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Control of fire was a hallmark of developing human cognition and an essential technology for the colonisation of cooler latitudes. In Europe, the earliest evidence comes from recent work at the site of Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar in south-eastern Spain. Charred and calcined bone and thermally altered chert were recovered from a deep, 0.8-million-year-old sedimentary deposit. A combination of analyses indicated that these had been heated to 400–600°C, compatible with burning. Inspection of the sediment and hydroxyapatite also suggests combustion and degradation of the bone. The results provide new insight into Early Palaeolithic use of fire and its significance for human evolution.
Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (TAF) multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) suspensions have the potential for creating conductive coatings on insulating films for numerous applications. However, there are few studies on polymer MWCNT suspension properties and even fewer that use Teflon. To define mechanical and electrical property relationships, bilayer films of TAF-MWCNT were created with differing concentrations of MWCNTs. Nanoindentation revealed that addition of 8 wt% MWCNTs to TAF increased the elastic modulus by about 25% and hardness by about 15%. Conducting indentation showed 8 wt% MWCNT films exhibit uniform stable conductance once indentation depth exceeds several hundred nanometers. Films with lower concentrations of CNTs were insulating. The two techniques provide a unique description of structure property relationships in this suspension film system.
Outcomes following admission to residential alternatives to standard in-patient mental health services are underresearched.
To explore short-term outcomes and costs of admission to alternative and standard services.
Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), Threshold Assessment Grid (TAG), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and admission cost data were collected for six alternative services and six standard services.
All outcomes improved during admission for both types of service (n = 433). Adjusted improvement was greater for standard services in scores on HoNOS (difference 1.99, 95% CI 1.12–2.86), TAG (difference 1.40, 95% CI 0.39–2.51) and GAF functioning (difference 4.15, 95% CI 1.08–7.22) but not GAF symptoms. Admissions to alternatives were 20.6 days shorter, and hence cheaper (UK£3832 v. £9850). Standard services cost an additional £2939 per unit HoNOS improvement.
The absence of clear-cut advantage for either type of service highlights the importance of the subjective experience and longer-term costs.
Differences in the content of care provided by acute in-patient mental health wards and residential crisis services such as crisis houses have not been researched.
To compare planned and actual care provided at alternative and standard acute wards and to investigate the relationship between care received and patient satisfaction.
Perspectives of stakeholders, including local service managers, clinicians and commissioners, were obtained from 23 qualitative interviews. Quantitative investigation of the care provided at four alternative and four standard services was undertaken using three instruments developed for this study. The relationship of care received to patient satisfaction was explored.
No significant difference was found in intensity of staff– patient contact between alternative and standard services. Alternative services provided more psychological and less physical and pharmacological care than standard wards. Care provision may be more collaborative and informal in alternative services. All measured types of care were positively associated with patient satisfaction. Measured differences in the care provided did not explain the greater acceptability of community alternatives.
Similarities in care may be more marked than differences at alternative and standard services. Staff–patient contact is an important determinant of patient satisfaction, so increasing it should be a priority for all acute in-patient services.
The draft paper sets out the authors' views of what good practice for the actuarial aspects of internal models will look like in 2012, the year Solvency II is expected to be implemented. Actuaries working on internal models can expect to have to follow such practices if their internal models are to be approved for use in calculating regulatory capital. The paper is therefore relevant for actuaries who plan to work on internal model implementation for Solvency II.
Moreover, the risk quantification techniques discussed in the paper can also be used in the Own Risk Solvency Assessment (ORSA) process also required by Solvency II. The paper is therefore relevant to actuaries working in companies that are not planning to apply to use an internal model.
The paper covers both life and non-life insurance and reinsurance, and reviews current practice as well as setting out possible future practice. This leads to identification of areas for research by the Profession to prepare for 2012 and an indication of the directions this work might take.
The paper is effectively a work in progress, and readers should ask themselves what they should do in response to the ideas discussed.
To examine the contribution of genetic factors to food choice, we determined dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires in 3262 UK female twins aged 18 to 79 years. Five distinct dietary patterns were identified (fruit and vegetable, high alcohol, traditional English, dieting, low meat) that accounted for 22% of the total variance. These patterns are similar to those found in other singleton Western populations, and were related to body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and deprivation scores. Older subjects had higher scores on the fruit and vegetable and traditional English patterns, while lower social deprivation was associated with higher scores for fruit and vegetable, and lower scores for traditional English patterns. All 5 patterns were heritable, with estimates ranging from 41% to 48%. Among individual dietary components, a strongly heritable component was identified for garlic (46%), coffee (41%), fruit and vegetable sources (49%), and red meat (39%). Our results indicate that genetic factors have an important influence in determining food choice and dietary habits in Western populations. The relatively high heritability of specific dietary components implicates taste perception as a possible target for future genetic studies.
The success of efforts to re-establish mammalian carnivores within their former range is dependent on three key factors: methodological considerations, the biological requirements of the target species, and the involvement of local human communities for whom large carnivores pose a threat. We consider the role of these factors in the first 13 years of an effort to re-establish wild lions in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We employed soft-release methods to mitigate the characteristic problems associated with restoration of large carnivores. A pre-release captivity period facilitated acclimatization of reintroduced lions and promoted long-term bonding of unfamiliar individuals into cohesive groups. All individuals remained in the release area and established enduring, stable home ranges. Reintroduced lions successfully reproduced and raised 78% of their cubs to independence. Human activity was the cause of all post-release mortality. Despite rapid population growth and the re-establishment of the species at Phinda Private Game Reserve, the population is small and isolated with little prospect for re-colonizing additional areas where the species has been extirpated, or for connecting with other isolated lion populations in the region. Accordingly, although we essentially overcame the short-term technical and biological challenges facing lion reintroduction, the long-term value of the Phinda population for addressing the conservation issues facing the species remains equivocal.
The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is expressed by a pair of 12-transmembrane-domain-containing proteins, the RhCcEe and RhD proteins. RhCcEe and RhD associate as a Rh core complex that comprises one RhD/CcEe protein and most likely two Rh-associated glycoproteins (RhAG) as a trimer. All these Rh proteins are homologous and share this homology with two human non-erythroid proteins, RhBG and RhCG. All Rh protein superfamily members share homology and function in a similar manner to the Mep/Amt ammonium transporters, which are highly conserved in bacteria, plants and invertebrates. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the structure and function of Rh proteins, as well as in the clinical management of Rh haemolytic disease. This review summarises our current knowledge concerning the molecular biology of Rh proteins and their role in transfusion and pregnancy incompatibility.
The threatened species categories now used in Red Data Books and Red Lists have been in place, with some modification, for almost 30 years. Since their introduction these categories have become widely recognised and they are now used in a whole range of publications and listings, produced by the IUCN and numerous governmental and non-governmental organisations. Red Data Books provide an easily and widely understood method for highlighting those species under higher extinction risk, in order to focus attention on conservation measures designed to protect them.
In 1984 the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the IUCN held a symposium (Fitter & Fitter, 1987) that examined the issue of revising the categories and at which a number of options were considered for a revised system. No single proposal resulted. The current phase of development began in 1989 with a request from the SSC Steering Committee to develop a new approach that would provide the conservation community with useful information for action planning. After numerous versions of draft proposals (Mace & Lande, 1991; Mace et al., 1992; IUCN, 1993; Mace & Stuart, 1994), a final document, incorporating changes as a result of comments from IUCN members, was adopted by the IUCN Council in December 1994. The 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species was the first publication to utilise these new categories of threat.