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The gut is composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells and plays important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune and barrier functions and amino acid metabolism. Weaning stress impairs piglet intestinal epithelium structural and functional integrities, which results in reduced feed intake, growth rates and increased morbidity and mortality. Several measures are needed to maintain swine gut development and growth performance after weaning stress. A large body of evidence indicates that, in weaning piglets, glutamine, a functional amino acid, may improve growth performance and intestinal morphology, reduce oxidative damage, stimulate enterocyte proliferation, modulate cell survival and death and enhance intestinal paracellular permeability. This review focuses on the effects of glutamine on intestinal health in piglets. The aim is to provide evidentiary support for using glutamine as a feed additive to alleviate weaning stress.
Oxidative stress is closely related to metabolic disorders, which can lead to various diseases. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of oxidative stress. Sodium butyrate (NaB) has been shown to alleviate oxidative stress and insulin resistance, yet how Nrf2 is involved in the action of NaB remains unclear. In this study, rats were rendered obese by feeding a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. NaB (300 mg/kg), which was gavaged every 2 days for 7 weeks, significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Additionally, the insulin signaling pathway in the liver was activated by NaB, associated with significant activation of Nrf2, superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Furthermore, hepatic up-regulation of Nrf2 in NaB-treated rats was associated with reduced protein content of histone deacetylase 1 and increased histone H3 acetyl K9 (H3K9Ac) modification on the Nrf2 promoter. The actions of NaB were completely abolished when Nrf2 was knocked down in vitro. Taken together, NaB acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor to up-regulate Nrf2 expression with enhanced H3K9Ac modification on its promoter. NaB-induced Nrf2 activation stimulates transcription of downstream antioxidant enzymes, thus contributing to the amelioration of high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
The third generation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS-3) is a global navigation system, and is expected to be in full operation by 2020. High-precision orbits are a precondition for BDS-3 to provide a highly accurate service, which needs a global tracking and monitoring capability for the operational satellites. However, it is difficult for BDS to construct global ground monitoring stations. Fortunately, Ka-band Inter-Satellite Link (ISL) antennae fitted to the BDS-3 satellites can be used to extend the visible arc of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites and to enhance the ground stations for orbit determination. This paper analyses the ISL-enhanced orbit determination for eight BDS-3 satellites, using the data from ten Chinese domestic stations and 13 international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) overseas stations. The results show that the Three-Dimensional (3D) position Root Mean Square (RMS) error of the Overlapping Orbit Differences (OODs) is approximately 1 m when only ten regional stations are used. When the ISL measurements are added, the 3D position RMS error is decreased to 0·5 m, and the accuracy of the 24-hour orbit prediction can also be improved from 2 m to 0·7 m, which is even better than that of the orbits determined using globally distributed stations. It can be expected that with the subsequent launch of BDS-3 satellites and the increasing number of ISLs, the advantage of the ISL enhanced orbit determination will become more significant.
Molecular dynamics simulations of different defective kaolinites under tension were performed to reveal the effects of defect location, type, density and temperature on their mechanical properties. Four types of defective kaolinite with Si vacancies were constructed. Based on the atomic-scale deformation and failure processes of defective kaolinite and its stress–strain curves, the Young's moduli and tensile strengths in three crystal directions were obtained and compared with the existing theoretical values from the literature. The defect location at each layer does not affect the mechanical properties of kaolinite and the cracks initiated at the defective sites. The atom density of each model was calculated in order to investigate the defect-type effect on the mechanical properties of kaolinite. The simulation results also showed that kaolinite exhibits brittle failure behaviour and the mechanical properties degrade significantly with increasing defect density and temperature. The influence of temperature on the mechanical properties of defective kaolinite is discussed in detail.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
A photoresponsive double-layer hydrogel has been developed, in which light-sensitive cinnamic moieties are grafted onto a polyacrylamide network to produce a photoresponsive layer and pure polyacrylamide formed the supporting layer. Ag nanoparticles were dispersed using in situ reduction on the photoresponsive layer to act as the catalyst. The as-fabricated hydrogel exhibits a shape memory effect and controllable catalytic behavior under an external light stimulus. When exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light at λ > 260 nm, the resulting cycloaddition of cinnamic moieties not only fix the hydrogel’s temporary shape, but also greatly slow down the catalytic reaction rate. After irradiated with UV light at λ < 260 nm, however, the newly formed crosslinking points are reversibly cleaved. This results in the shape recovery of the hydrogel to its permanent shape. At the same time, the catalytic reaction was greatly accelerated because of the facile diffusion of the reactants into the hydrogel.
Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
To examine urban–rural disparity in childhood stunting, wasting and malnutrition at national and subnational levels in Chinese primary-school children in 2010 and 2014.
Data were obtained from two nationwide cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. Malnutrition was classified using the Chinese national ‘Screening Standard for Malnutrition of Children’.
All twenty-seven mainland provinces and four municipalities of mainland China.
Children aged 7–12 years (n 215 214; 107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) from thirty-one provinces.
Stunting, wasting and malnutrition prevalence were 1·9, 12·3 and 13·7 % in 2010, but decreased to 1·0, 9·4 and 10·2 % in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and malnutrition in both urban and rural children was higher in western provinces, while lower in eastern provinces. Although the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition was higher in rural children than their urban counterparts, the urban–rural disparity in both wasting and malnutrition decreased from 2010 to 2014 (prevalence OR: wasting, 1·35 to 1·16; malnutrition, 1·50 to 1·27). A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition in urban children surpassed their rural peers. The urban–rural disparity was larger in western provinces than eastern provinces.
