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Clozapine is the least likely anti-psychotic to induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). We present a surprising case of a woman schizophrenic patient treated with clozapine suffering from EPS. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed a low density of presynaptic dopamine transporters in our patient's brain. A comorbid diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in schizophrenia was confirmed in this way. This helped us to find a proper therapeutic strategy for our patient.
We have performed the finite element simulations to study the binding reaction kinetics of the analyte-ligand protein pairs, C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-CRP, in a reaction chamber of a biosensor. For diffusion limited reactions, diffusion boundary layers often develop on the reaction surface, thus hindering the reaction. To enhance the efficiency of a biosensor, a non-uniform AC electric field is applied to induce the electrothermal force which stirs the flow field. Biosensors with different arrangements of the electrode pairs and the reaction surface are designed to study the effects of geometric configurations on the binding efficiency. The maximum initial slope of the binding curve can be 6.94 times of the field-free value in the association phase, under an AC field of 15 rms and an operating frequency of 100 kHz. With the electrothermal effect, it is possible to use a slower flow and save much sample consumption without sacrificing the performance of a biosensor. Several design factors not studied in our previous works such as the thermal boundary conditions are discussed.
Extended abstract of a paper presented at the Pre-Meeting Congress: Materials Research in an Aberration-Free Environment, at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004 in Savannah, Georgia, USA, July 31 and August 1, 2004.
With the availability of resolution boosting and delocalization
minimizing techniques, for example, spherical aberration correction and
exit-plane wave function reconstruction, high-resolution transmission
electron microscopy is drawing to a breakthrough with respect to the
atomic-scale imaging of common semiconductor materials. In the present
study, we apply a combination of these two state-of-the-art techniques
to investigate lattice defects in GaAs-based heterostructures at atomic
resolution. Focusing on the direct imaging of stacking faults as well
as the core structure of edge and partial dislocations, the practical
capabilities of both techniques are illustrated. For the first time, we
apply the technique of bright-atom contrast imaging at negative
spherical aberration together with an appropriate overfocus setting for
the investigation of lattice defects in a semiconductor material. For
these purposes, the elastic displacements associated with lattice
defects in GaAs viewed along the  zone axis
are measured from experimental images using reciprocal space strain map
algorithms. Moreover, we demonstrate the benefits of the retrieval of the
exit-plane wave function not only for the elimination of residual
imaging artefacts but also for the proper on-line alignment of
specimens during operation of the electron microscope—a basic
prerequisite to obtain a fair agreement between simulated images and
La clozapina es el antipsicótico con menos probabilidad de inducir síntomas extrapiramidales (SEP). Presentamos un caso sorprendente de una paciente esquizofrénica tratada con clozapina que sufrió SEP. La tomografía computarizada por emisión de fotón simple (SPECT) reveló una densidad baja de transportadores de dopamina presinápticos en el cerebro de nuestra paciente. De esta manera, se confirmó un diagnóstic comórbido de enfermedad de Parkinson en la esquizofrenia. Esto nos ayudó a encontrar una estrategia terapéutica apropiada para nuestra paciente.