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Childhood adversity is associated with abnormalities in brain structure, but this association has not been tested for childhood unpredictability, one form of adversity. We studied whether abnormalities in gray matter volume (GMV) could be a mechanism linking childhood unpredictability and psychopathology, over and above the effect of childhood trauma.
Participants were 158 right-handed healthy young adults (aged 17–28 years, M = 22.07, s.d. = 2.08; 66.46% female) who underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements and provided retrospective reports of childhood unpredictability. The anxiety and depression subscales of the self-report Brief Symptom Inventory-53 were used to index psychopathology.
Whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analyses showed that after controlling for the effect of childhood trauma, childhood unpredictability was correlated with greater GMV in bilateral frontal pole, bilateral precuneus, bilateral postcentral gyrus, right hemisphere of fusiform, and lingual gyrus, and left hemisphere of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as occipital gyrus. Greater GMV in bilateral frontal pole, bilateral precuneus, and bilateral postcentral gyrus mediated associations between unpredictability and symptoms of depression and anxiety.
The findings suggest that childhood unpredictability could exact unique effects on neural development, over and above the effect of childhood trauma. These findings are relevant for understanding the occurrence of psychopathology following childhood unpredictability and have implications for intervention.
The Huangshaping deposit is unique in southern Hunan Province, China, as it hosts economic reserves of both W–Mo and Pb–Zn mineralization, which are usually associated with granite and granodiorite porphyry in this area, respectively. This study reports results of in situ LA-MC-ICP-MS sulphur isotopic composition analyses conducted on sulphides from both W–Mo and Pb–Zn mineralization from the Huangshaping deposit with the aim of constraining ore genesis for this deposit. All samples from the proximal W–Mo mineralization have relatively uniform and high δ34S values (8.7 ‰ to 16.0 ‰), close to the range for carbonate sediments in this deposit (13.8 ‰ to 18.1 ‰). These patterns suggest that the granite porphyry in this deposit was the sulphur source for W–Mo mineralization, and that the assimilation of evaporite from the carbonate sediments led to the high δ34S values of the granite porphyry. Sulphides from the Pb–Zn mineralization have δ34S values (2.2 ‰ to 10.3 ‰) lower than those of the W–Mo mineralization, and generally increase in this paragenetic order, with the lowest δ34S values being similar to those of the basement (3.8 ‰ to 7.7 ‰). These patterns indicate that the original sulphur for the Pb–Zn mineralization was most likely derived from the basement, with input of sulphur from the carbonate sediments increasing during the evolution of ore-forming fluids. On the basis of the measured sulphur isotopic compositions, it is suggested that the ore-forming materials for the W–Mo mineralization were derived from the granite porphyry, whereas ore-forming materials extracted from the basement dominated the Pb–Zn mineralization.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
It is essential to investigate the experiences behind why adolescents start and continue to self-harm in order to develop targeted treatment and prevent future self-harming behaviours.
The aims of this study are to understand the motivations for initiating and repeating nonfatal self-harm, the different methods used between first-time and repeated self-harm and the reasons that adolescents do not seek help from health services.
Adolescents with repeated nonfatal self-harm experiences were recruited to participate in individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis.
We found that nonfatal self-harm among adolescents occurred comparatively early and was often triggered by specific reasons. However, the subsequent nonfatal self-harm could be causeless, with repeated self-harm becoming a maladaptive coping strategy to handle daily pressure and negative emotions. The choice of tools used was related to the ease of accessibility, the life-threatening risk and the size of the scars. Adolescents often concealed their scars on purpose, which made early identification insufficient. Peer influence, such as online chat groups encouraging self-harm by discussing and sharing self-harm pictures, could also lead to increased self-harm. The results also included participants’ opinions on how to stop nonfatal self-harm and their dissatisfaction with the current healthcare services.
The current study provides important implications both for early identification and interventions for adolescents who engage in repeated nonfatal self-harm, and for individualising treatment planning that benefits them. It is also worthwhile to further investigate how peer influence and social media may affect self-harm in adolescents.
Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in Hami. Thirty-seven new radiocarbon dates allowed us to establish a new and more accurate chronology for Tianshanbeilu. Our results showed that the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was used from approximately 2022–1802 cal BC and remained in use from 1093–707 cal BC. This indicates that Tianshanbeilu is the earliest and longest-used known cemetery in eastern Xinjiang. By incorporating the typology of artifacts and stratigraphic relationships, the development of the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was divided into four phases. The first phase was from 2011–1672 cal BC, the second phase was from 1660–1408 cal BC, the third phase was from 1385–1256 cal BC, and the fourth phase was from 1214–1029 cal BC.
