To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Consumption of probiotics and/or yogurt could be a solution for restoring the balance of the gut microbiota. This study examined associations of regular intake of probiotic supplements or yogurt with the gut microbiota among a diverse population of older adults (N=1,861; 60–72 years). Faecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 region). General linear models were used to estimate the associations of probiotic supplement or yogurt intake with microbiome measures adjusting for covariates. Compared to non-yogurt consumers (N=1,023), regular yogurt consumers (≥once/week, N=818) had greater Streptococcus (β=0.29, P=0.0003) and lower Odoribacter (β=−0.33, P<0.0001) abundance. The directions of the above associations were consistent across the five ethnic groups but stronger among Japanese Americans (Streptococcus: β=0.56, P=0.0009; Odoribacter: β=−0.62, P=0.0005). Regular intake of probiotic supplements (N=175) was not associated with microbial characteristics (i.e., alpha diversity and the abundance of 152 bacteria genera). Streptococcus is one of the predominant bacteria genera in yogurt products, which may explain the positive association between yogurt consumption and Streptococcus abundance. Our analyses suggest that changes in Odoribacter were independent of changes in Streptococcus abundance. Future studies may investigate whether these microbial genera and their sub-level species mediate potential pathways between yogurt consumption and health.
As past usual diet quality may affect gut microbiome (GM) composition, we examined the association of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 assessed 21 and 9 years before stool collection with measures of fecal microbial composition in a subset of the Multiethnic Cohort. A total of 5936 participants completed a validated quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) at cohort entry (Q1, 1993–1996), 5280 at follow-up (Q3, 2003–2008) and 1685 also at a second follow-up (Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), 2013–2016). All participants provided a stool sample in 2013–2016. Fecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 regions). HEI-2015 scores were computed based on each QFFQ. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we calculated associations of HEI-2015 scores with gut microbial diversity and 152 individual genera. The mean HEI-2015 scores increased from Q1 (67 (sd 10)) to Q3 (71 (sd 11)) and APS (72 (sd 10)). Alpha diversity assessed by the Shannon Index was significantly higher with increasing tertiles of HEI-2015. Of the 152 bacterial genera tested, seven (Anaerostipes, Coprococcus_2, Eubacterium eligens, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae_ND3007, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 and Ruminococcus_1) were positively and five (Collinsella, Parabacteroides, Ruminiclostridium_5, Ruminococcus gnavus and Tyzzerella) were inversely associated with HEI-2015 assessed in Q1, Q3 and APS. The estimates of change per unit of the HEI-2015 score associated with the abundance of these twelve genera were consistent across the three questionnaires. The quality of past diet, assessed as far as ∼20 years before stool collection, is equally predictive of GM composition as concurrently assessed diet, indicative of the long-term consistency of this relation.
Metabolomic profiles were used to characterise the effects of consuming a high-phytochemical diet compared with a diet devoid of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in a randomised trial and cross-sectional study. In the trial, 8 h fasting urine from healthy men (n 5) and women (n 5) was collected after a 2-week randomised, controlled trial of two diet periods: a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables, citrus and soya (F&V), and a fruit- and vegetable-free (basal) diet. Among the ions found to differentiate the diets, 176 were putatively annotated with compound identifications, with forty-six supported by MS/MS fragment evidence. Metabolites more abundant in the F&V diet included markers of the dietary intervention (e.g. crucifers, citrus and soya), fatty acids and niacin metabolites. Ions more abundant in the basal diet included riboflavin, several acylcarnitines and amino acid metabolites. In the cross-sectional study, we compared the participants based on the tertiles of crucifers, citrus and soya from 3 d food records (n 36) and FFQ (n 57); intake was separately divided into the tertiles of total fruit and vegetable intake for FFQ. As a group, ions individually differential between the experimental diets differentiated the observational study participants. However, only four ions were significant individually, differentiating the third v. first tertile of crucifer, citrus and soya intake based on 3 d food records. One of these ions was putatively annotated: proline betaine, a marker of citrus consumption. There were no ions significantly distinguishing tertiles by FFQ. The metabolomic assessment of controlled dietary interventions provides a more accurate and stronger characterisation of the diet than observational data.
