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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are separate neurodevelopmental disorders that are both characterized by difficulties in social cognition and social functioning. Due to methodological confounds, the degree of similarity in social cognitive impairments across these two disorders is currently unknown. This study therefore conducted a comprehensive comparison of social cognitive ability in ASD and SCZ to aid efforts to develop optimized treatment programs.
In total, 101 individuals with ASD, 92 individuals with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder, and 101 typically developing (TD) controls, all with measured intelligence in the normal range and a mean age of 25.47 years, completed a large battery of psychometrically validated social cognitive assessments spanning the domains of emotion recognition, social perception, mental state attribution, and attributional style.
Both ASD and SCZ performed worse than TD controls, and very few differences were evident between the two clinical groups, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 0.01 to 0.34. For those effects that did reach statistical significance, such as greater hostility in the SCZ group, controlling for symptom severity rendered them non-significant, suggesting that clinical distinctions may underlie these social cognitive differences. Additionally, the strength of the relationship between neurocognitive and social cognitive performance was of similar, moderate size for ASD and SCZ.
Findings largely suggest comparable levels of social cognitive impairment in ASD and SCZ, which may support the use of existing social cognitive interventions across disorders. However, future work is needed to determine whether the mechanisms underlying these shared impairments are also similar or if these common behavioral profiles may emerge via different pathways.
High-intensity laser–plasma interactions produce a wide array of energetic particles and beams with promising applications. Unfortunately, the high repetition rate and high average power requirements for many applications are not satisfied by the lasers, optics, targets, and diagnostics currently employed. Here, we aim to address the need for high-repetition-rate targets and optics through the use of liquids. A novel nozzle assembly is used to generate high-velocity, laminar-flowing liquid microjets which are compatible with a low-vacuum environment, generate little to no debris, and exhibit precise positional and dimensional tolerances. Jets, droplets, submicron-thick sheets, and other exotic configurations are characterized with pump–probe shadowgraphy to evaluate their use as targets. To demonstrate a high-repetition-rate, consumable, liquid optical element, we present a plasma mirror created by a submicron-thick liquid sheet. This plasma mirror provides etalon-like anti-reflection properties in the low field of 0.1% and high reflectivity as a plasma, 69%, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Practical considerations of fluid compatibility, in-vacuum operation, and estimates of maximum repetition rate are addressed. The targets and optics presented here demonstrate a potential technique for enabling the operation of laser–plasma interactions at high repetition rates.
Currently no national guidelines exist for the management of scabies outbreaks in residential or nursing care homes for the elderly in the United Kingdom. In this setting, diagnosis and treatment of scabies outbreaks is often delayed and optimal drug treatment, environmental control measures and even outcome measures are unclear. We undertook a systematic review to establish the efficacy of outbreak management interventions and determine evidence-based recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, which were assessed using a quality assessment tool drawing on STROBE guidelines to describe the quality of observational data. Nineteen outbreak reports were identified, describing both drug treatment and environmental management measures. The quality of data was poor; none reported all outcome measures and only four described symptom relief measures. We were unable to make definitive evidence-based recommendations. We draw on the results to propose a framework for data collection in future observational studies of scabies outbreaks. While high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to determine optimal drug treatment, evidence on environmental measures will need augmentation through other literature studies. The quality assessment tool designed is a useful resource for reporting of outcome measures including patient-reported measures in future outbreaks.