Data on average iodine requirements for the Chinese population are limited following implementation of long-term universal salt iodisation. We explored the minimum iodine requirements of young adults in China using a balance experiment and the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis proposed by our team. Sixty healthy young adults were enrolled to consume a sequential experimental diet containing low, medium and high levels of iodine (about 20, 40 and 60 μg/d, respectively). Each dose was consumed for 4 d, and daily iodine intake, excretion and retention were assessed. All participants were in negative iodine balance throughout the study. Iodine intake, excretion and retention differed among the three iodine levels (P < 0·01 for all groups). The zero-iodine balance derived from a random effect model indicated a mean iodine intake of 102 μg/d, but poor correlation coefficients between observed and predicted iodine excretion (r 0·538 for μg/d data) and retention (r 0·304 for μg/d data). As iodine intake increased from medium to high, all of the increased iodine was excreted (‘overflow’) through urine and faeces by males, and 89·5 % was excreted by females. Although the high iodine level (63·4 μg/d) might be adequate in males, the corresponding level of 61·6 μg/d in females did not meet optimal requirements. Our findings indicate that a daily iodine intake of approximately half the current recommended nutrient intake (120 μg/d) may satisfy the minimum iodine requirements of young male adults in China, while a similar level is insufficient for females based on the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis.
The dynamic manipulability of a manipulator refers to the capacity to generate accelerations given the joint torques, which is an important indicator for motion planning and control. In this paper, the dynamic manipulability analysis is extended to the multi-arm space robot, and further to the closed-loop system composed of the space robot and the captured target. According to the dynamic equations, the relation between the joint torques and the end-effector accelerations in the open-loop space robot and that between the joint torques and the target accelerations in the closed-loop system are derived. On this basis, the dynamic manipulability factor and dynamic manipulability ellipsoid are proposed as two tools for the dynamic manipulability measure, where the effects of the bias acceleration are considered. The influences of dynamic parameters, link lengths, joint variables, and velocities on the dynamic manipulability measure are mainly studied.
The Ganjiang River, one of eight major tributaries of the Yangtze River, located in the western hinterland of the Cathaysia Block, SE China, has a length of 823 km and a drainage area of 82 809 km2, whose detrital zircons provide a valuable means to trace sediment provenances of the river and explore the crustal growth and evolution of the Cathaysia Block. In the current study, 389 concordia zircon U–Pb age spots and rare earth element (REE) contents, in combination with 201 Lu–Hf isotope analyses, have been determined. Oscillatory zoning, high Th/U ratios and REE distribution patterns indicate that most detrital zircon grains are of magmatic origin. The age can be further divided into seven groups: 130–185 Ma with a peak at 153 Ma (7 %); 217–379 Ma with a peak at 224 Ma (16 %); 390–494 Ma with a peak at 424 Ma (37 %); 500–698 Ma with a peak at 624 Ma (5 %); 716–897 Ma with a peak at 812 Ma (10 %); 902–1191 Ma with a peak at 976 Ma (13 %); and 2232–2614 Ma with a peak at 2471 Ma (5 %). The sources of almost all the zircon age groups can be found from the exposed rocks. In particular, Yanshanian, Hercynian to Indosinian, Pan-African, Grenvillian and Palaeoproterozoic–Archaean zircons can be mainly sourced from the northern Guangdong – southern Jiangxi – western Fujian region, while Caledonian zircons come from southern and central Jiangxi, and Jinningian zircons are from central and northern Jiangxi. Most determined zircon grains exhibit negative εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of 797 to 4016 Ma with a wide peak at 1500–2100 Ma and a keen peak at 1824 Ma, suggesting that most zircons are sourced from the reworked ancient crustal materials or crust–mantle mixing. The zircon Hf model age cumulative probability diagram shows that rapid crustal growth took place at the Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic and that about 90 % of the crust of the Cathaysia Block was formed before 1.5 Ga.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) represents a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases and strongly prefers aromatic amino acid ligands. We investigated the regulatory effects of dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids – tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine (TPT) – on the CaSR signalling pathway and intestinal inflammatory response. The in vivo study was conducted with weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design. Piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with TPT and with or without inflammatory challenge. The in vitro study was performed in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line to investigate the effects of TPT on inflammatory response using NPS-2143 to inhibit CaSR. Dietary supplementation of TPT alleviated histopathological injury and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in intestine challenged with lipopolysaccharide. Dietary supplementation of TPT decreased serum concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TNF-α), as well as the mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory cytokines in intestine but enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA levels compared with pigs fed control diet and infected by lipopolysaccharide. Supplementation of TPT increased CaSR and phospholipase Cβ2 protein levels, but decreased inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α/β and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein levels in the lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets. When the CaSR signalling pathway was blocked by NPS-2143, supplementation of TPT decreased the CaSR protein level, but enhanced phosphorylated NF-κB and IκB levels in IPEC-J2 cells. To conclude, supplementation of aromatic amino acids alleviated intestinal inflammation as mediated through the CaSR signalling pathway.
