To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Decision-makers need readily accessible tools to understand the potential impacts of alternative policies on forest cover and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to develop effective policies to meet national and international targets for biodiversity conservation, sustainable development and climate change mitigation. Land change modelling can support policy decisions by demonstrating potential impacts of policies on future deforestation and GHG emissions. We modelled land change to explore the potential impacts of expert-informed scenarios on deforestation and GHG emissions, specifically CO2 emissions, in the Ankeniheny–Zahamena Corridor in eastern Madagascar. We considered four scenarios: business as usual; effective conservation of protected areas; investment in infrastructure; and agricultural intensification. Our results highlight that effective forest conservation could deliver substantial emissions reductions, while infrastructure development will likely cause forest loss in new areas. Agricultural intensification could prevent additional forest loss if it reduced the need to clear more land while improving food security. Our study demonstrates how available land change modelling tools and scenario analyses can inform land-use policies, helping countries reconcile economic development with forest conservation and climate change mitigation commitments.
Primary hyperhidrosis has no discernible cause and is characterised by uncontrollable excessive and unpredictable sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature. The symptoms of hyperhidrosis can significantly affect quality of life, and can lead to social embarrassment, loneliness, anxiety and depression.
The aim of this literature review was to identify the tools used to measure quality of life in studies of hyperhidrosis. Patient advisors provided insight and their perspective.
Studies were identified through searches undertaken in January 2016. The search strategies combined topic terms for hyperhidrosis with a recognised search filter for “quality of life”. All studies that reported measuring quality of life or described a quality of life measure/tool in the context of primary hyperhidrosis were included. The information on the tools and their use in hyperhidrosis was summarized in a narrative synthesis. Patient advisors contributed to the interpretation of the findings.
Hyperhidrosis is characterized by uncontrollable excessive sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature. Symptoms can significantly affect quality of life. There is substantial variation in the secondary care treatment of hyperhidrosis and uncertainty regarding optimal patient management. The objective of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) was to review the evidence and establish the expected value of undertaking additional research into effective interventions for the management of primary hyperhidrosis in secondary care. Capturing the perspectives of patients and clinicians treating hyperhidrosis was an important part of the research.
The assessment included a systematic review and economic model, including value of information analysis. Patients, dermatologists, a vascular surgeon and a specialist nurse (who set up the UK Hyperhidrosis Support Group) provided advice at various stages, including at an end-of-project workshop, to help interpret results and prioritize research recommendations.
Patients and clinicians considered the key findings of the systematic review and economic analyses to be appropriate. Advisors advocated a trial of botulinum toxin injections (plus anaesthetic) versus iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis. Patients preferred the HydroQoL® tool over other commonly used quality of life tools in hyperhidrosis research.
Hyperhidrosis is characterized by uncontrollable excessive sweating, which occurs at rest, regardless of temperature, and can significantly affect quality of life. There is substantial variation in the availability of treatments in secondary care and uncertainty regarding optimal patient management. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the clinical effectiveness of treatments prescribed by dermatologists (iontophoresis, anticholinergic medications, botulinum toxin injections) and minor surgical treatments (curettage and newer energy based technologies) for primary hyperhidrosis and identify areas for further research.
Fifteen databases and trial registers were searched to July 2016. Pairwise meta-analyses were conducted for comparisons between botulinum toxin injections and placebo for axillary hyperhidrosis. For other treatments data were synthesised narratively due to limited and heterogeneous data.
Fifty studies were included in the review; thirty-two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), seventeen non-RCTs and one case series. There was substantial variation between the studies in terms of country of origin (indicating climate and population differences), interventions and methods of outcome assessment. Most studies were small, at high risk of bias and poorly reported. There was moderate quality evidence of a large statistically significant effect of botulinum toxin injections on axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms in the short to medium term (up to 16 weeks), compared with placebo. There was weak but consistent evidence for iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis. Evidence for other interventions was low or very low quality. Combining the evidence and patient advisor input, we established that further research on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections (with anesthesia) versus iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis would be useful.
The evidence for the effectiveness and safety of treatments for primary hyperhidrosis is limited overall and few firm conclusions can be drawn. However, there is moderate quality evidence to support the use of botulinum toxin injections for axillary hyperhidrosis. A trial comparing botulinum toxin injections with iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis is warranted.
