To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Conservation of animal genetic resources requires regular monitoring and interventions to maintain population size and manage genetic variability. This study uses genealogical information to evaluate the impact of conservation measures in Europe, using (i) data from the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) and (ii) a posteriori assessment of the impact of various conservation measures on the genetic variability of 17 at-risk breeds with a wide range of interventions. Analysis of data from DAD-IS showed that 68% of national breed populations reported to receive financial support showed increasing demographic trends, v. 51% for those that did not. The majority of the 17 at-risk breeds have increased their numbers of registered animals over the last 20 years, but the changes in genetic variability per breed have not always matched the trend in population size. These differences in trends observed in the different metrics might be explained by the tensions between interventions to maintain genetic variability, and development initiatives which lead to intensification of selection.
Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
We have observed the IR counterpart of the Atoll type LMXB GX 13+1, (Naylor, Charles & Longmore 1991), from 1993 July 11…30, with the Dutch 90 cm telescope at ESO using a Gunn z (0.9–1.0 μm) filter. Over this period 110 usable images (integration time 12 m) were obtained. The data were reduced using the ESO-MIDAS/DAPHOT reduction package. A Lomb-Scargle period search was performed with the PERIOD package.
Fig. 1 shows our Gunn z band image with stars labeled as in Naylor et al. (1991). They propose their star 101 as the IR counterpart. Fig. 2 shows the light curve we obtained for this star. The star is clearly variable on a time-scale of ~ 10 d. To estimate any period more accurately we have made a Lomb-Scargle statistics periodigram (see Fig. 3); maximum power is at 12.6 d. We estimate the error to be ~ 1 day.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
We present in this chapter a description of optical interferometry combining instruments. For that purpose we describe the role of different key functions and give examples of the choice made in current and future instruments in particular at VLTI.
It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions.
A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined.
Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94).
Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
Studying the inner regions of protoplanetary disks (1-10 AU) is of importance to understand the formation of planets and the accretion process feeding the forming central star. Herbig AeBe stars are bright enough to be routinely observed by Near IR interferometers. The data for the fainter T Tauri stars is much more sparse. In this contribution we present the results of our ongoing survey at the VLTI. We used the PIONIER combiner that allows the simultaneous use of 4 telescopes, yielding 6 baselines and 3 independent closure phases at once. PIONIER's integrated optics technology makes it a sensitive instrument. We have observed 22 T Tauri stars so far, the largest survey for T Tauri stars to this date.
Our results demonstrate the very significant contribution of an extended component to the interferometric signal. The extended component is different from source to source and the data, with several baselines, offer a way to improve our knowledge of the disk geometry and/or composition. These results validate an earlier study by Pinte et al. 2008 and show that the dust inner radii of T Tauri disks now appear to be in better agreement with the expected position of the dust sublimation radius, contrary to previous claims.
The close environment of Herbig stars starts to be revealed step by step and it appears to be quite complex. Many physical phenomena interplay: the dust sublimation causing a puffed-up inner rim, a dusty halo, a dusty wind or an inner gaseous component. To investigate more deeply these regions, getting images at the first Astronomical Unit scale is necessary. This has become possible with near infrared instruments on the VLTI. We have developed a new imaging method adapted to young stellar objects where we process separately the stellar component from the rest of the image to reveal the environment by using the spectral differences between these two components. We present the result of this method on the first imaging survey of Herbig stars carried out by PIONIER on the VLTI.
In the course of our VLTI young stellar object PIONIER imaging program, we have identified a strong visibility chromatic dependency that appeared in certain sources. This effect, rising value of visibilities with decreasing wavelengths over one base, is also present in previous published and archival AMBER data. For Herbig AeBe stars, the H band is generally located at the transition between the star and the disk predominance in flux for Herbig AeBe stars. We believe that this phenomenon is responsible for the visibility rise effect. We present a method to correct the visibilities from this effect in order to allow “gray” image reconstruction software, like Mira, to be used. In parallel we probe the interest of carrying an image reconstruction in each spectral channel and then combine them to obtain the final broadband one. As an illustration we apply these imaging methods to MWC158, a (possibly Herbig) B[e] star intensively observed with PIONIER. Finally, we compare our result with a parametric model fitted onto the data.
Resonant coupling of an optical mode confined within a microcavity and an emitter is the basic prerequisite for the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena and the development of novel optical devices based on cavity polaritons.
