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Hyperbolic polariton modes are highly appealing for a broad range of applications in nanophotonics, including surfaced enhanced sensing, sub-diffractional imaging, and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here we show that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-spectroscopy using standard spectroscopic tools can launch hyperbolic polaritons in a Kretschmann–Raether configuration. We measure multiple hyperbolic and dielectric modes within the naturally hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride as a function of different isotopic enrichments and flake thickness. This overcomes the technical challenges of measurement approaches based on nanostructuring, or scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy. Ultimately, our ATR approach allows us to compare the optical properties of small-scale materials prepared by different techniques systematically.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of ~16 months. Novel methods to improve local control are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3+3 dose-escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n=3) or 125 mg/m2 (n=6). One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%), and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. With a median follow-up of 8 months (range 5–28 months), median survival was 19 months and median progression-free survival was 10 months. Following chemoradiation, 3 patients underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and limited tumor viability. Of the 3 patients, 2 initially had borderline resectable tumors and 1 had an unresectable tumor. Tumor (SMAD-4, Caveolin-1) and peripheral (circulating tumor cells and microvesicles) biomarkers were collected and are being analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly nab-paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated. This regimen represents a potentially promising therapy for patients with unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation.
Buildings are key to a sustainable future because their design, construction, operation, and the activities in buildings are significant contributors to energy-related sustainability challenges – reducing energy demand in buildings can play one of the most important roles in solving these challenges. More specifically:
The buildings sector and people's activities in buildings are responsible for approximately 31% of global final energy demand, approximately one-third of energy-related CO2 emissions, approximately two-thirds of halocarbon, and approximately 25–33% of black carbon emissions.
Several energy-related problems affecting human health and productivity take place in buildings, including mortality and morbidity due to poor indoor air quality or inadequate indoor temperatures. Therefore, improving buildings and their equipment offers one of the entry points to addressing these challenges.
More efficient energy and material use, as well as sustainable energy supply in buildings, are critical to tackling the sustainability-related challenges outlined in the GEA. Recent major advances in building design, know-how, technology, and policy have made it possible for global building energy use to decline significantly. A number of lowenergy and passive buildings, both retrofitted and newly constructed, already exist, demonstrating that low level of building energy performance is achievable. With the application of on-site and community-scale renewable energy sources, several buildings and communities could become zero-net-energy users and zero-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, or net energy suppliers.
Recent advances in materials and know-how make new buildings that use 10–40% of the final heating and cooling energy of conventional new buildings cost-effective in all world regions and climate zones.
The frequencies of the E2(high), A1(LO), A1(TO), E1(TO) and E1(LO) phonons of singlecrystalline bulk AlN were measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy over a temperature range from 10K to 1275K. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the AlN phonon frequencies considering the thermal lattice expansion and two-phonon decay mechanisms gave results in good agreement with the experimental data. At temperatures in excess of ∼300K an approximate linear shift of the phonon frequencies with temperature was found. In this high temperature regime, we determined a frequency shift of the E2(high) phonon of (-2.22 ± 0.02) ×10−2cm−1/K, which is very similar to values reported for bulk GaN. This suggests that similar parameters will be suitable for AlxGa1−xN alloys, commonly used in high-power high-frequency electronic devices. The results provide the basis for non-invasive local temperature monitoring in highpower III-nitride devices using micro-Raman scattering techniques.
In this work, the deposition of boron using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) has been investigated on planar and deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) Si substrates. Deposition rate and conformal coverage have been studied. Additional studies of “dry” RIE etching and “wet” chemical etching of the deposited boron films are presented. Deposition rates as high as 1 μm/hr and conformal coverage ratios of ~80% have been achieved. Etching rates for various methods studied range widely from 0.35 μm/hr to 1.2 μm/min.
Adsorbed surfactant bilayers on silica are proposed as the reaction site for the formation of ultrathin polystyrene films. Results from the polymerization of styrene in cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide bilayers show effective conversion of adsolubilized monomer to polymer. The process has been demonstrated for a variety of precipitated silica substrates and for two types of initiation schemes. The polymer formed has been extracted and characterized using PA-FTIR, NMR, UV, and GPC. The molecular weight of polymer formed has also been investigated with respect to polymerization time.
A carbon composite bipolar plate for PEM fuel cells has been developed that has high electrical conductivity, high strength, light weight, is impermeable, and has the potential for being produced at low cost. The plate is produced by slurry molding short carbon fibers into preform structures, molding features into the green body, and using chemical vapor infiltration to strengthen the material, give it high conductivity, and densify the surface to make it impermeable. Current efforts have focused on optimizing the fabrication process and characterizing prototypical components.
A series of simple deuterium NMR experiments are used to investigate the surfaces of differently structured silicas by studying the sorption of deuteriated solvents. Two mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and H1-silica), which display hexagonally arranged channels of uniform diameter are studied, as well as amorphous column silica. The deuterium NMR lineshape strongly depends on the anisotropic environment of the adsorbed deuteriated species (D2O, benzene-d6, pyridine-d5). This allows differentiation between probe molecules adsorbed to the internal surface (anisotropic) and to the external surface (isotropic, non-ordered surface of particles). Solvents adsorbed within the channels of the silica nanostructure retain a degree of orientational order while moving on the surface, thus producing a Pake pattern. In contrast, solvents adsorbed on the outside of the ordered channels and on domain boundaries retain no orientational order while moving on the surface, therefore giving rise to a singlet in the deuterium NMR spectrum. This phenomenon allows to judge and compare the qualities of hexagonal ceramic nanostructures. The results show that H1-silica exhibits a significantly higher degree of order, due to a larger domain size, than MCM-41.
