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Hot carrier based methods constitute a valuable approach for efficient and silicon compatible sub-bandgap photodetection. Although, hot electron excitation and transfer have been studied extensively on traditional materials such as Au and Ti, reports on alternative materials such as titanium nitride (TiN) are rare. Here, we perform hot hole photodetection measurements on a p-Si/metal thin film junction using Ti, Au and TiN. This material is of interest as it constitutes a refractory alternative to Au which is an important property for plasmonic applications where high field intensities can occur. In contrast to Au, a TiN/Si junction does not suffer from metal diffusion into the Si, which eases the integration with current Si-fabrication techniques. This work shows that a backside illuminated p-Si/TiN system can be used for efficient hot hole extraction in the IR, allowing for a responsivity of 1 mA/W at an excitation wavelength of 1250 nm and at zero bias. Via a comparison between TiN and other commonly used materials such as Au, the origin of this comparably high photoresponse can be traced back to be directly linked to a thin TiO2-x interfacial layer allowing for a distinct hot-hole transfer mechanism. Moreover, the fabrication of TiN nanodisk arrays is demonstrated which bears great promise to further boost the device efficiency.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
The use of statistical/machine learning (ML) approaches to materials science is experiencing explosive growth. Here, we review recent work focusing on the generation and application of libraries from both experiment and theoretical tools. The library data enables classical correlative ML and also opens the pathway for exploration of underlying causative physical behaviors. We highlight key advances facilitated by this approach and illustrate how modeling, macroscopic experiments, and imaging can be combined to accelerate the understanding and development of new materials systems. These developments point toward a data-driven future wherein knowledge can be aggregated and synthesized, accelerating the advancement of materials science.
Some studies found that providing micronutrient powder (MNP) causes adverse health outcomes, but modifying factors are unknown. We aimed to investigate whether Fe status and inherited Hb disorders (IHbD) modify the impact of MNP on growth and diarrhoea among young Lao children. In a double-blind controlled trial, 1704 children of age 6–23 months were randomised to daily MNP (with 6 mg Fe plus fourteen micronutrients) or placebo for about 36 weeks. IHbD, and baseline and final Hb, Fe status and anthropometrics were assessed. Caregivers provided weekly morbidity reports. At enrolment, 55·6 % were anaemic; only 39·3 % had no sign of clinically significant IHbD. MNP had no overall impact on growth and longitudinal diarrhoea prevalence. Baseline Hb modified the effect of MNP on length-for-age (LAZ) (P for interaction = 0·082). Among children who were initially non-anaemic, the final mean LAZ in the MNP group was slightly lower (–1·93 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·97)) v. placebo (–1·88 (95 % CI –1·83, –1·92)), and the opposite occurred among initially anaemic children (final mean LAZ –1·90 (95 % CI –1·86, –1·94) in MNP v. –1·92 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·96) in placebo). IHbD modified the effect on diarrhoea prevalence (P = 0·095). Among children with IHbD, the MNP group had higher diarrhoea prevalence (1·37 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·59) v. 1·21 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·41)), while it was lower among children without IHbD who received MNP (1·15 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·39) v. 1·37 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·64)). In conclusion, there was a small adverse effect of MNP on growth among non-anaemic children and on diarrhoea prevalence among children with IHbD.
Seneca was a hypocrite. Varro was a liar. Conquered by pride, Porphyry denied truths that he understood well. Th e classical philosophers disseminated lies and deceived ordinary citizens, largely out of cowardice, but also in order to create a specious civic unity and to further projects of imperial domination. It was for these reasons, among others, that Augustine lambasted their writings in the first ten books of The City of God. Augustine's denunciations of lying in works such as Against Lying and On Lying are well known; at the end of his career, in his Retractationes (2.26, 2.86), Augustine again reinforced his repudiation of lying. In The City of God, he explained the wider human context that made sense of these ideas. His chief point was that lies, deception, and falsehood significantly detract from human happiness: “Nor will the soul be truly happy, no matter how long its happiness may last, if, in order to be happy, it must be deceived” (10.31). The implication is that human beings are unlikely ever to be happy, because of our inclination to resist the clear truth (10.31). Ignoring the truth is an inescapable human tendency because of our fallen condition.
It is this tendency that alone explains why those who think clearly, like Augustine, must expound and clarify their ideas at such length and, of course, honestly (2.1), and in a spirit of openness and candor (5.26). Out of care for his fellow human beings (e.g., 1.9, 5.19), Augustine devoted the ground-clearing part of The City of God, books 1 through 10, to laying bare the deceptions of pagan statesmen and philosophers, to criticizing those deceptions as the work of demons, and to exposing the role of deception in furthering projects of self-destructive pride. In short, through emphasizing honesty and truthfulness, Augustine sought to subvert the entire classical Greek and Roman order founded on “civil religion,” falsehoods, and deceit. That is why he began his long work by shining a light on the pervasiveness of such practices at Rome: “Away, then, with concealments and deceitful whitewashings! Let these things be examined openly” (3.14). We cannot help sympathizing with his attachment to investigating the truth and to speaking openly about it.