We demonstrate highly spatially resolved 2” wafer characterization of the reflectivity and emission properties of a nitride based multi quantum well semi microcavity (i.e. structure without top Bragg reflector) to verify resonant regions. Photoluminescence and reflectivity spectra recorded at the same positions on the wafer exhibit a strong spatial dependence of the multi quantum well emission and the center wavelength of the stop band of the bottom Bragg reflector across the sample. Resonance, i.e., matching of the emission and the center wavelength of the stop band, is found in a region 8 mm off the center of the wafer.
The thickness profile across the AlInN/GaN Bragg reflector and multi quantum well layers was obtained by x-ray mappings over the full wafer. A perfect correlation between the local optical properties and the x-ray thickness distribution is found. Additional transmission electron microscopy investigations indicate a complete crack free structure and smooth interfaces between the layers within the Bragg reflector making the structure appropriate for strong coupling applications.
A two-dimensional (2-D) seasonal model has been developed for simulating the transient response of the climate system to the astronomical forcing. The atmosphere is represented by a zonally averaged quasi-geostrophic model which includes accurate treatment of radiative transfer. The atmospheric model interacts with the other components of the climate system (ocean, sea-ice and land surface covered or not by snow and ice) through vertical fluxes of momentum, heat and humidity. The model explicitly incorporates surface energy balances and has snow and sea-ice mass budgets. The vertical profile of the upper-ocean temperature is computed by an interactive mixed-layer model which takes into account the meridional turbulent diffusion of heat. This model is asynchronously coupled to a model which simulates the dynamics of the Greenland, the northern American and the Eurasian ice sheets. Over the last glacial–interglacial cycle, the coupled model simulates climatic changes which are in general agreement with the low frequency part of deep-sea, ice and sea-level records. However, after 6000 yBP, the remaining ice volume of the Greenland and northern American ice sheets is overestimated in the simulation. The simulated climate is sensitive to the initial size of the Greenland ice sheet, to the ice-albedo positive feedback, to the precipitation-altitude negative feedback over the ice sheets, to the albedo of the aging snow and to the insolation increase, particularly at the southern edge of the ice sheets, which is important for their collapse or surge.
Electronic properties (conductivity and density of states) of quasicrystals present strong similarities with disordered semiconductor based systems on both sides of the Mott-Anderson metal-insulator (MI) transition. We revisit the conductivity of the i-AlCuFe and i-AlPdMn phases, which has temperature and magnetic field dependence characteristic of the metallic side of the transition. The i-AlPdRe ribbon samples can be on either side of the transition depending on their conductivity value. In all these i-phases, the density of states at the Fermi level EF is low. Its energy dependence close to EF is similar to disordered systems close to the MI transition where it is ascribed to effects of interactions between electrons and disorder.
A simple model for the formation of residual stresses in thin films deposited on elastically strained substrates was derived and experimentally tested. In the experiments, Cu thin films were deposited on elastically stretched nickel substrates. These Cu films were2 to 4.m thick and were deposited through vapor phase evaporation or electroplating. The loads applied during the deposition were then relaxed, and the total stress in both the film and the substrate were monitored (by x-ray diffraction) during this relaxation. It was seen that the final (residual) film stresses were significantly different for bothdeposition methods. The causes of such differences are discussed.
The results of our recent research on the ohmic contact formation mechanism in furnace alloyed Au/Te/Au/GaAs contacts are summarized, and preliminary Raman measurements on annealed Ge/Pd/GaAs structures are presented. The data and those reported in literature on the AuGe- and Ge/Pd- GaAs systems are argued to be more in agreement with the graded crystalline heterojunction concept (the formation of n+-Ge/GaAs, n+Ga2Te3/GaAs junctions) than with the doping model (the formation of n+-GaAs).
Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Si:Sb and Si:B n+-p step junction diodes grown by LT-MBE at various growth temperatures. The trap density dependence on growth temperature decreases with increasing temperature. However, segregation and diffusion increase with increasing temperature. Electron traps, E1 (0.42–0.45eV) and E2 (0.257eV), and hole traps, H1 (0.38–0.41eV), were found in B-doped layer grown at 370°C, 420°C, 500°C, and 600°C. These traps have been characterized by their capture cross-section, activation energy level, and trap density. The origins of the dominating electron traps are hypothesized as the association with pure divacancy defects. E1 level can be assigned for singly negatively charged divacancy V(0/-) + α and E2 level for doubly negatively charged divacancy V(-2/-).