Human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently identified in respiratory samples from patients with acute respiratory infections and has been reported in different regions of the world. To the best of our knowledge, HBoV has never been reported in respiratory infections in Brazil. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients aged <5 years hospitalized in 2005 with respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto, southeast Brazil, and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HBoV. HBoV-positive samples were further tested by PCR for human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human coronaviruses 229E and OC43, human influenza viruses A and B, human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, human rhinovirus and human adenovirus. HBoV was detected in 26/248 (10·5%) children of which 21 (81%) also tested positive for other respiratory viruses. Despite the high rates of co-infections, no significant differences were found between HBoV-positive patients with and without co-infections with regard to symptoms.