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The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
A total of 45 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from 10 different places in India where they were associated with cases of cholera between the years 2007 and 2008 were examined by molecular methods. With the help of phenotypic and genotypic tests the strains were confirmed to be O1 El Tor biotype strains with classical ctxB gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by double – mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR showed 16 of these strains carried the ctxB-7 allele reported in Haitian strains. Sequencing of the ctxB gene in all the 45 strains revealed that in 16 strains the histidine at the 20th amino acid position had been replaced by asparagine and this single nucleotide polymorphism did not affect cholera toxin production as revealed by beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study shows that the new ctxB gene sequence was circulating in different places in India. Seven representatives of these 45 strains analysed by pulsed – field gel electrophoresis showed four distinct Not I digested profiles showing that multiple clones were causing cholera in 2007 and 2008.
No existing models of alcohol prevention concurrently adopt universal and selective approaches. This study aims to evaluate the first combined universal and selective approach to alcohol prevention.
A total of 26 Australian schools with 2190 students (mean age: 13.3 years) were randomized to receive: universal prevention (Climate Schools); selective prevention (Preventure); combined prevention (Climate Schools and Preventure; CAP); or health education as usual (control). Primary outcomes were alcohol use, binge drinking and alcohol-related harms at 6, 12 and 24 months.
Climate, Preventure and CAP students demonstrated significantly lower growth in their likelihood to drink and binge drink, relative to controls over 24 months. Preventure students displayed significantly lower growth in their likelihood to experience alcohol harms, relative to controls. While adolescents in both the CAP and Climate groups demonstrated slower growth in drinking compared with adolescents in the control group over the 2-year study period, CAP adolescents demonstrated faster growth in drinking compared with Climate adolescents.
Findings support universal, selective and combined approaches to alcohol prevention. Particularly novel are the findings of no advantage of the combined approach over universal or selective prevention alone.
Most empirical studies into the covariance structure of psychopathology have been confined to adults. This work is not developmentally informed as the meaning, age-of-onset, persistence and expression of disorders differ across the lifespan. This study investigates the underlying structure of adolescent psychopathology and associations between the psychopathological dimensions and sex and personality risk profiles for substance misuse and mental health problems.
This study analyzed data from 2175 adolescents aged 13.3 years. Five dimensional models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and the external validity was examined using a multiple-indicators multiple-causes model.
A modified bifactor model, with three correlated specific factors (internalizing, externalizing, thought disorder) and one general psychopathology factor, provided the best fit to the data. Females reported higher mean levels of internalizing, and males reported higher mean levels of externalizing. No significant sex differences emerged in liability to thought disorder or general psychopathology. Liability to internalizing, externalizing, thought disorder and general psychopathology was characterized by a number of differences in personality profiles.
This study is the first to identify a bifactor model including a specific thought disorder factor. The findings highlight the utility of transdiagnostic treatment approaches and the importance of restructuring psychopathology in an empirically based manner.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Chemically deposited thin film stack of SnSe-ZnSe-Cu2-xSe was heated in nitrogen with Se vapor at 350-400 oC to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films. For this, a thin film of SnSe with 180 nm thickness was deposited at 26 °C from a chemical bath containing tin(II) chloride, triethanolamine, sodium hydroxide, sodium selenosulfate, and a small quantity of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Thin films of ZnSe and Cu2-xSe were subsequently deposited on this SnSe film, also from chemical bath. The CZTSe thin film produced this way shows X-ray diffraction pattern matching that of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (kesterite/stannite) and have a Zn-rich composition. The film has an optical band gap of 0.9-1.0 eV and p-type electrical conductivity, 0.2-0.06 Ω-1 cm-1.
The thyroid gland is removed en bloc during laryngectomy. There are no objective criteria for deciding the extent of thyroid gland resection in primary hypopharyngeal cancer cases. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and identify the various predictors of this involvement.
This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 358 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, who underwent total laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai between 2004 and 2010.
The mean age of this population was 61 years. The pyriform sinus was the most common hypopharyngeal subsite involved (in 89 per cent of cases). Most patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy as part of their surgery. The thyroid gland was involved in only 13 per cent of cases.
Thyroid gland involvement is not common in hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases that involved the post-cricoid area, subglottic extension, extralaryngeal spread or prior tracheostomy were associated with a higher risk of thyroid gland involvement. Ipsilateral thyroidectomy is sufficient in most patients undergoing surgery (laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy) for hypopharyngeal cancers.
To develop a psychometrically valid questionnaire for testing knowledge on micronutrients and to assess the relationship between knowledge and biomarkers of micronutrient status among adolescents.