Technologic advances now make it possible to collect large amounts of genetic, epigenetic, metabolomic and gut microbiome data. These data have the potential to transform approaches towards nutrition counselling by allowing us to recognise and embrace the metabolic, physiologic and genetic differences among individuals. The ultimate goal is to be able to integrate these multi-dimensional data so as to characterise the health status and disease risk of an individual and to provide personalised recommendations to maximise health. To this end, accurate and predictive systems-based measures of health are needed that incorporate molecular signatures of genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites and microbes. Although we are making progress within each of these omics arenas, we have yet to integrate effectively multiple sources of biologic data so as to provide comprehensive phenotypic profiles. Observational studies have provided some insights into associative interactions between genetic or phenotypic variation and diet and their impact on health; however, very few human experimental studies have addressed these relationships. Dietary interventions that test prescribed diets in well-characterised study populations and that monitor system-wide responses (ideally using several omics platforms) are needed to make correlation–causation connections and to characterise phenotypes under controlled conditions. Given the growth in our knowledge, there is the potential to develop personalised dietary recommendations. However, developing these recommendations assumes that an improved understanding of the phenotypic complexities of individuals and their responses to the complexities of their diets will lead to a sustainable, effective approach to promote health and prevent disease – therein lies our challenge.
Fibre has been shown to exert a number of benefits on gastrointestinal (GI) health, yet its intake is low. Addition of novel fibres to food products may increase fibre intake and improve gut health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of three novel fibres on GI outcomes in healthy human subjects. A total of twenty healthy participants (ten men and ten women) with normal BMI (23 (sem 2) kg/m2) participated in the present randomised, double-blind, cross-over study with five treatment periods. Participants consumed a maltodextrin control or 20–25 g/d fibre from soluble maize fibre (SCF) or resistant starch (RS), alone or in combination with pullulan (SCF+P and RS+P). The treatment periods were 7 d with a 3-week washout between the periods. Stool samples were collected on day 7 of each period, and GI tolerance was assessed via a questionnaire on days 1 and 6. There were no treatment differences in stool weight or consistency. SCF significantly reduced stool pH and increased total SCFA production compared with RS and control. RS+P significantly increased the percentage of butyrate compared with all the other treatments. Overall, GI symptoms were minimal. SCF+P led to the highest GI score on day 1, while RS+P had the highest score on day 6. Both SCF treatments caused a significant shift in the gut microbial community. These functional fibres are generally well tolerated, have minimal effects on laxation and may lead to beneficial changes in SCFA production in healthy adults.
To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes.
Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion.
Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case–control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064)
Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview.
These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.
Glucosinolates, phytochemicals found in cruciferous vegetables, are metabolised to bioactive isothiocyanates (ITC) by certain bacteria in the human gut. Substantial individual variation in urinary ITC excretion has been observed in previous cruciferous vegetable-feeding studies. We hypothesised that individual differences in gut microbial community contribute to the observed variation in glucosinolate metabolism, i.e. gut microbiota composition between high- and low-ITC excreters differs. We recruited twenty-three healthy individuals and fed them a standardised meal containing 200 g of cooked broccoli. After the meal, 24 h urinary ITC excretion was measured. Study participants with the highest (n 5) and lowest (n 5) ITC excretion provided faecal samples for ex vivo bacterial cultivation with 50 μm-glucoraphanin, the major glucosinolate found in broccoli. When grown ex vivo, faecal bacteria from the selected high-ITC excreters were able to degrade more glucoraphanin than those from the low-ITC excreters (P = 0·05). However, bacterial fingerprints of faecal and ex vivo culture microbiota revealed no statistically significant differences between the high- and low-ITC excreters in terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. In conclusion, glucosinolate degradation by faecal bacteria ex vivo may be associated with in vivo bacterial glucosinolate metabolism capacity, but no direct link to specific bacterial species could be established, possibly due to the complexity and functional redundancy of the gut microbiota.
Evidence from observational, animal and human studies supports a role for soya protein and its isoflavones in the improvement of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of isoflavone-rich soya protein on markers of glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Using a randomised, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, adults with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes (n 29) consumed soya protein isolate (SPI) and milk protein isolate (MPI) for 57 d each separated by a 4-week washout. Blood was collected on days 1 and 57 of each treatment period for analysis of fasting HbA1C, and fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin and calculated indices of insulin sensitivity and resistance. Urine samples of 24 h were collected at the end of each treatment period for analysis of isoflavones. Urinary isoflavone excretion was significantly greater following consumption of SPI compared with MPI, and 20·7 % of the subjects (n 6) were classified as equol excretors. SPI consumption did not significantly affect fasting or postprandial glucose or insulin, fasting HbA1C, or indices of insulin sensitivity and resistance. These data do not support a role for soya protein in the improvement of glycaemic control in adults with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes and contribute to a limited literature of human studies on the effects of soya protein on the management of type 2 diabetes.
The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) can be an efficient tool to evaluate dietary intake in large, population-based studies, especially for specific foods. The objective of this study was to validate the assessment of soy and isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) intakes, measured by an FFQ, by comparing intakes with serum isoflavone concentrations.
