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Literary fiction is a powerful cultural tool for criticizing governments and for imagining how better governance and better states would work. Combining political theory with strong readings of a vast range of novels, John Marx shows that fiction over the long twentieth century has often envisioned good government not in Utopian but in pragmatic terms. Early-twentieth-century novels by Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster and Rabindrananth Tagore helped forecast world government after European imperialism. Twenty-first-century novelists such as Monica Ali, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Michael Ondaatje and Amitav Ghosh have inherited that legacy and continue to criticize existing policies in order to formulate best practices on a global scale. Marx shows how literature can make an important contribution to political and social sciences by creating a space to imagine and experiment with social organization.
Echocardiography is critical in the assessment of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Fundamental techniques and standardised approaches are useful when evaluating patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome prenatally, after birth, and before the Norwood operation (Stage 1); after the Norwood operation, before and after the superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Stage 2); before and after the Fontan operation (Stage 3); and for chronic surveillance after the Fontan operation. From foetal assessment to ongoing surveillance after the Fontan procedure, echocardiography remains the primary technique for cardiac monitoring in this growing population of children and adults.
This book contends that British modernism imagined the world as an array of discrete yet interconnected localities. It argues that modernist writing abjured the Victorian fantasy of a planet divided into core and periphery, home and colony in favour of the new dream of a decentred network of places and peoples described, analyzed, and managed by a cosmopolitan cast of English-speaking experts. Far from representing the last gasp of a nation on the wane, a ‘structure of compensation’ for a culture tortured by a sense of its ‘belatedness’, modernism joined hands with an interdisciplinary archive of scholarship and commentary to imagine a world of which England was no longer the centre but in which English language and literature were essential components of an abstract or virtual differential system that spanned the globe. To substantiate this claim, I concentrate on the infamous narratives of decline that characterize early twentieth-century fiction. I read these tales not only for the myriad ways they argued that England no longer occupied the core of an ever-expanding empire, but also for how they revised the very distinctions between British nation and English culture on which empire-building depended. I observe that such stories elevated English while devaluing Great Britain. In the process, they helped authorize immigrants and colonial subjects to write fiction in English that privileged marginality for a cosmopolitan readership.
They are the same words that the Bourgeois reads every morning – the very same! But then … if he finds them again in one of my poems he no longer understands them! That's because they have been rewritten by a poet.
Attributed to Stéphane Mallarmé
What has driven [me] into the bush … is the usual thing … I have moved outside … Outside I am freer.
Modernists write from the margins. No less an authority than T. S. Eliot decreed that every writer ‘should, to some extent, be able to look upon, and mix with, all classes as an outsider’ (‘Place’ 244). Eliot offered this prescription in the 1940s, and it has since become so habitual in criticism that one may scarcely discover any modernist occupying other than what Michael Levenson calls an ‘ambiguous position’ vis-à-vis English culture, literature, and history (Modernism 79). The most English of novelists appear to be like an ‘exile from his own culture’, while the period as a whole is incontrovertibly ‘dominated … by foreigners and expatriates’, as Terry Eagleton puts it in his 1970 work Exiles (191, 9). This axiom long ago became a global cliché. ‘We have learnt from Europe that a writer or artist lives on the fringe of society’, Chinua Achebe wrote in 1965, ‘wearing a beard and peculiar dress and generally behaving in a strange, unpredictable way’ (40–1).