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Surveys of λ21-cm absorption in the Magellanic System show that the cool phase of the HI is less abundant in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and may be so also in the LMC. The typical cool cloud temperature is colder than in the Milky Way, 30 to 40 K rather than 60 to 75 K. The lower abundance of cool phase HI can be traced to the lower heavy element abundances in the Magellanic environment. The cooler cloud temperatures are somewhat mysterious.
Literary fiction is a powerful cultural tool for criticizing governments and for imagining how better governance and better states would work. Combining political theory with strong readings of a vast range of novels, John Marx shows that fiction over the long twentieth century has often envisioned good government not in Utopian but in pragmatic terms. Early-twentieth-century novels by Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster and Rabindrananth Tagore helped forecast world government after European imperialism. Twenty-first-century novelists such as Monica Ali, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Michael Ondaatje and Amitav Ghosh have inherited that legacy and continue to criticize existing policies in order to formulate best practices on a global scale. Marx shows how literature can make an important contribution to political and social sciences by creating a space to imagine and experiment with social organization.
Echocardiography is critical in the assessment of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Fundamental techniques and standardised approaches are useful when evaluating patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome prenatally, after birth, and before the Norwood operation (Stage 1); after the Norwood operation, before and after the superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Stage 2); before and after the Fontan operation (Stage 3); and for chronic surveillance after the Fontan operation. From foetal assessment to ongoing surveillance after the Fontan procedure, echocardiography remains the primary technique for cardiac monitoring in this growing population of children and adults.
Before modernist writers could convince readers that their literary efforts featured techniques for reorganizing the world, they had to create a clear sense of the disorder that required such management. They had to portray for their readership the ‘immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history’, as T. S. Eliot described it (Selected Prose 177). To this end, they produced what is often called a crisis of colonial understanding. By depicting the dark underside of colonization, and by explaining what happens to European consciousness in the colonies, certain authors made their expertise seem necessary to literate Europeans. For example, I have argued that Joseph Conrad linked Europe's troubles to the sentimentalization of colonial adventure. Narratives such as ‘Heart of Darkness’ demonstrated both the peril and the possibility inherent in ‘intimacy [that] grows quickly out there’ by depicting new arrangements between Europeans and their colonial subjects (158).
Conrad's fiction is famously ambivalent about the sentimentality it encourages. Sympathy helps Marlow to become Kurtz's confidant and to describe a complex attachment to his dead helmsman, but belief in sentimental decorum also keeps him from dispelling the Intended's faith in her fiancé's ‘generous mind’ and ‘noble heart’ (160). Ambivalence about sentimentality is not restricted to modernist men. One can observe it in To the Lighthouse, where the sentimental object par excellence is supposedly displaced by a ‘triangular purple shape’, the figure that marks the place of the absent Mrs Ramsay in Lily Briscoe's painting.
Squatting with towel in hand on the crumbling veranda. Excellent setting for a novel. But what about the plot?
Bronislaw Malinowski, Diary 211
Modernism's outsider status could not keep it from influencing thought in a wide range of disciplines. Fictions including ‘Heart of Darkness’ and Lady Chatterley's Lover long have served as points of reference in debate on topics ranging from the politics of empire to the history of sexuality. According to many early twentieth-century writers, exile from the mainstream was precisely what made literature of lasting impact possible. ‘The advantages incident to this removal are many’, Wyndham Lewis commented in 1927. ‘ … being in solitary schism, with no obligations at the moment towards party or individual colleague, I can resume my opinion of the society I have just left, and its characteristics which else might remain without serious unpartisan criticism’ (23–4). Scholars have often reiterated this appraisal. Edward Said, for instance, contends that the detachment maintained by Joseph Conrad facilitated both the form and content of his novels: ‘Never the wholly incorporated and fully acculturated Englishman, Conrad therefore preserved an ironic distance in each of his works’ (Culture and Imperialism 25). Remaining aloof from English culture enabled terse questioning of British imperialism, while Conrad's legendary irony permitted ‘readers to imagine something other than an Africa carved up into dozens of European colonies, even if, for his own part, he had little notion of what that Africa might be’ (Culture and Imperialism 26).