Increasing numbers of research papers about information retrieval for Health Technology Assessments (HTA), systematic reviews and other evidence syntheses are being published. It is time-consuming for information specialists to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. To help searchers with this challenge, the Interest Group on Information Retrieval (IRG) of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has compiled the best available research evidence on information retrieval aspects into an open-access web resource: Summarized Research in Information Retrieval for HTA (SuRe Info). The resource can be accessed at http://www.sure-info.org
The Sure Info team run topic-specific search strategies in selected relevant databases to identify information retrieval methods publications that fulfil the SuRe Info inclusion criteria. Eligible publications receive a structured abstract containing a brief critical appraisal. Key messages for search practice based on the appraisals and accepted best practice are summarized into topic-specific chapters.
SuRe Info currently offers fourteen chapters, with more in development. SuRe Info chapters fall into two categories: (i) chapters about general search methods that are used across all types of research, such as how to develop search strategies and the availability and use of search filters, and (ii) chapters summarizing the methods to use when searching for specific aspects of HTA (as defined in the European Network for HTA (EUnetHTA) HTA Core Model®), including searching for evidence on clinical effectiveness and safety, and identifying economic evaluations. References at the end of each chapter are linked to appraisals of publications that have been used to develop each chapter. Links to the full-text of the publications are provided when freely available. The SuRe Info chapters are reviewed every six months and updated if new evidence is identified or if resources change.
SuRe Info is a unique resource, identifying and summarizing current best research evidence on information retrieval aspects for HTA. It supports the timely uptake of potential efficiencies arising from new evidence that may be incorporated into the evidence identification processes of HTA organizations.
Information specialists and others searching for Health Technology Assessments (HTAs) can use the ISSG Search Filter resource (SFR) to identify filters to incorporate into search strategies. This can save time and effort when designing searches and create more efficient searches that retrieve fewer and possibly more relevant database records (link available here: https://sites.google.com/a/york.ac.uk/issg-search-filters-resource/home).
What are search filters? Search filters are collections of search terms designed to retrieve selections of records from bibliographic databases. Some filters are designed to retrieve records of specific study designs such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or systematic reviews; others aim to retrieve records relating to other features or topics such as the age or gender of study participants.
Search filters may be designed to be sensitive, precise or balanced between sensitivity and precision.
When would you use a search filter in HTA? Search filters can be added to search strategies to limit to specific study types, for example, RCTs, mixed methods studies, systematic reviews. They can also be used when searching for other aspects of HTA such as patient views or specific age groups.
The ISSG SFR includes sections listing search filters to help identify adverse effects, aetiology, economic evaluations, health state utility values, public views, and quality of life.
How are filters used? A search filter is often used in combination with a topic search to restrict the search results to a specific type of record, for example, records reporting health state utility values or records of randomized controlled trials.
Further guidance on the use of search filters can be found in the SuRe Info Search Filters chapter.
Until recently, Aboriginal people have been subjected to mainly top-down development, which has proven damaging to communities. Mia Mia Aboriginal Community Development offers an alternative to such approaches, promoting cultural security in order to empower Aboriginal people to strengthen their own communities. The authors take a multidisciplinary approach to the topics of Aboriginal community development, Aboriginal history, cultural security and community studies. This book includes chapters examining historical and contemporary Aboriginal conceptions of community development, and the effects of post-structuralism, post-modernism, globalisation and digital technology. As well as comprehensive analysis of community development in Aboriginal communities, it presents practical strategies and tools for improvement. Each chapter includes practical case studies and review exercises, encouraging active learning and reflection. A valuable resource for tertiary education students, this book features contributions from some of Australia's most eminent Aboriginal scholars, Elders and Aboriginal community members alongside contributions from community development practitioners.
Research indicates that healthful eating and physical activity (PA) practices implemented in child-care settings can have a positive effect on children’s healthful behaviours in this setting, and this effect on healthful behaviours may possibly transfer to the home environment. While more research is needed to examine whether behaviours learned in family child-care homes (FCCH) transfer, the potential for transferability is especially important given that Latino children’s home environment has been characterized by obesogenic parenting practices. We aimed to examine Latino parents’ perceptions of their pre-school children’s eating and PA experiences at home and at FCCH.
