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Conventional silicon-based electronics have faced challenges in the realization of soft bioelectronics, such as wearable and implantable integrated devices, which necessitate electrically and mechanically interactive biotic–abiotic interfacing without disturbing the daily life of the user or posing biocompatibility issues. Recently, much effort has been directed at overcoming the mechanical limitations of conventional rigid electronics by replacement of bulky, thick, and rigid electronic materials with biocompatible, soft, and nanoscale electronic materials, which exhibit intrinsic mechanical deformability as well as superior electrical properties. Recent advances in the synthesis of unconventional nanomaterials, surface functionalization methods, and integrated device fabrication techniques have resulted in further improvements in the performance of nanomaterials-based soft bioelectronics. Numerous studies have focused on the biological, electrical, and mechanical analyses of heterogeneous nanomaterial–biosystem interfaces as well as the development of efficient integration processes of soft nanomaterials into devices. In this article, we summarize the latest advances and future prospects in nanomaterials synthesis, processing, and integration strategies for flexible and stretchable bioelectronics, and their application to wearable and implantable devices.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
We present a young soldier presenting with aborted sudden cardiac death, who was found to have concomitant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. Along with pathological haemodynamic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an easily-inducible re-entrant tachycardia was clearly documented in our patient. Given the fatal potential of supraventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we postulated that his tachyarrhythmia could potentially trigger the event. Upon his refusal to receive implantable cardioverter/defibrillator therapy, we ablated anatomical arrhythmogenic substrate instead, and he remained uneventfully over 3 years on β-blocker.
In Democratic People's Republic of Korea, only Plasmodium vivax malaria is prevalent, which is divided into two forms – long incubation form and short form. Among malaria cases reported in a year, long form accounts for 69% and short form 31%. Incubation period of short form ranges from 10 to 29 days (average 17 days) and long from 5·5 to 16 months (average 8–13 months). The most relapses (90%) were reported from May to September – malaria transmission season in the country. Result from preliminary mass chemoprevention in small size of population before transmission season to find appropriate method showed high protective efficacy in two regimens – one regimen given primaquine 0·25 mg base kg−1 day−1 for 14 days (95%) and another 0·5 mg base kg−1 day−1 for 7 days (94%). During the mass chemoprevention with primaquine, some adverse effects were reported but transient. We consider that mass chemoprevention with primaquine before transmission season is of great significance in disturbing the vivax malaria transmission, in which long incubation form is predominant in countries prevailing seasonal malaria.
Nancy Abelmann passed away on January 6, 2016, at the age of fifty-six. She received her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1990, after completing her dissertation under Nelson Graburn. That same year, she was hired by the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where she worked for two and a half decades. She was a beloved teacher, mentor, and colleague to many, and she was a key figure in multiple departments and centers. At the time of her death, she held the Harold E. Preble Professorship in Anthropology, Asian American Studies, East Asian Languages and Cultures, and Women and Gender Studies and was also Associate Vice Chancellor for Research.
In 2005, using a famous lemma of Atkin and Swinnerton-Dyer (Some properties of partitions, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (3) 4 (1954), 84–106), Yesilyurt (Four identities related to third order mock theta functions in Ramanujan’s lost notebook, Adv. Math. 190 (2005), 278–299) proved four identities for third order mock theta functions found on pages 2 and 17 in Ramanujan’s lost notebook. The primary purpose of this paper is to offer new proofs in the spirit of what Ramanujan might have given in the hope that a better understanding of the identities might be gained. Third order mock theta functions are intimately connected with ranks of partitions. We prove new dissections for two rank generating functions, which are keys to our proof of the fourth, and the most difficult, of Ramanujan’s identities. In the last section of this paper, we establish new relations for ranks arising from our dissections of rank generating functions.
An index of biomarkers derived from dietary factors (diet–biomarker-related index) identifies foods and nutrients that encompass physiological potentials and provides scientific evidence for dietary patterns that increase the risk of disease associated with specific biomarkers. Although men and women have different dietary patterns and physiological characteristics, sex is not often considered when investigators develop a diet–biomarker-related index. We aimed to review whether epidemiological studies developed diet–biomarker-related indices in a sex-specific way.
