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To (i) identify the major temporal patterns of energy intake among adults; (ii) examine the association between employment status and the patterns; and (iii) examine the association between dietary quality and the patterns.
Secondary analysis based on the cross-sectional population-based nutrition survey in Taiwan, 2005–2008. Based on energy intake levels at six time intervals of a day derived from 24 h recall data, we applied cluster analysis to identify major temporal patterns of energy intake. Self-reported employment status was categorized into six groups: full-time, part-time, no job, student, homemaker and retired. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to test the association between temporal patterns of energy intake and employment groups.
Non-institutionalized community dwellers.
Non-pregnant adults (≥19 years old) with total energy intake between 2092 and 20920 kJ/d (500 and 5000 kcal/d; n 4508).
Five major patterns were identified, which can be seen as the traditional meal pattern and its variants. About 20 % of adults had the traditional pattern. The most prevalent pattern was the delayed morning meal pattern (33 %), which had lower Ca and P intakes than the traditional pattern. About 14 % of adults had the delayed lunchtime pattern, which had lower protein, PUFA, fibre, Ca, P, vitamin D and vitamin E intakes than the traditional. Adjusted prevalence of the delayed lunchtime pattern was highest among full-time students (34 %), followed by part-time workers (24 %), and was lower in retired (8 %), homemakers (11 %) and full-time employed adults (12 %).
Adults’ temporal patterns of energy intake, which varied with their employment status, affected their dietary quality.
This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
A series of tetrahedral tetramers of 2,5-diphenyl substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized and characterized for electron-transporting layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The multiple-branch design of the oxadiazole tetramers intends to increase the melting temperature and to generate glass phase of the low molar mass derivative such as 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). We observed temperatures of the glass phase transition for the oxadiazole tetramer with appropriate peripheral substituents, indicative of amorphous characteristics of the molecule in spite of highly symmetrical molecular framework. The luminescence-current-voltage characteristics of multilayer OLED devices containing the oxadiazole tetramer or PBD as ETL were examined to evaluate the efficiency of our multiple-branch molecular design.
Thin films of sol-gel SiO2 and TiO2 were used to fabricate two types of onedimensional photonic crystals: an omnidirectional reflector and microcavity resonator. The reflector consisted of six SiO2/TiO2 bilayers, designed with a stopband in the near infrared. Reflectance measurements over an incident angle range of 0–80° showed an omnidirectional band of 70 nm, which agrees with theoretical predictions for this materials system. The microcavity resonator consisted of a TiO2 Fabry-Perot cavity sandwiched between two SiO2/TiO2 mirrors of three bilayers each. We have fabricated a microcavity with resonance at λcavity = 1500nm and achieved a quality factor of Q=35. We measured a modulation in the cavity resonance frequency with a change of defect layer thickness and incident angle of light. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating photonic crystals via the sol-gel method.
High dietary intake of fats has been thought to be one of the major risk factors for the development of CVD. Less is known about the possible influence of fats from various sources on haemorheological abnormalities, which are considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The goal of the present study was to investigate effects of high-fat diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), SFA or trans-fatty acids (TFA), respectively, on haemorheological parameters in rats. Wistar female rats were divided into four groups and fed diets based on the AIN-93M formulation containing approximately 10 % energy from soyabean oil (control group) or 40 % energy from soyabean oil (USFA), palm oil (SFA) and vegetable shortening (TFA) for 8 weeks. The results showed that rats fed high-fat diets exhibited significant increases in serum TAG levels (P < 0·01), plasma viscosity (P < 0·01), whole blood viscosity (P < 0·01) and internal viscosity (P < 0·01) compared to the controls. The TFA group showed a significant decrease in erythrocyte deformability (P < 0·01) and increase in internal viscosity (P < 0·01) compared with the other groups. In addition, a significant increase in blood levels of free radicals (P < 0·01) was found in the TFA group, suggesting that the attack of oxygen-free radicals could be responsible for the impaired erythrocyte deformability. These impairments could be partly responsible for the development of various circulatory disorders. The present haemorheological study provides additional insights into the potential adverse effects of trans-fat and high-fat diets on haemorheological parameters.
The Ser9Gly polymorphism in dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) was considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were studied in different ethnic groups of schizophrenic patients. However, the results have been inconclusive.
To determine whether the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia or influences its psychopathological symptoms in Han Chinese population.
We recruited 256 schizophrenic patients and 285 normal controls matched for gender, age and ethnicity. Pretreatment psychotic symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) in 128 acutely exacerbated schizophrenic in-patients. Genotyping of Ser9Gly polymorphism was performed with a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method and reconfirmed by a direct sequencing technique.
No significant difference was found between either patients with schizophrenia or with more homogeneous schizophrenic subgroups and healthy controls in genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. Similarly, DRD3 Ser9Gly genotype differences failed to reach significance in PANSS global, positive, negative and general symptoms scores. There is a trend (P = 0.064) towards higher PANSS positive symptoms scores in subjects carrying the Gly/Gly genotype.
This study does not support the role of DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in increasing genetic risk for schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Still, there is a possibility that the DRD3 Ser9Gly variant may reflect genetic variation of severity of positive symptoms in acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in relation to longer time course of schizophrenia, including treatment response to antipsychotics.
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