and body weight (kg) (1.71 ± 0.51 versus 1.35 ± 0.53) as an independent predictive factor for thrombocytopenia, and the area under the curve of the ratio of occluder size and body weight for predicting thrombocytopenia post-closure was 0.691 (95% confidence interval: 0.589–0.792, p = 0.001). The best cut-off value for the ratio of occluder size and weight was 1.5895, with a sensitivity and specificity of 68.8 and 66.9%, respectively. Each unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight predicted an average hospitalisation stay of 2.856 days (95% confidence interval: 1.380–4.332). Treatment with medication did not reduce the hospitalisation stay or benefit platelet restoration.
Once the ratio of occluder size and body weight is greater than 1.6, thrombocytopenia always exists. Every unit of the ratio of occluder size and body weight represents an additional 3 days of hospitalisation. Treatment does not reduce the duration of hospitalisation.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Population decline among Asian horseshoe crabs in Asia is increasingly reported, but knowledge of their population and ecological status in China is limited. We conducted community interviews in 30 fishing villages around Beibu Gulf in Guangxi, China, to collect distribution information about the potential spawning/nursery grounds of Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, and any imminent threats to their populations. Based on the results from 400 respondents we identified 45 potential spawning/nursery grounds distributed widely along the shores of Beibu Gulf. We visited 10 of these sites and verified the presence of juvenile horseshoe crabs by field surveys. Nearly all respondents reported an overall depletion in horseshoe crab populations from these 45 sites, which they attributed mainly to unsustainable fishing practices. Respondents who reported having seen horseshoe crab mating pairs on shores were mostly older people, which may suggest a considerable reduction in horseshoe crabs coming to the shores to spawn in recent years. The mean daily harvest of adult T. tridentatus offshore, as indicated by fishers, has declined from c. 50–1,000 in the 1990s to 0–30 individuals during 2011–2016. Our Wisdom of Crowds approach, supported by confirmatory field surveys, is a cost-effective method for assessing the population status of horseshoe crabs, and the level of threat they face. Similar approaches with other species are likely to be particularly valuable in the Asia–Pacific region, where well-structured population monitoring is largely unaffordable.
In this paper, we study the following Kirchhoff-type equation:
where a, b are positive constants and N = 1, 2, 3. Under appropriate assumptions on V, K and g, we obtain a ground-state solution by using the approach developed by Szulkin and Weth in 2010.
Mechanical regulator-free bicycle robots have lighter weight and fewer actuators than the traditional regulator-based bicycle robots. In order to deal with the difficulty of maintaining balance for this kind of bicycle robot, we consider a front-wheel drive and mechanical regulator-free bicycle robot. We present the methodologies for realizing the robot's ultra-low-speed track-stand motion, moderate-speed circular motion and high-speed rectilinear motion. A simplified dynamics of the robot is developed using three independent velocities. From the dynamics, we suggest there may be an underactuated rolling angle in the system. Our balancing strategies are inspired by human riders' experience, and our control rules are based on the bicycle system's underactuated dynamics. In the case of track-stand and circular motion, we linearize the frame's rolling angle and configure the robot to maintain balance by the front-wheel's motion with a fixed front-bar turning angle. In the case of the rectilinear motion, we linearize both front-bar steering angle and front-wheel rotating angle, and configure the system to maintain balance by the front-bar's turning with a constant front-wheel rotating rate. Numerical simulations and physical experiments are given together to validate the effectiveness of our control strategies in realizing the robot's proposed three motions.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell walls (YCW) from the yeast extract industry on performance and immune function of cyclosporine A (CSA)-treated, immunosuppressed broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old male broilers were allocated randomly into four treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) non-challenged control+0·3 % YCW; (3) CSA-challenged group; (4) CSA-challenged+0·3 % YCW. On days 1–4 and 22–25 of age, broilers were subcutaneously injected with CSA or sterile saline. The results showed that supplementation of YCW significantly improved daily weight gain (DWG) during the starter (days 1–21, P < 0·01), finisher (days 22–42, P < 0·01) and overall (days 1–42, P < 0·05) periods compared with the control birds, but had no effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR, P>0·05). Compared with the CSA-treated birds, YCW alleviated the decrease of DWG (P < 0·01) and increase of FCR (P < 0·05) caused by CSA challenge at different periods and cumulatively. On days 21 and 42, YCW mitigated the CSA-induced decrease of peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenic response (P < 0·01). In addition, YCW improved the relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius (P < 0·01) and thymus (P < 0·01) and up-regulated the splenic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β (P < 0·01) and IL-6 (P < 0·01) on day 42 compared with the CSA-treated birds. These results indicate that YCW supplementation has beneficial effects in attenuating the immunosuppressive effects of CSA challenge, therefore improving growth performance of broiler chickens.
Anatase nitrogen and fluoride codoped TiO2 sol (N–F–TiO2) catalysts were fabricated by a modified sol-gel hydrothermal method, using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor. The microstructure and morphology of sol sample were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (UV-VIS-DRS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. It was shown that N–F–TiO2 particles in sol were partly crystallized to anatase structure and dispersed in the aqueous medium homogeneously. The average particle size was ∼12.0 nm calculated from XRD patterns, and the particle size distribution was narrow. It was noteworthy that the N–F-codoped TiO2 sol particles showed strong visible-light response and high photocatalytic activity for formaldehyde degradation under irradiation by visible light (400–500 nm); we suggested that it may result from the generation of additional band of N 2p in the forbidden band and the synergetic effect of codoping nitrogen and fluorine.
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