To investigate the relationship between paleoenvironmental changes and marine reservoir effects, the radiocarbon ages of marine bioclasts and terrestrial plants from the same horizons of a sediment core in the Holocene Epoch were measured. This core, with a length of approximately 9 m, was obtained from the southern part of the Miyazaki Plain southeast of Kyushu Island, which faces the Kuroshio warm current. This drilling site is located in an uplift area associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Based on analyses of lithology, molluscan and foraminifera assemblages, and radiocarbon dating, we interpreted four sedimentary units in order of age: tidal flat, inner bay, Kikai-Akahoya volcanic ash, and delta plain. These paleoenvironmental changes were mainly associated with the sea-level rise during the deglacial period. The reservoir ages of nine pairs from the tidal flat to inner bay facies were found to be from the time span of 7300–8200 cal BP. The chronological changes in the reservoir effect are correlated with those seen in Holocene sediments of the other coastal area in East Asia.