Design and setting:
Soy and isoflavone intakes and serum isoflavone concentrations were determined as part of a case–control study of dietary factors and risks of benign breast disease and breast cancer. The FFQ, administered during an in-person interview, included six soy-specific line items. Blood was drawn within one week of FFQ completion.
In total, 1823 women living in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
In this population, soybean milk, fresh bean curd and other bean foods were eaten once per week, and fermented bean curd, fried bean curd puff and soybeans were eaten less than once per week. A significant linear trend (P > 0.01) in serum isoflavone concentrations across increasing categories of soy and isoflavone intakes was observed, indicating that soy and isoflavone intakes, measured by the FFQ, well distinguished serum isoflavone concentrations. Linear trends were also observed in both case and control groups in stratified analyses, suggesting little differential bias by case–control status.
The results suggest that the FFQ provides a useful marker of soy food consumption and isoflavone exposure in this population.
In a sample of older Japanese American women, we aimed to: (1) describe the most commonly consumed soy foods, (2) estimate dietary soy isoflavone intake, (3) describe characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, and (4) compare our estimates with previously published estimates in other Japanese samples.
A 14-item soy food-frequency questionnaire was administered to older Japanese American women and responses were converted to quantitative estimates of soy isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein). Multiple regression was used to examine characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, including self-reported lifestyle and cultural factors and dietary intake of various foods ascertained from a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. To compare our estimates with other samples, a review of the literature was conducted.
Data are from 274 women aged 65+ years, recruited from a longitudinal cohort study of Japanese Americans in King County, Washington State.
The soy foods most commonly consumed were tofu (soybean curd), miso (fermented soybean paste) and aburaage (fried thin soybean curd). The mean intake of dietary soy isoflavones was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD), 12.4) mg day−1, approximately a quarter to a half that of previously published estimates in Japanese samples. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was positively associated with speaking Japanese, the consumption of traditional Japanese dishes (kamaboko, manju and mochi), low-fat/non-fat milk and yellow/red vegetables, vitamin E supplement use, and walking several blocks each day. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was negatively associated with the consumption of butter.
The estimated dietary soy isoflavone intake in Japanese American women living in King County, Washington State was about a quarter to a half that of women living in Japan. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was associated with speaking Japanese and healthy lifestyle and dietary habits.
To examine associations of biomarkers of nutrient intake with overall diet quality.
A convenience sample of 102 healthy postmenopausal women in Seattle, Washington (USA).
Design and method:
Participants attended a study centre where they provided fasting blood specimens and completed a 122-item validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data from the FFQ were used to calculate Diet Quality Index (DQI) scores and categorise women as having diets of excellent, good, fair or poor quality. The blood specimens were analysed for nine phospholipid fatty acids (as percentage of total) and serum concentrations of vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, vitamin B12, folate and six carotenoids. Multivariate linear regression was used to model associations of the nutrient biomarkers with DQI scores.
Compared with women with poor-quality diets, women with excellent diets, as measured by the DQI, had higher plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P for trend = 0.01), α-tocopherol (P for trend = 0.02) and β-cryptoxanthin (P for trend = 0.03). Women with excellent diets also had lower proportions of plasma phospholipid fatty acids of two potentially atherogenic fatty acids: stearic acid (P for trend = 0.01) and behenic acid (P for trend = 0.03). A group of six biomarkers explained a moderate proportion of the total variability in DQI scores (36%).
These objective measures of dietary intake support the use of the DQI as a useful tool to measure dietary patterns.
Particular intestinal bacteria are capable of metabolizing the soya isoflavone daidzein to equol and/or O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), and the presence of these metabolites in urine after soya consumption are markers of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Prevalences of equol producers and O-DMA producers are approximately 30–50 % and 80–90 %, respectively, and limited observations have suggested that these daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes are stable within individuals over time. Characterizing stability of these phenotypes is important to understand their potential as markers of long-term exposure to particular intestinal bacteria and their associations with disease risk. We evaluated concordance within an individual for the equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes measured at two time points (T1, T2), 1–3 years apart. Phenotypes were ascertained by analysing equol and O-DMA using GC-MS in a spot urine sample collected after 3 d soya (source of daidzein) supplementation. In ninety-two individuals without recent (within 3 months before phenotyping) or current antibiotics use, 41 % were equol producers at T1 and 45 % were equol producers at T2, and 90 % were O-DMA producers at T1 and 95 % were O-DMA producers at T2. The percentage agreement for the equol-producer phenotype was 82 and for the O-DMA-producer phenotype was 89. These results indicate that these phenotypes are stable in most individuals over time, suggesting that they provide a useful biomarker for evaluating disease risk associated with harbouring particular intestinal bacteria responsible for, or associated with, the metabolism of the soya isoflavone daidzein.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.