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Governing Privacy in Knowledge Commons explores how privacy impacts knowledge production, community formation, and collaborative governance in diverse contexts, ranging from academia and IoT, to social media and mental health. Using nine new case studies and a meta-analysis of previous knowledge commons literature, the book integrates the Governing Knowledge Commons framework with Helen Nissenbaum's Contextual Integrity framework. The multidisciplinary case studies show that personal information is often a key component of the resources created by knowledge commons. Moreover, even when it is not the focus of the commons, personal information governance may require community participation and boundaries. Taken together, the chapters illustrate the importance of exit and voice in constructing and sustaining knowledge commons through appropriate personal information flows. They also shed light on the shortcomings of current notice-and-consent style regulation of social media platforms. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This essay argues that social theory, and social science per se, must be reconstructed to address a rapidly emergent planetary crisis characterized by exceptional ecological degradation and extreme economic inequality. The task requires re-envisioning society as part of the interdependent “web of nature,” acknowledging that humans face ecological constraints like all other living things with which we share the planet, grasping the growth imperative for capital accumulation as the primary driver of the socioecological crisis, and coming to terms with the need to radically transform capitalism as we have known it to escape catastrophe.
Robert J. Antonio teaches sociology at the University of Kansas. He specializes in social theory, but also works on globalization, political economy, and the environment. Currently he is working on projects related to capitalism’s crisis tendencies, especially concerning the intersection of increased economic inequality, ecological risk, and democratic and authoritarian responses.
Brett Clark is Professor of Sociology, Environmental Humanities, and Environmental and Sustainability Studies at the University of Utah. His research interests include social theory, political economy, and ecology.
Assessments of antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care have largely focused on viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs). It is unclear whether antibiotic prescribing for bacterial ARIs should also be a target for antibiotic stewardship efforts. In this study, we evaluated antibiotic prescribing for viral and potentially bacterial ARIs in patients seen at emergency departments (EDs) and urgent care centers (UCCs).
This retrospective cohort included all ED and UCC visits by patients who were not hospitalized and were seen during weekday, daytime hours during 2016–2018 in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Guideline concordance was evaluated for viral ARIs and for 3 potentially bacterial ARIs: acute exacerbation of COPD, pneumonia, and sinusitis.
There were 3,182,926 patient visits across 129 sites: 80.7% in EDs and 19.3% in UCCs. Mean patient age was 60.2 years, 89.4% were male, and 65.6% were white. Antibiotics were prescribed during 608,289 (19.1%) visits, including 42.7% with an inappropriate indication. For potentially bacterial ARIs, guideline-concordant management varied across clinicians (median, 36.2%; IQR, 26.0–52.7) and sites (median, 38.2%; IQR, 31.7–49.4). For viral ARIs, guideline-concordant management also varied across clinicians (median, 46.2%; IQR, 24.1–68.6) and sites (median, 40.0%; IQR, 30.4–59.3). At the clinician and site levels, we detected weak correlations between guideline-concordant management for viral ARIs and potentially bacterial ARIs: clinicians (r = 0.35; P = .0001) and sites (r = 0.44; P < .0001).
Our findings suggest that, across EDs and UCCs within VHA, there are major opportunities to improve management of both viral and potentially bacterial ARIs. Some clinicians and sites are more frequently adhering to ARI guideline recommendations on antibiotic use.
Body mass index, race/ethnicity, and payer status are associated with operative mortality in congenital heart disease (CHD). Interactions between these predictors and impacts on longer term outcomes are less well understood. We studied the effect of body mass index, race/ethnicity, and payer on 1-year outcomes following elective CHD surgery and tested the degree to which race/ethnicity and payer explained the effects of body mass index. Patients aged 2–25 years who underwent elective CHD surgery at our centre from 2010 to 2017 were included. We assessed 1-year unplanned cardiac re-admissions, re-interventions, and mortality. Step-wise, multivariable logistic regression was performed.
Of the 929 patients, 10.4% were underweight, 14.9% overweight, and 8.5% obese. Non-white race/ethnicity comprised 40.4% and public insurance 29.8%. Only 0.5% died prior to hospital discharge with one additional death in the first post-operative year. Amongst patients with continuous follow-up, unplanned re-admission and re-intervention rates were 14.7% and 12.3%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for surgical complexity and surgeon, obese, overweight, and underweight patients had higher odds of re-admission than normal-weight patients (OR 1.40, p = 0.026; OR 1.77, p < 0.001; OR 1.44, p = 0.008). Underweight patients had more than twice the odds of re-intervention compared with normal weight (OR 2.12, p < 0.001). These associations persisted after adjusting for race/ethnicity, payer, and surgeon.