Poor performance and ill-health of calves in the pre-wean period can affect future productivity. Increasing numbers of producers are opting to use calf jackets as a means of mitigating the potential negative effects of low ambient temperatures, wind speed and precipitation on growth and health. This study aimed to use a range of noninvasive monitoring technologies to investigate the effects of using calf jackets in the first 3 weeks of life on calf performance and behavioural and physiological parameters. Ninety Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of the two treatments: (i) Jacketed until 21 days of age and (J; n = 44) ii. Nonjacketed (NJ; n = 46). Calves were group housed and fed milk replacer (MR) and concentrate solid feed via automatic feeders. Calves were weaned at day 56, and the experiment was completed at day 63. Health assessments were conducted on a daily basis throughout the experiment using predefined faecal and respiratory scoring protocols. A range of novel, noninvasive monitoring technologies were used to examine the activity, heart rate and thermal profiles of calves on an individual basis throughout the experimental period. There were no differences in calf live weight (LWT), average daily gain (ADG) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in J and NJ calves between days 5 to 20. However, NJ calves consumed more MR and had more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than J calves during this period. Although calf LWT was comparable across treatments in the week following jacket removal (days 21 to 28), both ADG and FCE tended to be greater in NJ calves. There were no treatment differences in calf LWT at the end of the study (d63). When measured over a period of 24 h and at a mean ambient temperature of 7.7°C, skin surface temperature was 6.37°C higher in J calves. Core body temperature was higher in J calves between days 5 to 20; however, there were no differences in IR eye or IR rectal temperature. No differences in lying behaviour occurred, with calves spending 18 and 17 h/day lying between days 5 to 20 and days 21 to 28, respectively. Under the climatic and management conditions described, no significant benefits to calf performance were found as a result of the provision of calf jackets to group-housed calves in the first 3 weeks of life. The higher frequency of unrewarded visits to the milk feeder in NJ calves during the first 3 weeks of life could be suggestive of a lack of satiety in these calves.
Introduction: Despite significant advances in resuscitation efforts, there are some patients who remain in ventricular fibrillation (VF) after multiple shocks during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Double sequential external defibrillation (DSED) has been proposed as a treatment option for patients in shock refractory VF. We sought to compare DSED to standard therapy with regards to VF termination and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for patients presenting in shock refractory VF. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all treated adult OHCA who presented in VF and received a minimum of three successive shocks over a two year period beginning on Jan 1, 2015 in four Canadian EMS agencies. Using ambulance call reports and defibrillator files, we compared VF termination (defined as the absence of VF at the rhythm check following defibrillation and 2 minutes of CPR) and VF termination into a perfusing rhythm with ROSC between patients who received standard therapy (CPR, defibrillation, epinephrine and antiarrhythmics) and those who received DSED (after on-line medical consultation) for shock refractory VF. Cases of traumatic cardiac arrest and those who presented in VF but terminated VF prior to 3 successive shocks were excluded. Results: Among 197 patients who met the study criteria for shock refractory VF, 161 (81.7%) patients received standard therapy and 36 (18.3%) received DSED. For the primary outcome, VF termination was significantly higher for DSED compared to standard therapy (63.9% vs 18.0%; Δ45.9%; 95% CI: 28.3 to 60.5). For the secondary outcome of VF termination into ROSC, DSED was associated with significantly higher ROSC compared to standard care (33.3% vs 13%; Δ20.3%; 95% CI:13.0 to 33.3). The median (IQR) number of failed standard shocks prior to DSED was 8 (6, 10). When DSED terminated VF, it did so with a single DSED shock in 69.6% of cases. Conclusion: Our observational findings suggest improved VF termination and ROSC are associated with DSED compared to standard therapy for shock refractory VF. An appropriately powered randomized controlled trial is required to assess the impact of DSED on patient-important outcomes.
Introduction: 9-1-1 telecommunicators receive minimal education on agonal breathing, often resulting in unrecognized out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We successfully piloted an educational intervention that significantly improved telecommunicators’ OHCA recognition and bystander CPR rates in Ottawa. We sought to better understand the operations of Canadian 9-1-1 communications centers (CC) in preparation for a multi-centre study of this intervention. Methods: We conducted a National survey of all Canadian CCs. Survey domains included information on organizational structure, dispatch system used, education curriculum, and performance monitoring. It was peer-reviewed, translated in French, pilot-tested, and distributed electronically using a modified Dillman method. We designated respondents in each CC before distribution and used targeted follow-up and small incentives to increase response rate. Respondents also described functioning of neighboring CCs if known. Results: We received information from 51/51 provincial and 1/25 territorial CCs, representing 99.7% of the Canadian population. CCs largely utilize the Medical Dispatch Priority System (MPDS) platform (93%), many are Province/Ministry regulated (50%) and most require a High School diploma as minimum entry level education (78%). Telecommunicators receive initial in-class training (median 1.3 months, IQR 0.3-1.9; range 0.1-2.2), often followed by a preceptorship (84.4%) (median 1.0 months, IQR 0.7-1.7; range 0.4-6.0). Educational curriculum includes information on agonal breathing in 41% of CC, without audio examples in 34%. Among responding CCs, over 39,000 suspected OHCA 9-1-1 calls are received annually. Few CCs maintain local performance statistics on OHCA recognition (25%), bystander CPR rates (25%) or survival rates (50%). Most (97%) expressed interest in future research collaborations. Conclusion: Most Canadian telecommunicators receive no or minimal education in recognizing agonal breathing. Further training and improved OHCA monitoring may assist recognition and enhance outcomes.