We systematically searched for epidemiological studies that developed diet–biomarker-related indices, including (i) biomarker prediction indices that include dietary factors as explanatory variables and (ii) dietary patterns to explain biomarker variations, in the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We qualitatively reviewed the sex consideration in index development.
We identified seventy-nine studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index. We found that fifty-four studies included both men and women. Of these fifty-four studies, twenty-nine (53·7 %) did not consider sex, eleven (20·3 %) included sex in the development model, seven (13·0 %) considered sex but did not include sex in the development model, and seven (13·0 %) derived a diet–biomarker-related index for men and women separately. A list of selected dietary factors that explained levels of biomarkers generally differed by sex in the studies that developed a diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way.
Most studies that included both men and women did not develop the diet–biomarker-related index in a sex-specific way. Further research is needed to identify whether a sex-specific diet–biomarker-related index is more predictive of the disease of interest than an index without sex consideration.
We introduce a model that extends the standard vote choice model to encompass text. In our model, votes and speech are generated from a common set of underlying preference parameters. We estimate the parameters with a sparse Gaussian copula factor model that estimates the number of latent dimensions, is robust to outliers, and accounts for zero inflation in the data. To illustrate its workings, we apply our estimator to roll call votes and floor speech from recent sessions of the US Senate. We uncover two stable dimensions: one ideological and the other reflecting to Senators’ leadership roles. We then show how the method can leverage common speech in order to impute missing data, recovering reliable preference estimates for rank-and-file Senators given only leadership votes.
Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening foodborne pathogen found in powdered infant formula and dairy products. Kefir is a dairy probiotic product and its antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii was reported in our previous study. To identify key microorganisms that mediate growth suppression, we tested the antimicrobial activity of culture supernatants derived from lactic acid bacteria found in kefir. Lactobacillus kefiri DH5, L. kefiranofaciens DH101, and Bifidobacterium longum 720 (a commercial probiotic strain that served as a positive control) all significantly inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544, delaying the initiation of exponential growth from 3 to 9 h in the nutrient broth. Among them, L. kefiri DH5 exerted the strongest antimicrobial effects against C. sakazakii, showing bactericidal effect at the addition of 300 µl of supernatant in 1 ml of nutrient broth. Interestingly, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 has higher pH and lower titrable acidity than that of L. kefiranofaciens DH101, suggesting metabolites produced by heterofermentation of L. kefiri acted more effectively to antagonise the growth of C. sakazakii. In addition, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 induced the leakage of cytoplasmic materials including nucleic acid and proteins, suggesting L. kefiri DH5 disrupted the cellular membrane integrity of C. sakazakii. Considering that pH neutralisation reduced the L. kefiri-dependent growth suppression, it is inferred that this activity is mainly due to organic acids produced during the fermentation process.
According to social exchange theory, the motivation for organizational citizenship behavior can be understood with the help of the frameworks of obligation to reciprocate and expected reciprocity. This study predicts that the true motivation for organizational citizenship behavior could be differentiated conditional on the career plateau. These relationships predict the existence of a U-shaped nonlinear relationship between the career plateau and organizational citizenship behavior. In addition to exploring this relationship, the study attempted to discover the effect of organizational commitment and job involvement on the relationship. As a result, a U-shaped curvilinear relationship is applied between career plateau and four dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior except civic virtue. Commitment and involvement show unexpected moderating effects on those curved relationships.
A growing number of studies are emphasizing the importance of positive and negative appraisals of caregiving and the utilization of social resources to buffer the negative effects of caring for persons with dementia. By assessing the roles of unmet needs and formal support, this study tested a hypothesized model for Korean family caregivers’ satisfaction and burden in providing care for persons with dementia.
The stress process model and a two-factor model were used as the conceptual framework for this study. Data for 320 family caregivers from a large cross-sectional survey, the Seoul Dementia Management study, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. In the hypothesized model, the exogenous variables were patient symptoms, including cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, and dependency on others to help with activities of daily living and with instrumental activities of daily living. The endogenous variables were the caregiver's perception of the unmet needs of the patient, formal support, caregiving satisfaction, and caregiving burden.