Cross-sectional, institution-based, validity and reliability study.
Seven higher secondary schools were covered in the limits of Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Hyderabad, India.
Students aged 15–19 years, n 92 for the pre-test, n 108 for test–retest and n 109 for studying the relationship between knowledge and biomarkers of Fe, retinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, folic acid and vitamin B12 status.
From an item pool of 106, thirty-one items were selected based on content validity. Statistical tools to obtain a valid and reliable questionnaire among adolescent boys and girls resulted in eighteen items with a difficulty index of 0·11–0·86, discrimination index of 0·20–0·72 and validity index (point bi-serial correlation) of 0·10–0·62. Reliability as measured by Cronbach's α was 0·71 and the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0·80. A Bland–Altman plot showed good agreement between test and retest scores. The mean response score to the eighteen-item questionnaire was 5·2 (sd 2·68). The mean values of serum retinol were significantly different (P = 0·022) between groups below (24·8 (sd 6·64) μg/dl) and above (28·0 (sd 7·67) μg/dl) the 50th percentile of knowledge score. The relationship persisted after controlling for economic status as a covariate using analysis of covariance (P = 0·018). Other micronutrients did not show any significant relationship.
A valid and reliable eighteen-item knowledge questionnaire was constructed and found to have a significant positive relationship with plasma retinol status alone.
New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 have appeared in different time-frames in various endemic regions, especially in Asia and Africa. Sixty-nine strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in Zambia between 1996 and 2004 were investigated by various genotypic techniques to determine the lineage of virulence signatures and clonality. All strains were positive for Vibrio seventh pandemic Islands (VSP)-I and VSP-II and repeat toxin (RTX) gene clusters attesting their El Tor lineage. Interestingly, strains isolated in recent times (2003–2004) were identified as an altered variant (El Tor biotype that harbours El Tor type rstR but produce classical ctxB) that replaced completely the progenitor El Tor strains prevalent in 1996–1997. Recent altered variant strains differed from prototype El Tor strains isolated earlier in that these strains lacked two ORFs, VC0493 and VC0498, in the VSP-II region. PFGE analysis revealed two major clonal lineages in the strains; cluster A represented the strains isolated before 2003 and cluster B the altered strains isolated in 2003–2004. Cluster A was closely related to prototype El Tor reference strain isolated in Bangladesh in 1971. Cluster B was found to be matched with Bangladeshi altered strains but was different from the hybrid strains isolated from Mozambique and Bangladesh. This report provides important information on the genesis of altered strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in Zambia and emphasizes the need for further studies to follow the trends of evolutionary changes.
We use SnS and Sb2S3 thin films of about 500 nm in thickness deposited on glass substrates by chemical deposition to develop solar cell structures: glass-SnO2:F/CdS/SnS/CuS/silver paint and SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2(S/Se)3/PbS/silver paint. Here, SnS and Sb2S3, and PbS are absorber materials suitable for large scale production, considering their abundance at 0.2 ppm (Sb) and 2 ppm (Sn) and 8ppm (pb) in the earth's crust according to published data. SnS films deposited through distinct reaction routes have optical band gap of 1.1 eV or 1.7 eV. In SnO2:F/CdS/SnS(1.1eV)/SnS(1.7 eV)/CuS/silver paint, open circuit voltage (Voc) of ≈ 400 mV, and short circuit current (Jsc)of 7 mA/cm2 are obtained with a cell efficiency of 1%. Sb2S3 thin films have optical band gap 1.7 eV, but could be reduced through reaction in Se-vapor, upon which solid solutions of Sb2(S/Se)3 are formed. In SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2(S/Se)3/PbS/silver paint, Voc of ≈ 640 mV, Jsc of 7 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 1.5% are obtained.
The paper discusses the results of a study on the formation of indium oxide
nanoclusters in silica samples implanted with high energy indium ions. Trace
quantities of indium oxide were found on as-implanted samples. On annealing
in vacuum/oxygen atmosphere significant increase in the quantity of indium
oxide phase was observed. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of
indium oxide and is mainly attributed to the reaction of metallic indium
with the oxygen released from the silica matrix by ballistic process. During
annealing in oxygen atmosphere the oxygen diffusing into the silica also
plays a role in the oxidation of indium NCs.
Previously we reported on a theoretical treatment of the influence on freezing rate of sudden changes in translation rate in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique . This has now been extended to consideration of a linear ramped translation rate and an oscillatory freezing rate. Oscillations above a few hertz are found to be highly damped in smalldiameter apparatus.