Early life experiences can affect social behaviour in later life, but opportunities for socio-behavioural development are often overlooked in current husbandry practices. This experiment investigated the effects of rearing piglets in two-stage group lactation (GL) system from 7 or 14 days of age on piglet aggression at weaning. Three lactation housing treatments were applied to a total of 198 piglets from 30 litters of multiparous sows. All dams farrowed in standard farrowing crates (FCs). Group lactation litters were transferred with their dam at 7 (GL7) or 14 days (GL14) postpartum to GL pens (one pen of five sows at 8.4 m2/sow and one pen of seven sows at 8.1 m2/sow, per GL treatment). Farrowing crate litters remained with their dam in a single litter until weaning. At weaning, 10 to 14 piglets from two unfamiliar litters from the same housing treatment were mixed into pens (n=5 pens/treatment) and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 3.5 h. For each pen, the frequency of aggressive bouts (reciprocal and non-reciprocal aggression lasting <5 s), the frequency and duration of fights (reciprocal aggression lasting ⩾5 s) and bullying events (non-reciprocal aggression lasting ⩾5 s) were recorded, along with whether interactions involved familiar or unfamiliar piglets. Aggressive bouts delivered by FC piglets were approximately 1.5 and 3.0 times more frequent than that delivered by GL7 and GL14 piglets, respectively (40.5, 16.7 and 9.9 bouts/pig, respectively; P<0.05). Fighting was more frequent (1.6, 0.3 and 0.4 fights/pig, respectively; P<0.001) and fights were longer (83, 15 and 32 s fight/pig, respectively; P<0.001) between FC piglets than between GL7 or GL14 piglets. Bullying did not differ between housing treatments (P>0.05). GL7 and GL14 piglets engaged in a similar number of fights with unfamiliar as familiar piglets, but FC piglets had almost three times as many fights with unfamiliar than with familiar piglets (P<0.05). This experiment confirms the benefits of GL housing for pig social development. Further investigation is required to determine whether mixing before 14 days postpartum has implications for other indicators of animal welfare and productivity in a two-stage GL housing system.
To achieve increased case and precision of alignment, and to allow for convenient alteration between normal usage with filtered radiation and crystalmonochromated radiation, the G. E. goniometer has been mounted on milling machine beds allowing for x-y translation and 360° rotation; in addition the tube mount was repositioned. The usefulness of this apparatus has been demonstrated by accurately aligning the goniometer for usage with filtered radiation, with a new alignment procedure. As a demonstration of the accuracy and precision of alignment, the lattice parameter of silicon was determined from a powder sample. A least-squares analysis of the data gave a0 = 5.43046 Å with a standard deviation of ±0.00005 Å, in excellent agreement with the value of 5.43054 ± 0.00017 Å determined in a recent International Union of Crystallography test in many laboratories.
A monochromator housing has been built for use with all types of direct-beam monochromators and all radiations. This apparatus attaches to the new tube mount and was used to determine the optimum procedure for preparing the doubly bent LiF monochromator crystals designed by Warren to minimize the volume sampled in the reciprocal space of a single crystal. According to a suggestion made by Chipman, a doubly bent monochromator for use with poly crystalline specimens has been formed and its geometry and applications are presented. This monochromator gives about one-half as much intensity as that obtainable using filtered radiation and similar operating conditions ; this type of monochromator is therefore a powerful tool for use with powder specimens. A transmission diffracted-beam monochromator has also been constructed which attaches in a simple manner under the counter tube housing. Under similar operating conditions with a LiF monochromator, this yields intensities only one-tenth of those obtained using filtered radiation.