Pre-operative obese, overweight, and underweight body mass index were associated with unplanned re-admission and/or re-intervention 1-year following elective CHD surgery, even after accounting for race/ethnicity and payer status. Body mass index may be an important modifiable risk factor prior to CHD surgery.
Time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures can guide antimicrobial therapy. This single-center retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the yield of clinically significant organisms from blood cultures that were initially negative at 24 hours. Clinically significant organisms were uncommon after 24 hours (1.5%) and more common in intensive care unit settings.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Currently available treatments do not yield remission in approximately a third of patients with a mood disorder. This is in part because these treatments do not target a specific core pathology underlying these heterogeneous disorders. In recent years, abnormal inflammatory processes have been identified as putative pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets in mood disorders, particularly among individuals with treatment-resistant conditions.
In this selective review, we aimed to summarise recent advances in the field of immunopsychiatry, including emerging pathophysiological models and findings from treatment ttrials of immunomodulatory agents for both MDD and bipolar disorders.
We performed a literature review by searching Medline for clinical trials of immunomodulating agents as monotherapy or adjunctive treatments in MDD and bipolar disorders. Included studies are randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or cross-over trials of immunomodulating agents that had an active comparator or a placebo-arm.
Current evidence shows an association between inflammation and mood symptoms. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether this link is causal.
Future studies should focus on identifying specific neurobiological underpinnings for the putative causal association between an activated inflammatory response and mood disorders. Results of these studies are needed before further treatment trials of immunomodulatory agents can be justified.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
Registry-based trials have emerged as a potentially cost-saving study methodology. Early estimates of cost savings, however, conflated the benefits associated with registry utilisation and those associated with other aspects of pragmatic trial designs, which might not all be as broadly applicable. In this study, we sought to build a practical tool that investigators could use across disciplines to estimate the ranges of potential cost differences associated with implementing registry-based trials versus standard clinical trials.
We built simulation Markov models to compare unique costs associated with data acquisition, cleaning, and linkage under a registry-based trial design versus a standard clinical trial. We conducted one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, varying study characteristics over broad ranges, to determine thresholds at which investigators might optimally select each trial design.
Registry-based trials were more cost effective than standard clinical trials 98.6% of the time. Data-related cost savings ranged from $4300 to $600,000 with variation in study characteristics. Cost differences were most reactive to the number of patients in a study, the number of data elements per patient available in a registry, and the speed with which research coordinators could manually abstract data. Registry incorporation resulted in cost savings when as few as 3768 independent data elements were available and when manual data abstraction took as little as 3.4 seconds per data field.
Registries offer important resources for investigators. When available, their broad incorporation may help the scientific community reduce the costs of clinical investigation. We offer here a practical tool for investigators to assess potential costs savings.
This study examined the relationship between patient performance on multiple memory measures and regional brain volumes using an FDA-cleared quantitative volumetric analysis program – Neuroreader™.
Ninety-two patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by a clinical neuropsychologist completed cognitive evaluations and underwent MR Neuroreader™ within 1 year of testing. Select brain regions were correlated with three widely used memory tests. Regression analyses were conducted to determine if using more than one memory measures would better predict hippocampal z-scores and to explore the added value of recognition memory to prediction models.
Memory performances were most strongly correlated with hippocampal volumes than other brain regions. After controlling for encoding/Immediate Recall standard scores, statistically significant correlations emerged between Delayed Recall and hippocampal volumes (rs ranging from .348 to .490). Regression analysis revealed that evaluating memory performance across multiple memory measures is a better predictor of hippocampal volume than individual memory performances. Recognition memory did not add further predictive utility to regression analyses.
This study provides support for use of MR Neuroreader™ hippocampal volumes as a clinically informative biomarker associated with memory performance, which is a critical diagnostic feature of MCI phenotype.