Qualitative study. Six focus groups were conducted in Spanish (n 36). Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis to identify key concepts and themes.
Analyses revealed that Latino parents perceive their children have healthier eating and PA experiences at FCCH than at home. Parents attributed this to FCCH providers providing an environment conducive to healthful eating and PA due to providers having more knowledge and skills, time and resources, and being required to follow rules and regulations set by the state that promote healthful eating and PA.
Understanding parental perceptions, attitudes and practices related to establishing and maintaining an environment conducive to children’s healthful eating and PA at home and at the FCCH is essential for the design of successful interventions to promote children’s healthful behaviours in these two settings. Given that parents perceive their children as having more healthful behaviours while at FCCH, interventions that address both settings jointly may be most effective than those addressing only one environment by itself.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the unification of Germany in 1990 allowed East Germans to finally travel freely to western countries. This new freedom to travel to the West not only impacted the worldview of many former GDR citizens, but also found its way into the writings of East German authors throughout the 1990s and into the present. In her study on contemporary German literature around the turn of the twenty-first century, the literary critic Christine Cosentino examines several tendencies by which contemporary German authors deal with America in their texts. One tendency she describes is “die Reise in die USA als Topos für die Suche nach Identität, die den politischen Hintergrund weitgehend ausspart” (the journey to the USA as a symbol for the search for identity, which largely leaves out the political background). This tendency—finding one's identity by traveling to America—is noticeable in literature by East German authors from the 1990s, one of whom is Angela Krauß. In many of her works, particularly in her novels Die Überfliegerin (1995) and Milliarden neuer Sterne (1999), travel to America is a catalyst for the narrator experiencing her own identity in relation to past experiences, specifically her life in East German society. The exploration of the new world manifests itself in these texts as a discovery of the narrator's inner self.
Sophie von La Roche's America novel, Erscheinungen am See Oneida (Phenomena at Lake Oneida, 1798), centers on a French aristocratic couple from Flanders who go to live on a remote island in upstate New York. Carl and Emilie von Wattines have fled to the United States from the French revolutionary Terror, in which several of their relatives lost their lives. On advice from a Quaker friend in Philadelphia, they find their way to an island in Oneida Lake. There they live without contact with other Europeans for four years, producing two children and making a modest life for themselves, before moving to a new town founded by Dutch and German settlers on the lakeshore. A narrator traveling in the region pieces their story together from what he learns from them and their friends. At the crux of the tale is how the Wattineses, Crusoe-like, manage to survive in their isolation.
Three factors play a role. First, in spite of being aristocrats, they possess a bourgeois ethic, demonstrating qualities like modesty, hard work, and resourcefulness that help them to thrive. Second, they have brought a whole library of reference books with them, including the entire Encyclopédie and Buffon's Histoire naturelle, to which they frequently refer for how-to information. Finally and most interestingly, Emilie Wattines decides to reach out and make contact with the local indigenous people, the Oneidas, when she is about to give birth.
In recent years, the works by the German-Jewish poet Gertrud Kolmar (1894–1943) have found renewed interest among scholars. Raised in the upper middle class of Berlin and fully acculturated in the German cultural heritage, Gertrud Kolmar was persecuted, under the pressure of the National Socialist regime, because of her Jewish roots. Unlike many of her contemporaries, she chose to remain in Nazi Berlin and continued to write until her death in Auschwitz in 1943. Even though her published work spanned the innovative period between 1917 and 1937, Kolmar's poetic oeuvre from the years 1927 to 1937 has received the most attention. Though neglected by scholars, Kolmar's earlier work is fascinating precisely because it gives prescient insight into her poetic adaptations of questions concerning place, power, and gender at the end of the First World War.
My essay investigates an early poem in Kolmar's work: “Die Aztekin” (The Aztec Woman), written around 1920 and published in Früher Zyklus I. In memoriam 1918. Kolmar's “Aztekin” illustrates a testing ground for colonial fantasies and gendered mappings in its imaginary space of a poetic “Aztec empire.” The poem responds not only to preestablished writings on gendered conquests in the New World but also, more specifically, rewrites them in the perceived context of an imperial apocalypse in and after 1918, between megalomaniacal power struggles and the collapse of the Wilhelmine empire.