The shrinking urban–rural disparity and the reversal in wasting and malnutrition suggest that the malnutrition situation has improved during the post-crisis period, especially in the western provinces. Region-specific policies and interventions can be useful to sustainably mitigate malnutrition in Chinese children, especially in rural areas and the western provinces.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
Sinonasal malignant melanoma is a relatively rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and effective treatments remain elusive. This analysis aimed to explore whether post-operative radiotherapy conferred any survival advantages in patients with this disease when compared with surgery alone.
Published studies were identified by searching four electronic databases. The endpoints evaluated were: rates of overall survival, disease-free survival and local control.
Twenty-eight studies including 1392 patients were identified. The results indicated that post-operative radiotherapy led to a significantly better three-year overall survival rate (p = 0.02), and suggested a borderline significant benefit for five-year overall survival (p = 0.05), when compared with surgery alone. However, no statistical advantage was found for disease-free survival, local control or one-year overall survival.
This meta-analysis indicated that adjuvant radiotherapy prolonged survival, but showed no benefit for disease-free survival or local control.
Optoelectronic nanoscale devices have wide applications in chemical, biological, and medical technologies. Improving the performance efficiency of these devices remains a challenge. Performance is mainly dictated by the structure and characteristics of the semiconductor materials. Once a nanodevice is fabricated, its efficiency is determined. The key to improving efficiency is to control the interfaces in the device. In this article, we describe how the piezo-phototronic effect can be effectively utilized to modulate the band at the interface of a metal/semiconductor contact or a p–n junction to enhance the external efficiency of many optoelectronic nanoscale devices such as photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The piezo-phototronic effect can be highly effective at enhancing the efficiency of energy conversion in today’s green and renewable energy technology without using the sophisticated nanofabrication procedures that have high cost and complexity.
The formation of low-angle grain boundaries (LABs) in the rejoined platforms of a Ni-based single crystal superalloy under different directional solidification rates was investigated by the experimental investigation and the ProCAST simulation. The results showed that the growth morphology and orientation evolution of dendrites in the platforms were different under the withdrawal rates in the range of 60–100 μm/s and then resulted in different types of LABs. At lower withdrawal rates, the longitudinal LABs were common in the rejoined platforms. Both the sliver defects and the orientation deviation of original primary dendrites from two independent growth paths could cause the longitudinal LABs in the platforms. At higher withdrawal rates, the dendrite growth patterns were more complex and the secondary branches with lateral growth tended to deviate from their original orientation, eventually leading to the formation of some transverse LABs. Finally, some suggestions to prevent the formation of different LABs are provided.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend χ2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (χ2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
Training students has been proven to be the optimal way to deliver cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. However, it is somehow unknown whether or not the current recommendations appropriate for Caucasian students are also suitable for East Asian students. The purpose of this study is to explore the best age for East Asian students to receive CPR training.
Students were recruited from six schools. Students participated in a standard CPR training program provided by tutors. Each student attended a 60-minute training session with a manikin. After being trained, within one hour, the student’s compression quality was assessed.
A total of 360 students who constituted 12 continuous grades were recruited for this study. Adequate compression depth and satisfactory compression rate with correct hand position could be achieved since the age of 12. However, successful compression rate and complete release could be achieved since the younger age of six.
Current recommendations for Caucasian students to cultivate a full-capacity CPR rescuer at the age of 12 are also appropriate for East Asian students. However, the optimal age for students to receive CPR training should be decided based on evidence and importance assessment of CPR.
He D, Huang K, Yang Y, Jiang W, Yang N, Yang H. What is the optimal age for students to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation training? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):394–398.
Dengue is the fastest spreading mosquito-transmitted disease in the world. In China, Guangzhou City is believed to be the most important epicenter of dengue outbreaks although the transmission patterns are still poorly understood. We developed an autoregressive integrated moving average model incorporating external regressors to examine the association between the monthly number of locally acquired dengue infections and imported cases, mosquito densities, temperature and precipitation in Guangzhou. In multivariate analysis, imported cases and minimum temperature (both at lag 0) were both associated with the number of locally acquired infections (P < 0.05). This multivariate model performed best, featuring the lowest fitting root mean squared error (RMSE) (0.7520), AIC (393.7854) and test RMSE (0.6445), as well as the best effect in model validation for testing outbreak with a sensitivity of 1.0000, a specificity of 0.7368 and a consistency rate of 0.7917. Our findings suggest that imported cases and minimum temperature are two key determinants of dengue local transmission in Guangzhou. The modelling method can be used to predict dengue transmission in non-endemic countries and to inform dengue prevention and control strategies.
The relation between extropy and variational distance is studied in this paper. We determine the distribution which attains the minimum or maximum extropy among these distributions within a given variation distance from any given probability distribution, obtain the tightest upper bound on the difference of extropies of any two probability distributions subject to the variational distance constraint, and establish an analytic formula for the confidence interval of an extropy. Such a study parallels to that of Ho and Yeung  concerning entropy. However, the proofs of the main results in this paper are different from those in Ho and Yeung . In fact, our arguments can simplify several proofs in Ho and Yeung .