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine tolerance of blueberry to saflufenacil. Greenhouse studies included five saflufenacil rates (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g ai ha−1) and three southern highbush blueberry cultivars (‘Legacy’, ‘New Hanover’, and ‘O’Neal’) and one rabbiteye blueberry cultivar (‘Columbus’). Saflufenacil treatments were soil applied into each pot when blueberry plants were approximately 30-cm tall. Visible injury (purpling/reddening of foliage and leaf abscission) ranged from 3% to 12%, 3% to 42%, 0% to 43%, and 0% to 29% with saflufenacil from 50 to 400 g ha−1 in Columbus, Legacy, New Hanover, and O’Neal, respectively, at 28 d after treatment. Regardless of injury, plant growth (change in height), soil plant analysis development, and whole-plant dry biomass of all cultivars did not differ among saflufenacil rates. Field studies were conducted in Burgaw, NC, to determine the tolerance of nonbearing (<3-yr-old and not mature enough to produce fruit) and bearing (>3-yr-old and mature enough to produce fruit) southern highbush blueberry (‘Duke’) to saflufenacil application at pre-budbreak or during the vegetative growth stage. Treatments included three rates of saflufenacil (50, 100, and 200 g ha−1), glyphosate (870 g ae ha−1), glufosinate (1096 g ai ha−1), glyphosate (870 g ha−1) + saflufenacil (50 g ha−1), glufosinate (1096 g ha−1) + saflufenacil (50 g ha−1), and hexazinone (1,120 g ai ha−1), applied POST-directed to the soil surface beneath blueberry plants in a 76-cm band on both sides of the blueberry planting row. The maximum injury from treatments containing saflufenacil was ≤11% in both nonbearing and bearing blueberry. No negative effects on plant growth or fruit yield were observed from any treatments. Results from both greenhouse and field studies suggest that saflufenacil applied at 50 (1X commercial use rate) and 100 g ha−1 is safe to use in blueberry.
Objective: To summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Methods: We systematically searched bibliographic databases and relevant websites for parallel and crossover RCTs reporting efficacy and/or safety of vitamins and/or minerals for migraine prophylaxis. Our primary outcomes were migraine frequency (number of attacks) and duration (hours). Secondary outcomes were severity (intensity), days with migraine, and adverse events. Meta-analysis was conducted when analyzable data were available from at least two trials. Results: Eighteen placebo-controlled trials met our eligibility criteria. Only coenzyme Q10 and magnesium contributed to meta-analyses. In adults, compared with placebo, coenzyme Q10 did not significantly decrease migraine frequency (mean difference (MD) −0.44 (−2.14 to 1.26); I2 53%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), duration (MD −1.97 (−4.82 to 0.87); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants; moderate strength of the evidence), or severity (ratio of means (RoM) −0.05 (−0.20 to 0.11); I2 0%; 2 trials; 97 participants). In adults, compared with placebo, magnesium did not significantly decrease migraine severity (RoM −0.17 (−0.36 to 0.02); I2 48%; 3 trials; 226 participants; low strength of the evidence). Meta-analysis of other vitamins and minerals, and other outcomes were not feasible due to a lack of sufficiently reported data. Conclusions: Based on insufficient evidence, it is unknown if coenzyme Q10 and magnesium are effective for migraine prophylaxis in adults. High-quality, adequately powered RCTs are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamins and minerals for migraine prophylaxis.
The family physician is key to facilitating access to psychiatric treatment for young people with first-episode psychosis, and this involvement can reduce aversive events in pathways to care. Those who seek help from primary care tend to have longer intervals to psychiatric care, and some people receive ongoing psychiatric treatment from the family physician.
Our objective is to understand the role of the family physician in help-seeking, recognition and ongoing management of first-episode psychosis.
We will use a mixed-methods approach, incorporating health administrative data, electronic medical records (EMRs) and qualitative methodologies to study the role of the family physician at three points on the pathway to care. First, help-seeking: we will use health administrative data to examine access to a family physician and patterns of primary care use preceding the first diagnosis of psychosis; second, recognition: we will identify first-onset cases of psychosis in health administrative data, and look back at linked EMRs from primary care to define a risk profile for undetected cases; and third, management: we will examine service provision to identified patients through EMR data, including patterns of contacts, prescriptions and referrals to specialised care. We will then conduct qualitative interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders to better understand the trends observed in the quantitative data.
These findings will provide an in-depth description of first-episode psychosis in primary care, informing strategies to build linkages between family physicians and psychiatric services to improve transitions of care during the crucial early stages of psychosis.
Excavations at several locations in Verteba Cave have uncovered a large amount of human skeletal remains in association with faunal bones and Tripolye material culture. We aim to establish radiocarbon (14C) dates for eight sites and to evaluate whether these deposits are singular events, or slow accumulations over time. 14C measurements, along with stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from human and faunal remains, were collected from 18 specimens. Stable isotope values were used to evaluate human and animal diet, and whether freshwater reservoir effects offset measured dates. We found diets of the sampled species had limited to no influence from freshwater resources. Human diet appears to be dominated by terrestrial plants and herbivores. Four new sites were identified as Eneolithic. Comparisons of dates from top and bottom strata for two sites (7 and 20) reveal coeval dates, and we suggest that these deposits represent discrete events rather than slow continuous use. Lastly, we identified dates from the Mesolithic (8490±45 BP, 8765±30 BP), Iron Age (2505±20 BP), Slavic state era (1315±25 BP), and Medieval Period (585±15 BP), demonstrating periodic use of the cave by humans prior to and after the Eneolithic.
Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new active ingredient that represents an additional tool in rice (Oryza sativa L.) weed control by providing an alternative mechanism of action. Studies were conducted to evaluate soil moisture influences on florpyrauxifen-benzyl absorption, translocation, and metabolism in three problematic weeds. In the absorption/translocation study, barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], hemp sesbania [Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh], and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) were treated with [14C]florpyrauxifen-benzyl under two soil moisture regimes (7.5% and 60% field capacity). Greater absorption occurred under moist conditions (60% soil moisture content). More translocation of the herbicide to the area above the treated leaf occurred under moist versus dry soil across all weed species. Sesbania herbacea translocated 25% of the absorbed herbicide above the treated leaf, a result greater than that of the other two weed species at 60% soil moisture. However, no differences in translocation occurred among the weed species at the 7.5% soil moisture regime. In the metabolism study, 95% of the herbicide recovered was in its acid form under the high soil moisture regime for S. herbacea, a species that shows extreme sensitivity to even low doses of this herbicide, and soil moisture influenced the amount of acid form found in all species. While these data provide a limited view into the physiological processes being affected, they do suggest that for E. crus-galli, S. herbacea, and C. esculentus, soil moisture content in the field will likely play a significant role in absorption, translocation, and metabolism of florpyrauxifen-benzyl.
Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new synthetic auxin herbicide that will provide a novel site of action in rice production. In many areas of the United States it is common practice to plant soybeans in rotation with rice, thereby introducing the potential for herbicide carryover. Multiple field experiments were conducted in 2014 and repeated in 2015 to evaluate potential plant-back restrictions for soybean and other row crops following an application of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. In the first experiment, treatments comprised florpyrauxifen-benzyl applied at 40 followed by 40 g ai ha–1, 80 fb 80 g ai ha–1, and a nontreated check. In 2014, herbicides were applied to a silt loam soil near Stuttgart and Colt, AR, and fields remained fallow following application. The following year, corn, cotton, soybean, grain sorghum, and sunflower were planted within the previously treated area. Stand counts, crop heights, and visual injury assessments were done for each crop following planting, and aboveground biomass data were collected 28 d after planting. No significant differences were observed among the treatments for any of the parameters assessed, highlighting the rotational flexibility of common row crops 1 yr following a florpyrauxifen-benzyl application. In the second experiment, florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 and 60 g ai ha–1 at 56, 28, 14, and 0 d before planting soybean. Injury assessments corresponded to the highest concentration of florpyrauxifen-benzyl and its metabolites recovered from soil at the time of planting. Conversely, soybean injury was reduced when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at increasing intervals before planting. At the end of each season, soybean yield was similar to the nontreated control when florpyrauxifen-benzyl at 30 or 60 g ai ha–1 was applied 56 d before planting, whereas all other treatments reduced yield. These results support a relatively short replant interval for soybean after florpyrauxifen-benzyl application to rice.
In a greenhouse experiment, soybean, cotton, corn, grain sorghum, and sunflower were subjected to 1/10 (3 g ai ha-1), 1/100 (0.3 g ai ha-1), or 1/500 (0.06 g ai ha-1) of the 1X rate of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Visible injury 14 days after treatment (DAT) was the greatest with soybean (96%) when exposed to the highest drift rate of 1/10x or 3 g ai/ha-1 of florpyrauxifen-benzyl and was significantly higher than all other crops and drift rates. Cotton and sunflower were also injured 85 and 83%, respectively, by the 1/10x rate but had less injury when a 1/100x or 1/500x rate was applied (injury ranging from 9 to 33%). It was concluded that the negative effects on soybean, cotton, and sunflower primarily resulted from exposure to the highest rate tested (1/10x) and only soybean expressed negative effects even at the lower rate of 1/100x. A field study was also conducted to (1) evaluate the sensitivity of soybean to low concentrations of florpyrauxifen-benzyl during vegetative and reproductive development and (2) compare soybean injury and yield following applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl and dicamba across various growth stages and concentrations. Soybean plants were treated with 1/10, 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320, or 1/640 of the 1X rate of florpyrauxifen-benzyl (30 g ai/ ha-1) or dicamba (560 g ae ha-1) at the V3 and R1 growth stage. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl applied at a rate of 1/10 to 1/40X caused foliar injury and subsequent height reduction. In comparison, dicamba applied at the same rates caused slightly less injury and growth reductions. As rate of florpyrauxifen-benzyl decreased from 1/10 to 1/640X, the level of soybean injury dissipated rather quickly. However, this was not the case with dicamba, as substantial injury was observed with rates as low as 1/640X.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.