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This study aimed to identify patterns of anthropometric trajectories throughout life and to analyse their association with the occurrence of sarcopenia in people from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). It is a cross-sectional study involving 9670 public servants, aged 38–79 years, who answered the call for new data collection and exams, conducted approximately 4 years after the study baseline (2012–2014). Data sequence analysis was used to identify patterns of anthropometric trajectory. A theoretical model was elaborated based on the directed acyclic graph (DAG) to select the variables of minimum adjustment in the analysis of the causal effect between trajectory and sarcopenia. Poisson regression with robust variance was adopted for data analysis. The patterns of change in the anthropometric trajectory were classified in stable weight (T1); change to normal weight (T2); change to excess weight (T3); weight fluctuation (T4) and change to low weight (T5). The prevalence of sarcopenia in men and women who changed the anthropometric path for the low weight was twice as large when compared to participants with a stable weight trajectory. A protective effect of the excess weight trajectory was observed for the occurrence of sarcopenia in them. The results pointed to the need for health policies that encourage the proper management of body components in order to prevent and control obesity, as well as to preserve the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle mass throughout life, especially in older adults.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Increasingly, archaeological research in Amazonia is revealing complex precolonial occupation in areas around riverine confluences. In 2014, the first site-based archaeological investigations were undertaken in Gurupá, Pará, Brazil, a municipality that spans the region of the Xingu-Amazon confluence. The Portuguese controlled access to Amazonia from 1623 onward through a network of settlements organized around Gurupá. Results from extensive excavations of terra preta sites, landscape archaeology, and analysis of ceramic evidence suggest that this was also a precolonial crossroads. Carrazedo, once a booming historical town (Arapijó), sits atop a significantly larger terra preta site. Excavations in historical and precolonial sectors of Carrazedo found well-preserved remains, including a precolonial house terrace complex. The extent of terra preta and earthworks at Carrazedo indicate that the precolonial occupation was more intensive than the colonial-historical period occupation. Regional survey revealed colonial-historical period sites consistently overlying expansive precolonial sites, the density and extent of which suggest a major precolonial center at the Xingu-Amazon confluence. Overall, ecological and landscape modifications appear to have been more intense in the precolonial past than during later periods. Short- and long-distance settlement networks also differed during the two periods. This as-of-yet understudied region promises to shed new light on deep-time human-environment interactions and spatial organization in the humid tropics of Amazonia.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
We present the polarization behavior of the exciton-polariton luminescence of a ZnO-based all-oxide resonator. A splitting in the emission energy between the s- and p-polarized pho-toluminescence of the lower polariton branch was observed which increases with increasing emission angle. It is caused by the polarization behavior of the uncoupled cavity-photon mode, and reaches a maximum of about 5 meV at an emission angle near the bottleneck region. For lar-ger angles the energy splitting decreases. Additionally to the energy splitting, we observed dif-ferences in the photoluminescence intensity which we trace back to different occupation of the lower polariton branch for the two polarizations. Whereas for p-polarization a bottleneck effect is clearly observable, this effect is much weaker for s-polarization. These findings indicate that the relaxation of hot carriers into the bottleneck region is enhanced for the p-polarized photolumi-nescence compared to the s-polarized one. The differences between these two polarizations are most pronounced for a very large negative detuning and vanish with increasing detuning.
We demonstrate the growth of lateral concentric BR on ZnO nano-pillars. It opens the opportunity to be used for (i) the enhancement of the lateral confinement in classical pillar-resonators in order to increase the emission rates in the regime of weak exciton-photon coupling (Purcell-effect), (ii) to enhance the exciton-polariton coupling strength in the strong-coupling regime, and (iii) to be used for two-dimensional confinement in free-standing photonic wire resonators. Spatially resolved PL experiments in dependence on the pillar diameter and on the temperature provide strong hints for the ZnO nano-pillar resonator being in the strong-coupling regime. The coupling strength can be estimated to be V = 80 meV.
A three-year follow-up of 273 participants (mean age 60 years) of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study provides the first information on the rate, clinical predictors, and cognitive consequences of MRI white-matter lesions in elderly individuals without neuropsychiatric disease. Lesion progression was found in 17.9% of individuals over a time period of 3 years. Diastolic blood pressure and early confluent or confluent white-matter hyperintensities at baseline were the only significant predictors of white-matter hyperintensity progression. Lesion progression had no influence on the course of neuropsychologic test performance over the observational period, but the statistical power of this analysis was low.
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