Liquid crystalline phases, consisting of nonionic surfactant and water, are exploited as templates for the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures In this approach the aqueous domains of a lyotropic liquid crystal phase function as a confining medium, in which the polymerisation of a watersoluble precursor takes place without destroying the nanostructure. Conducting the prepration of mesoporous silica in a lyotropic liquid crystal phase has considerable advantages over previous routes towards mesoporous ceramic oxides. (i) The nanostructure of the solid can be predicted a priori by knowing the phase structure of the liquid crystal before solidification, (ii) this approach allows the use of nonionic surfactants as templates, (iii) the progress of the reaction can be observed by a variety of methods, such as polarised light optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and deuterium NMR spectroscopy, all of which are noninvasive. The synthesis and a new way of monitoring the temporal evolution of the inorganic nanostructure using deuterium NMR spectroscopy are described. The results show unambiguously that the lyotropic liquid crystal phase acts as a template for the nanostructure.
Titanium nitride crystals were grown from titanium nitride powder on tungsten by the sublimation-recondensation technique. The bright golden TiN crystals displayed a variety of shapes including cubes, truncated tetrahedrons, truncated octahedrons, and tetrahedrons bounded by (111) and (100) crystal planes. The TiN crystals formed regular, repeated patterns within individual W grains that suggested epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction revealed that the tungsten foil was highly textured with a preferred foil normal of (100) and confirmed that the TiN particles deposited epitaxially with the orientation TiN(100)‖W(100) and TiN‖W, that is, the unit cells of the TiN crystals were rotated 45° with respect to the tungsten. Because of its larger coefficient of thermal expansion compared to W, upon cooling from the growth temperature, the TiN crystals were under in-plane tensile strain, causing many of the TiN crystals to crack.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was performed to investigate the interface region of AlN/6H-SiC. Thick AlN layers were grown on a 3.5° off-axis 6H-SiC substrate at a temperature of 1790 °C for 100 hours by sublimation-recondensation method. The energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis indicated considerable amount of aluminum and nitrogen present in the substrate and Si and C present in AlN. Lattice images of cross-sectional TEM samples show a faceted interface with step growth.
B12As2 epitaxial layers grown on (0001) 6H-SiC and (1120) 6H-SiC substrates have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and investigated with the aid of crystal visualization software. SWBXT showed that B12As2 adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on c-plane 6H-SiC and adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on a-plane 6H-SiC. However, SWBXT also revealed the twins in both sets of the B12As2 films, consistent with the SEM observation of the surface morphology. Cross-sectional HRTEM also confirmed the presence of twins in both cases and also revealed the existence of an intermediate layer between the c-plane 6H-SiC and the B12As2 film. By correlating the HRTEM observation and crystal visualization, the atomic configurations across the twin boundaries in both samples as well as those in the intermediate layer in the c-plane sample were proposed.
In the present study, the type and densities of defects in AlN crystals grown on 6H-SiC seeds by the sublimation-recombination method were assessed. The positions of the defects in AlN were first identified by defect selective etching (DSE) in molten NaOH-KOH at 400 °C for 2 minutes. Etching produced pits of three different sizes: 1.77 ìm, 2.35 ìm , and 2.86 ìm. The etch pits were either aligned together forming a sub-grain boundary or randomly distributed. The smaller etch pits were either isolated or associated with larger etch pits. After preparing cross-sections of the pits by the focused ion beam (FIB) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to determine which dislocation type (edge, mixed or screw) produced a specific etch pit sizes. Preliminary TEM bright field and dark field study using different zone axes and diffraction vectors indicates an edge dislocation with a Burgers vector 1/3 is associated with the smallest etch pit size.
The impact of process conditions and crystal properties on the structure of thermal oxides formed on AlN were determined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Oxidation for 2 hours at both 800 ° and 1000 °C produced mostly amorphous oxide layers whereas oxidation for 4 and 6 hours at 1000 °C produced partly crystalline and epitaxial oxide layers. The crystalline oxide was mostly single phase á-Al2O3 except at the surface where it was a mixture of γ-Al2O3 and á-Al2O3. The amorphous oxide layer first transformed to γ-Al2O3 and then to the stable á-Al2O3 as evidenced by the non-uniform thickness of the oxide and the existence of the γ-Al2O3 at the surface. The AlN crystal contained a high density of defects at the interface at 800 °C but it was nearly defect- and oxygen-free at 1000 °C. This could be due to the rapid diffusion of the nitrogen and aluminum interstitials at high temperatures leading to a point defect equilibrium throughout the nitride. A faceted interface between Al2O3 and AlN could be attributed to non-uniform out diffusion of aluminum.
In this work, 4H-SiC substrates intentionally misoriented from the (0001) plane toward [1-100] direction are shown to eliminate rotational twinning in icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2, abbreviated here as IBA) epitaxial films. Previous studies of IBA on other substrates, including (100), (110), (111) Si and (0001) 6H-SiC, produced polycrystalline and twinned epilayers. Comparisons of IBA on on-axis and off-axis c-plane 4H-SiC by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirm the single crystalline and much higher quality of the films on the latter substrates. Furthermore, no intermediate layer between the epilayer and substrate was observed for IBA on off-axis 4H-SiC. Steps formed on the off-axis 4H-SiC substrate surface before deposition cause the film to adopt a single orientation, a process that is not seen with substrates with either no misorientation, or those tilted toward the [11-20] direction. This work demonstrates that c-plane 4H-SiC with 7° offcut toward (1-100) is potentially a good substrate choice for the growth of high-quality, untwinned B12As2 epilayers for future device applications.