Allele A1 of the TaqI A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been found to be associated with substance abuse and alcoholism. The personality trait of Novelty Seeking (NS) is also associated with substance abuse and dependence. We hypothesised, on the basis of involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in substance abuse, that the presence of allele A1 of the dopamine D2 receptor gene may represent a genetic predisposition for the NS personality trait. We investigated, therefore, whether the allele A1 of the TaqI A RFLP of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with the NS dimension of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) in healthy Caucasian subjects with no history of alcohol or substance abuse or dependence. We genotyped 204 subjects aged 18 to 30 years. There was no association between any of the alleles of the D2 receptor genes and any of the TPQ scores (NS, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence). We conclude that allele A1 of the TaqI A RFLP of the dopamine D2 receptor is not associated with NS personality trait in healthy Caucasian subjects.
Acute care research (ACR) is uniquely challenged by the constraints of recruiting participants and conducting research procedures within minutes to hours of an unscheduled critical illness or injury. Existing competencies for clinical research professionals (CRPs) are gaining traction but may have gaps for the acute environment. We sought to expand existing CRP competencies to include the specialized skills needed for ACR settings.
Qualitative data collected from job shadowing, clinical observations, and interviews were analyzed to assess the educational needs of the acute care clinical research workforce. We identified competencies necessary to succeed as an ACR-CRP, and then applied Bloom’s Taxonomy to develop characteristics into learning outcomes that frame both knowledge to be acquired and job performance metrics.
There were 28 special interest competencies for ACR-CRPs identified within the eight domains set by the Joint Task Force (JTF) of Clinical Trial Competency. While the eight domains were not prioritized by the JTF, in ACR an emphasis on Communication and Teamwork, Clinical Trials Operations, and Data Management and Informatics was observed. Within each domain, distinct proficiencies and unique personal characteristics essential for success were identified. The competencies suggest that a combination of competency-based training, behavioral-based hiring practices, and continuing professional development will be essential to ACR success.
The competencies developed for ACR can serve as a training guide for CRPs to be prepared for the challenges of conducting research within this vulnerable population. Hiring, training, and supporting the development of this workforce are foundational to clinical research in this challenging setting.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Exposure therapy is consistently indicated as the first-line treatment for anxiety-related disorders. Unfortunately, therapists often deliver exposure therapy in an overly cautious, less effective manner, characterized by using their own ‘therapist safety behaviours’. Cognitive behavioural models postulate that beliefs about therapist safety behaviours are related to their use; however, little is known about the beliefs therapists hold regarding therapist safety behaviour use. The present study aimed to identify the beliefs exposure therapists have regarding the necessity of therapist safety behaviours and to examine the relationship between this construct and therapist safety behaviour use. Australian psychologists (n = 98) completed an online survey that included existing measures of therapist safety behaviour use, therapist negative beliefs about exposure therapy, likelihood to exclude anxious clients from exposure therapy, and use of intensifying exposure techniques. Participants also completed the Exposure Implementation Beliefs Scale (EIBS), a measure created for the present study which assesses beliefs regarding the necessity of therapist safety behaviours. Beliefs about the necessity of therapist safety behaviours – particularly in protecting the client – significantly predicted therapist safety behaviour use. Findings suggest that exposure therapy training media should aim to decrease therapist safety behaviour use by addressing beliefs about the necessity of therapist safety behaviours, especially in protecting the client.
Key learning aims
(1) To understand what therapist safety behaviours are in the context of exposure therapy.
(2) To identify common beliefs about therapist safety behaviours.
(3) To understand how beliefs about therapist safety behaviours relate to therapist safety behaviour use.
(4) To consider how exposure therapy delivery may be improved by modifying beliefs about therapist safety behaviours.
(5) To explore how beliefs about therapist safety behaviours may be modified to reduce therapist safety behaviour use.
A 73-year-old male with a history of chronic ataxia presented with transient facial droop to the Emergency Department. A CT angiogram and MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were negative for stroke. However, incidental note was made of numerous giant arachnoid granulation pits in the posterior fossa predominantly involving the left occipital bone (Figure 1). These arachnoid pits demonstrated multiple foci of herniation of the adjacent cerebellar parenchyma into the pits with gliosis of the herniated parenchyma and focal encephalomalacia of the subjacent cerebellar parenchyma. Review of bone windows on a remote CT brain performed almost 13 years earlier confirmed this to be a longstanding abnormality (Figure 2). The patient’s physical exam was suggestive of cerebellar ataxia with left-sided dysmetria on finger to nose testing and a wide-based unsteady gait.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.