Loose farrowing pens have been considered as alternatives to crates to enhance sow welfare. A major concern with pen systems is often higher piglet pre-weaning mortality, especially due to crushing by the sow. An optimal management of light and mat surface temperature may promote greater piglet use of the creep, which has been associated with reduced piglet crushing. A total of 108 sows and their piglets were studied in sow welfare and piglet protection pens on a commercial piggery, across two replicates. Sows were randomly assigned to pens arranged within two creep treatments (bright creep: 300 lx v. dark creep: 4 lx), considering mat temperature as a covariate. Twelve sows and their litters in each treatment (24 in total) had their behaviour continuously recorded for 72-h postpartum (pp), and four focal piglets per litter were weighed on the first and third days pp. In situ behaviour observations were performed daily (from 0800 to 1700 h) on all sows and their litters, every 15 min over 72-h pp to record piglet time spent in the creep, latency to enter the creep for the first time, latency for the litter to remain in the creep for at least 10 min, and piglet and sow use of pen areas immediately in front of (A2) and farthest from the creep (A3). Piglets with access to bright creeps spent on average 7.2% more time (P<0.01) in the creeps than piglets in pens with Dark creeps. In addition, for each degree increase in mat temperature, piglets spent on average 2.1% more time (P<0.01) in the creep. Piglets in pens with bright creeps spent less time in A2 (P=0.04) and the least time in A3 (P=0.01). Light or mat temperature did not affect sow use of pen areas or piglet weight gain. Piglets with bright creeps tended (P=0.06) to take longer to enter the creep for the first time after birth, but the latency for 30.0% of the litter to remain clustered for 10 min tended (P=0.08) to be shorter in bright compared to dark creeps. Overall, piglet use of the creep increased with warm mat temperatures and brightness, which should be further investigated as potential strategies to promote piglet safety and reduce crushing in pen farrowing systems.
African American youths are overrepresented in the American juvenile justice system relative to Caucasians. Yet, research on antisocial behaviors (ASB) has focused on predominantly Caucasian populations. Furthermore, relatively little is known about how environmental factors, such as supportive parenting (e.g., how close adolescents feel to their parent) and school connectedness (e.g., how supported adolescents feel at school), affect trajectories of ASB in Caucasians versus African Americans. This study mapped developmental trajectories of ASB in Caucasians (n = 10,764) and African Americans (n = 4,091) separately, using four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We then examined supportive parenting and school connectedness on the trajectories of ASB. Four trajectories of ASB were identified for both Caucasians and African Americans: negligible, adolescence-peaked, low-persistence, and high-persistence ASB, although prevalence rates differed by racial-ethnic status. Supportive parenting reduced the risk of membership into the adolescence-peaked trajectory for both Caucasians and African Americans. However, school connectedness was less protective for African Americans than for Caucasians because it only predicted a lower risk of adolescence-peaked membership for African Americans. Findings may reflect the complex social dynamics between race and schools in the development of ASB.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the most commonly cited factors that may have influenced infants’ gut microbiota profiles at one year of age: mode of delivery, breastfeeding duration and antibiotic exposure. Barcoded V3/V4 amplicons of bacterial 16S-rRNA gene were prepared from the stool samples of 52 healthy 1-year-old Australian children and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Following the quality checks, the data were processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline and analysed using the Calypso package for microbiome data analysis. The stool microbiota profiles of children still breastfed were significantly different from that of children weaned earlier (P<0.05), independent of the age of solid food introduction. Among children still breastfed, Veillonella spp. abundance was higher. Children no longer breastfed possessed a more ‘mature’ microbiota, with notable increases of Firmicutes. The microbiota profiles of the children could not be differentiated by delivery mode or antibiotic exposure. Further analysis based on children’s feeding patterns found children who were breastfed alongside solid food had significantly different microbiota profiles compared to that of children who were receiving both breastmilk and formula milk alongside solid food. This study provided evidence that breastfeeding continues to influence gut microbial community even at late infancy when these children are also consuming table foods. At this age, any impacts from mode of delivery or antibiotic exposure did not appear to be discernible imprints on the microbial community profiles of these healthy children.