An experimental test was made of the theoretical predictions for a sudden change of translation rate. MnBi-Bi eutectic was solidified with current induced interface demarcation.The experimental results correspond reasonably well with theory if the silica ampoule wall is assumed either (1) to contribute only a resistance to heat exchange of sample with the furnace wall, or (2) to transmit heat effectively in the axial direction by radiation.
In an attempt to explain the fact that a finer microstructure is obtained in space, MnBi-Bi microstructure is being determined when the freezing rate is rapidly increased or decreased. Preliminary results indicate that fiber branching does not occur as readily as does fiber termination.
A method to produce large area indium antimonide thin films through a reaction, Sb2S3 + 2 In → 2 InSb + 3 S↑ is presented. A thin film of Sb2S3 with typically 0.2 μm thickness is produced on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 10°C using thiosulfatoantimonate(III) complex. Subsequently, a thin film of indium is deposited on the Sb2S3 film by thermal evaporation. Annealing the thin film stack of Sb2S3-In at 300°C in a nitrogen atmosphere produces the InSb thin film. The formation of this film is confirmed by x-ray diffraction studies. We would discuss the optimization of the individual film thickness in the Sb2S3-In stack to produce a thin film of single phase InSb or a heterostructure, Sb2S3-InSb. The electrical and optical properties of the films are presented.
Chemical bath deposition is a thin film technique in which semiconductor thin films of typically 0.02 – 1 μm thickness are deposited on substrates immersed in dilute baths containing metal ions and a source of sulfide or selenide ions. Many I–VI, II–VI, IV–VI, and V–VI semiconductors are included in the list of materials deposited by this technique, II–VI compounds CdS, CdSe, ZnS and ZnSe being the most investigated. However, a mathematical model describing the growth mechanism of these films still remains to be established. The deposition process consists of a nucleation phase, growth phase, and a terminal phase, each of which depends on the concentration of the ions in the deposition bath, its temperature, dissociation constants of the metal complex ions, etc. In this paper we propose a mathematical model, which can qualitatively account for most of the features of the experimental growth curves of chemically deposited semiconductor films.
Ge nanocrystals (NCs) of diameter 4–13 nm are grown embedded in a thermally grown SiO2 layer by Ge ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies are performed on these embedded Ge nanocrystals to understand the origin of the PL emission at room temperature. Steady state PL spectra show a broad peak consisting of a peak at ∼2.1 eV originating from Ge NCs and another peak at ∼2.3 eV arising from ion-beam induced defects in the Ge/SiO2 interface. Time-resolved PL studies reveal double exponential decay dynamics of the PL emission on the nanoseconds time scale. The faster component of the decay with large amplitude and having a time constant τ1∼3.1 ns is attributed to the nonradiative lifetime, since the time constant reduces with increasing defect density. The slower component with time constant τ2∼10 ns is attributed to radiative recombination at the Ge NCs. These results are in close agreement with the theoretically predicted radiative lifetime for small Ge NCs.
Chemical bath deposition of thin films of antimony selenide from aqueous solutions containing complexes of antimony with citrate, tartrate and thiosulfate as ligands and sodium selenosulfate as source of selenide is reported. The films obtained appear amorphous in the as-prepared form and become crystalline upon annealing at 300°C. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the annealed films show peaks attributable to Sb2Se3 and Sb2O3. Electron microprobe analyses have shown that the atomic ratio of Se/Sb is less than 1.5 in these films. The films are photoconductive and exhibit a high resistivity in the dark. Both direct (1.4 eV) and indirect (1.3-1.5 eV) band gaps are observed for the films.
Selenium thin films (350 nm) deposited from a 0.01 M solution of Na2SeSO3 of pH 4.5 maintained at 10 °C for 13 h, have been used as a source of selenium vapour for reaction with vacuum deposited Ag thin film on chemically deposited Sb2S3+Ag layers. When a stack of Sb2S3+Ag is heated in contact with Se film, AgSbSe2 is formed through solid state reaction of Sb2S3 and Ag2Se. The latter is formed at 80°C through the reaction of Ag-film in Se-vapour. This thin film is photoconductive and p-type. The optical band gap is nearly 1 eV and dark conductivity, 10-3 Ω-1cm-1. This thin film has been incorporated to form a photovoltaic structure, SnO2:F-(n)CdS:In-(i)Sb2S3-(p)AgSbSe2-silver print. Voc> 400 mV and Jsc>12 mA/cm2 have been observed in this under an illumination intensity of 1 kWm-2.