Some critical limitations of prior research on organizational controls stem from the scant theory identifying the coexistence of contradictions and interrelations between differing organizational controls and exploring how the contradictory but interrelated controls affect innovation modes. To address this gap, this research links Hitt’s internal control system framework and the ambidexterity perspective by building on their focus on the interplay and tensions between different organizational controls. Using survey data from 182 Chinese firms in innovation-intensive industries, the results show that besides the independent use of strategic control, both the combined and balance use of strategic and financial controls are important for internal innovation. For firms specializing in cooperative innovation, however, financial control is more effective, and the combined use of strategic and financial controls has negative effect on cooperative innovation. These findings contribute to our understanding of organizational control itself and its connection to the ambidexterity perspective and innovation theory.
Tin oxide (SnO2) hollow spheres modified with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires (NWs) synthesized by sequential hydrothermal reactions were investigated as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Not only does the hydrothermal treatment form numerous short TiO2 NWs on the surface of SnO2 spheres, but also passivates the surface of SnO2. Consequently, the specific surface area of the photoanode and dye loading are almost doubled, at the same time the surface defects and charge recombination are both appreciably reduced. As a result, the short-circuit photocurrent density and open-circuit photovoltage both greatly increased. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cells increases from 0.4% to 2.9%.
The present study investigated the effects of medium-chain TAG (MCT) on hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). At weaning (mean 21 (sd 1·06) d of age), twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weight (BW; IUGR: mean 0·95 (sd 0·04) kg; NBW: mean 1·58 (sd 0·04) kg) and weight at the time of weaning (IUGR: mean 5·26 (sd 0·15) kg; NBW: mean 6·98 (sd 0·19) kg) and fed either a soyabean oil (SO) diet (containing 5 % SO) or a MCT diet (containing 1 % SO and 4 % MCT) for 28 d. IUGR piglets exhibited poor (P< 0·05) growth performance, lower (P< 0·05) metabolic efficiency of hepatic glutathione (GSH) redox cycle, and increased (P< 0·05) levels of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes compared with NBW piglets. The MCT diet increased (P< 0·05) the average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets during the first 4 weeks after weaning. Furthermore, MCT diet-fed piglets had a higher (P< 0·05) GSH:oxidised glutathione ratio and increased (P< 0·05) activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and GSH reductase. The expression of G6PD was up-regulated (P< 0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and apoptosis and necrosis levels in hepatocytes were decreased (P< 0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. These results indicate that MCT might have auxiliary therapeutic potential to attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in IUGR offspring during early life, thus leading to an improvement in the metabolic efficiency of the hepatic GSH redox cycle.
There are three data pipelines for LAMOST survey. The raw data is reduced to one dimension spectra by the data reduction pipeline(2D pipeline), the extracted spectra are classified and measured by the spectral analysis pipeline(1D pipeline), while stellar parameters are measured by LASP pipeline.
(a) The data reduction pipeline. The main tasks of the data reduction pipeline include bias calibration, flat field, spectra extraction, sky subtraction, wavelength calibration, exposure merging and wavelength band connection.
(b) The spectra analysis pipeline. This pipeline is designed to classify and identify objects from the extracted spectra and to measure their redshift (or radial velocity). The PCAZ (Glazebrook et al. 1998) method is applied to do the classification and redshift measurement.
(c) Stellar parameters LASP. Stellar parameters pipeline (LASP) is to estimate stellar atmospheric parameters, e.g. effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H], for F, G and K type stars. To effectively determine those fundamental stellar measurements, three steps with different methods are employed. The first step utilizes the line indices to approximately define the effective temperature range of the analyzed star. Secondly, a set of the initial approximate values of the three parameters are given based on template fitting method. Finally, we exploit ULySS (Koleva et al. 2009) to give the final values of parameters through minimizing the χ 2 value between the observed spectrum and a multidimensional grid of model spectra which is generated by an interpolating of ELODIE library. There are two other classification for A type star and M type star. For A type star, standard MK system is employed (Gray et al. 2009) to give each object temperature class and luminosity type. For M type star, they are classified into subclasses by an improved Hammer method, and metallicity of each objects is also given.