The adjusted model explained the mediating effect of unmet needs on the relationship between patient symptoms or formal support and caregiving satisfaction. Formal support also had a mediating effect on the relationship between patient symptoms and unmet needs. Patient symptoms and caregiving satisfaction had a significant direct effect on caregiving burden.
The level of unmet needs of persons with dementia and their family caregivers must be considered in the development of support programs focused on improving caregiving satisfaction.
A sediment core (14DH-C01) obtained from the mouth of Gomso Bay, on the west coast of South Korea, was used to obtain high-resolution palynomorph, grain-size, and 14C age data to investigate the Holocene sedimentary environment. The results indicated a transgressive depositional process with four stages controlled by sea-level change, as follows: river-dominated fluvial deposition from the early Holocene to 8.48 cal ka BP; tide-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.48 to 8.08 cal ka BP; tide- to wave-dominated tidal channel fill transgression from 8.08 to 6.98 cal ka BP; and wave-dominated marine transgression from 6.98 cal ka BP to the present. Tidal channel filling was the primary mid-Holocene depositional process, accounting for the high sedimentation rate observed. The different hydrodynamics of the river-dominated, tide-dominated, tide- to wave-dominated, and wave-dominated processes following the changes in sea level may have controlled the transgressive depositional process. This transgressive sedimentary model differs from those of other large river mouth areas (e.g., the Changjiang River) since the mid-Holocene, perhaps resulting from the limited sediment supply in the study area.
Radiocarbon (14C) is a radionuclide generated mainly through neutron-induced reactions in all types of nuclear reactors. Since most of the 14C released into the environment is in the form of gaseous emissions (CO2 and hydrocarbons), terrestrial plants are the primary indicators of increased 14C levels near nuclear power plants (NPPs). In 2013–2014, we collected samples of silver grasses (including common reed) and pine needles within 3 km of four South Korean NPP centers and measured 14C activities using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Seoul National University. The highest 14C activities were observed, respectively, in Wolsong>Hanul>Kori>Hanbit [220, 143, 127, and 123% modern carbon (pMC)].
Objectives: We conducted a meta-analysis of recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to identify the most effective and safe etanercept dosing regimen and duration of therapy for the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for RCTs. The proportion of patients attaining 20 percent improvement (according to the Spondyloarthritis International Society response criteria [ASAS 20]) was evaluated as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included 50 percent increase in the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI 50) used for evaluating efficacy, as well as the BASDAI/Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) scores and adverse events.
Results: ASAS 20 indicated that the efficacy of etanercept did not differ amongst dosing regimens (25 mg twice-weekly versus 50 mg once-weekly: relative risk [RR], 2.18, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.78–2.67 versus RR, 2.00, 95 percent CI, 1.70–2.37). The ASAS 20 reported subgroup differences among treatment durations of less than 12 weeks (RR, 2.70; 95 percent CI, 2.09–3.49); 12 weeks (RR, 1.74; 95 percent CI, 1.37–2.22); and more than 12 weeks (RR, 2.56; 95 percent CI, 1.88–3.48). Other outcomes included BASDAI, BASDAI 50, and BASFI. Drug safety differed according to the treatment regimen and duration.
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis found that there was no significant efficacy difference between 50 mg once-weekly and 25 mg twice-weekly dosing for the treatment of AS, and a dosing duration of less than 12 weeks was more effective for treating AS patients.
Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured on the alpha-cellulose in tree rings of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. We developed an annual-resolution δ13C series (1835–1905) by correcting the measured data for changes in δ13C of air to minimize non-climatic influences. To investigate the climatic signal in the δ13C series, we performed correlation analysis between δ13C and the Cheugugi climate data. The Cheugugi precipitation data were first recorded by King Sejong (1397–1450) of the Joseon Dynasty. However, the longest set of precipitation data available is the one collected in Seoul (1776–1907). Although many studies support the reliability of the Cheugugi data, no previous studies have investigated the potential of the δ13C signal in tree rings as paleoclimate proxy using the Cheugugi data. Recent precipitation trends in Yeongwol are quite similar to that of Seoul, and we found significant correlations between the Cheugugi data and the δ13C series. We suggest further studies to replicate these results and confirm whether comparing δ13C variations in tree rings and Cheugugi data is a useful method of investigating the potential of the δ13C signal as a paleoclimate proxy in or near the Korean peninsula.