Emergency physicians are using bolus-dose vasopressors to temporize hypotensive patients until more definitive blood pressure support can be established. Despite a paucity of clinical outcome data, emergency department applications are expanding into the prehospital setting. This series presents two cases of field expedient vasopressor use by emergency medicine providers for preflight stabilization during aeromedical evacuation to a hospital ship as part of the United States Navy disaster response in Puerto Rico. A critical approach and review of the literature are discussed.
Two critically ill patients were managed in an austere environment as a result of the devastation from Hurricane Maria (Yabucoa, Puerto Rico; 2017). They both exhibited signs of respiratory distress, hemodynamic instability, and distributive shock requiring definitive airway management and hemodynamic support prior to aeromedical evacuation.
The novel use of field expedient vasopressors prior to induction for rapid sequence intubation was successfully and safely employed in both cases. Both patients had multiple risk factors for peri-induction cardiac arrest given their presenting hemodynamics. Despite their illness severity, both patients were induced, transported, and ultimately admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in stable condition following administration of the field expedient vasopressors.
Field expedient vasopressors were safely and effectively employed in an austere field environment during a disaster response. This case series contributes to the growing body of literature of safe bolus-dose vasopressor use by emergency physicians to temporize hypotensive patients in resource-constrained situations.
HardwickJM, MurnanSD, Morrison-PonceDP, DevlinJJ. Field Expedient Vasopressors During Aeromedical Evacuation: A Case Series from the Puerto Rico Disaster Response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):668–672.
Internal gravity wave energy contributes significantly to the energy budget of the oceans, affecting mixing and the thermohaline circulation. Hence it is important to determine the internal wave energy flux
is the pressure perturbation field and
is the velocity perturbation field. However, the pressure perturbation field is not directly accessible in laboratory or field observations. Previously, a Green’s function based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous energy flux field from a measured density perturbation field
, given a constant buoyancy frequency
. Here we present methods for computing the instantaneous energy flux
for an internal wave field with vertically varying background
, as in the oceans where
typically decreases by two orders of magnitude from the pycnocline to the deep ocean. Analytic methods are presented for computing
from a density perturbation field for
varying linearly with
. To generalize this approach to arbitrary
, we present a computational method for obtaining
. The results for
for the different cases agree well with results from direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations. Our computational method can be applied to any density perturbation data using the MATLAB graphical user interface ‘EnergyFlux’.
This paper examines the importance of pensions (employment and social security), taxes and government transfers for alternative retirement savings drawdown strategies (DS), compared to the conventional approach in published literature of using a gross income concept obtainable from retirement savings alone. Using a lifetime utility framework, our longitudinal dynamic micro-simulation model incorporates risk aversion, stochastic markets, stochastic mortality and the interactions among sources of retirement income within the complex Canadian tax and social benefit system, enabling us to rank commonly advocated DS and to ask whether incorporating pensions, taxes and transfers alters those rankings. Our findings show the importance of treating the evaluation of alternative DS as a comprehensive and integrated problem by including all sources of income — including pensions, taxes and government transfers. Using restricted income measures can potentially lead to simplistic, and possibly misleading, conclusions.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress/trauma exposure are cross-sectionally associated with advanced DNA methylation age relative to chronological age. However, longitudinal inquiry and examination of associations between advanced DNA methylation age and a broader range of psychiatric disorders is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if PTSD, depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders predicted acceleration of DNA methylation age over time (i.e. an increasing pace, or rate of advancement, of the epigenetic clock).
Genome-wide DNA methylation and a comprehensive set of psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were assessed in 179 Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans who completed two assessments over the course of approximately 2 years. Two DNA methylation age indices (Horvath and Hannum), each a weighted index of an array of genome-wide DNA methylation probes, were quantified. The pace of the epigenetic clock was operationalized as change in DNA methylation age as a function of time between assessments.
Analyses revealed that alcohol-use disorders (p = 0.001) and PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms (p = 0.02) at Time 1 were associated with an increasing pace of the epigenetic clock over time, per the Horvath (but not the Hannum) index of cellular aging.
This is the first study to suggest that posttraumatic psychopathology is longitudinally associated with a quickened pace of the epigenetic clock. Results raise the possibility that accelerated cellular aging is a common biological consequence of stress-related psychopathology, which carries implications for identifying mechanisms of stress-related cellular aging and developing interventions to slow its pace.