During the pilot survey, algorithms were improved and the pipelines were tested. The products of LAMOST survey will include extracted and calibrated spectra in FITS format, a catalog of FGK stars with stellar parameters, a catalog of M dwarf with subclass and metallicity, and a catalog of A type star with MK classification. A part of the pilot survey data, including about 319 000 high quality spectra with SNR > 10, a catalog of stellar parameters of FGK stars and another catalog of a subclass of M type stars have been released to the public in August 2012 (Luo et al. 2012). The general survey started from October 2012, and completed the first year survey. The formal data release one (DR1) is being prepared, which will include both pilot survey and first year general survey, and planed to be released under the LAMOST data policy.
In order to protect and sustainably manage fishery resource species, it is
essential to understand their movements and habitat use. To detect the
hypothesised migration of maturing veined squid Loligo forbesi from the west coast of
Scotland (UK) to the North Sea and identify possible inshore-offshore
movements, we analysed seasonal, spatial and environmental patterns in
abundance and size distribution, based on commercial fishery landings data
and trawl survey data from Scottish coastal waters (International Council
for the Exploration of the Sea, ICES areas IVa, IVb and VIa). A geographic
information system (GIS) was used to build monthly contour maps of
abundance. Generalised additive mixed models (GAMM) were used to quantify
patterns in size distribution and abundance. In most years, there was no
evidence of movement from the West to the East coast of Scotland. Evidence
of inshore-offshore movements during the life-cycle of the cohort that
recruits in autumn (winter breeders) was found instead. The winter breeding
cohort appears to spawn in inshore waters and some evidence suggests that
the spawning grounds of the summer breeders are also inshore. Across
seasons, higher abundance of L. forbesi can generally be found in the north of
Scotland at intermediate water depths and in warmer waters.
Nanostructured bulk NiAl materials were prepared at high pressure and temperature (0–5.0 GPa and 600–1500 °C, respectively). The sintered samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, density, and indentation hardness measurements. The results show that NiAl nanoparticles may have a compressed surface shell, which may be the reason why NiAl nanomaterials were difficult to densify sintering using conventional methods and why high-pressure sintering was an effective approach. We also observed that B2-structured NiAl could undergo a temperature-dependent phase transition and could be transformed into Al0.9Ni4.22 below 1000 °C for the first time. It is interesting to note that Vickers hardness decreased as grain size decreased below ∼30 nm, indicating that the inverse Hall-Petch effect may be observed in nano-polycrystalline NiAl (n-NiAl) samples. Moreover, a tentative interpretation was developed for high-pressure nanosintering, based on the shell-core model of nanoparticles.
Nanoindentation is a widely accepted test method for materials characterization. On account of the complexity of contact deformation behavior, design of parametric constitutive models and determination of the unknown parameters is challenging. To address the need for identification of mechanical properties of viscoelastic/plastic materials from nanoindentation data, a combined numerical finite element/optimization-based indentation modeling tool was developed, fully self-contained, and capable of running on a PC as a stand-alone executable program. The approach uses inverse engineering and formulates the material characterization task as an optimization problem. The model development consists of finite element formulation, viscoelastic/plastic material models, heuristic estimation to obtain initial solution boundaries, and a gradient-based optimization algorithm for fast convergence to extract mechanical properties from the test data. A four-parameter viscoelastic/plastic model is presented, then a simplified three-parameter model with more rapid convergence. The end result is a versatile tool for indentation simulation and mechanical property analysis.
In order to restrain the prepulse of a high energy fluence diode, a flash-over switch made of a nylon cylinder was inserted in between the cathode stalk and the cathode. Secondary prepulse technique was developed to lower the flash-over voltage of the switch. It was found that the surface resistivity of the nylon insulator changes considerably after each shot and this resistivity on the order of 107 Ω/m is most suitable for a 20-mm long flash-over switch to operate stably at a lower flash-over voltage.
This paper reports a novel and cost-effective approach which enables the integration of nanostructures and micropatterns. In this work nanofibers are selectively patterned in defined micropatterns via a collector chip. The driving momentum of the micropattern formation, namely the non-uniform electrical field, is studied by finite element method. Micropatterned nanofiber mats are successfully fabricated. The SEM characterization demonstrates that the microstructures are manifested by distinct porosities and thicknesses. This work opens a door for a broad array of applications such as nanoelectronics and tissue engineering, where the fibrous materials with the characteristic features sizes over several order of magnitudes are required.