Existing political economy models explain the politics of trade policy using inter-industry differences. However, this article finds that much of the variation in U.S. applied tariff rates in fact arises within industry. I offer a theory of trade liberalization that explains how product differentiation in economic markets leads to firm-level lobbying in political markets. High levels of product differentiation eliminates the collective action problem faced by exporting firms while import-competing firms need not fear product substitution. To test this argument, I construct a new dataset on lobbying by all publicly traded manufacturing firms from reports filed under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995. I find that productive exporting firms are more likely to lobby to reduce tariffs, especially when their products are sufficiently differentiated. I also find that highly differentiated products have lower tariff rates. The results challenge the common focus on industry-level lobbying for protection.
Lack of understanding the effects of single- and multiple-weed interference on soybean yield has led to inadequate weed management in Primorsky Krai, resulting in much lower average yield than neighboring regions. A 2 yr field experiment was conducted in a soybean field located in Bogatyrka (43.82°N, 131.6°E), Primorsky Krai, Russia, in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of single and multiple interference caused by naturally established weeds on soybean yield and to model these effects. Aboveground dry weight was negatively affected the most by weed interference, followed by number of pods and seeds. Soybean yield under single-weed interference was best demonstrated by a rectangular hyperbolic model, showing that common ragweed and barnyardgrass were the most competitive weed species, followed by annual sowthistle, American sloughgrass, and common lambsquarters. In the case of multiple-weed interference, soybean yield loss was accurately described by a multivariate rectangular hyperbolic model, with total density equivalent as the independent variable. Parameter estimates indicated that weed-free soybean yields were similar in 2013 and 2014, i.e., estimated as 1.72 t and 1.75 t ha−1, respectively, and competitiveness of each weed species was not significantly different between the two years. Economic thresholds for single-weed interference were 0.74, 0.66, 1.15, 1.23, and 1.45 plants m−2 for common ragweed, barnyardgrass, annual sowthistle, American sloughgrass, and common lambsquarters, respectively. The economic threshold for multiple-weed interference was 0.70 density equivalent m−2. These results, including the model, thus can be applied to a decision support system for weed management in soybean cultivation under single and multiple-weed interference in Primorsky Krai and its neighboring regions of Russia.
miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in various cellular processes. Although there are several algorithms that can predict the potential candidate genes that are regulated by a miRNA, these algorithms require further experimental validation in order to demonstrate genuine targets of miRNAs. Moreover, most algorithms predict hundreds to thousands of putative target genes for each miRNA, and it is difficult to validate all candidates using the whole 3′-untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay. We report a fast, simple and efficient experimental approach to screening miRNA candidate targets using a 3′-UTR linker assay. Critically, the linker has only a short miRNA regulatory element sequence of approximately 22 base pairs in length and can provide a benefit for screening strong miRNA candidates for further validation using the whole 3′-UTR sequence. Our technique will provide a simplified platform for the high-throughput screening of miRNA target gene validation.
Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.
To evaluate the clinical and radiological aspects of otic capsule sparing temporal bone fractures.
Using medical records, 188 temporal bones of 173 patients with otic capsule sparing temporal bone fractures were evaluated. Otoscopic findings and symptoms, facial paralysis, and hearing loss were assessed.
Using regional analysis, 7 fractures were classified as type I, 85 as type II, 169 as type III and 114 as type IV. Fourteen of the 17 facial paralysis cases improved to House–Brackmann grade II or lower at an average of 57.6 days after the initial evaluation. Thirty-one patients underwent initial and follow-up pure tone audiometry examinations. The air–bone gap closed significantly from 27.2 dB at an average of 21.8 days post-trauma to 19.6 dB at an average of 79.9 days post-trauma, without the need for surgical intervention.
Initial conservative treatment for facial paralysis or conductive hearing loss is possible in otic capsule sparing fracture cases after careful evaluation of the patient.