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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Most position sensitive proportional counters (PSPCs) currently used in X-ray diffraction experiments have a dead time longer than 5 μs. Though such PSPCs are useful in measuring weak diffraction diagrams, a faster counter is needed to detect strong X-ray diagrams produced with synchrotron radiation sources. The long dead time of PSPCs using a charge division position read-out is due to the slow analog division circuit plus analog-to-digital converter employed in the present system. A fast processor can be built utilising two high-speed ADCs to digitize voltage signals from the detector, followed by a digital divider to compute position of detected photons. The present paper describes the design of such a processor and some preliminary testings of its performances.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
The maser emission of the J = 1-0 lines of SiO in vibrationally excited states has been detected in two regions of massive star formation, W51 IRS2 and Sgr B2 MD5. The SiO masers apparently coincide with strong H2O masers in each source within the uncertainties of < 5″. Their velocity ranges fall within those of the nearest H2O masers (Figure 1). In W51 IRS2 the maser emission is observed only in the v = 2 state, and the upper limit of the v = 1 line (3σ) is 1/15th of the v = 2 line intensity. The v = 1 emission found in Sgr B2 MD5 is five times stronger than the marginally detected v = 2 emission (Figure 2). Their luminosities are comparable to those from the corresponding maser in Orion.
We report NH3 observations of the Sgr A complex region including Sgr A West and the 20 km/s and 50 km/s molecular clouds (M–0.13–0.08 and M–0.02–0.07) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the 45m telescope. NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines were simultaneously observed to estimate the kinetic temperature. Our results suggest strong interaction between the molecular clouds and the continuum sources in the Sgr A complex. The interaction with continuum sources might be an important factor in determining the physical conditions of molecular gas in the galactic center region.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
Molecular gas in the Galactic center region is spatially and kinematically complex, and its physical conditions are distinctively different from those of molecular gas in the Galactic disk (e.g., Morris 1996). Relative paucity of current star formation activity, despite the abundance of dense molecular gas in this region, is one of the problem at issue.
As before a number of authors have contributed reviews of their own field. The contributions were editted by the President in order to avoid some overlaps, to reduce the length of the reviews and to add some publications. Reference numbers from “Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts” were used when available. In the end of the report a list of references not found in “Abstracts” is given. As editor, the President takes the responsibility for any shortcomings in the report.
During the totality on June 11, 1983 in East Java, Indonesia, a near infrared photometric observation of the solar corona was made using a stratospheric balloon, which was successfully launched by a joint team of ISAS, Japan and LAPAN, Indonesia. The surface brightness distributions in four near infrared bands: at 1.25, 1.65, 2.25 and 2.8 μm, have been obtained in the outer coronal region. Noticeable excess emissions superposed on the strong coronal background emission have been recorded in the scan profiles at 1.25 and 1.65 μm, and less conspicuously at 2.25 μm as well, at about 4 R⊙ from the sun. From the observed spectral and spatial characteristics, the excess emission component appears to originate in the thermal radiation from the circumsolar dust ring made of relatively large particles of about 100 μm in radius and with the olivine-like optical properties.
Short lasting flashes, called as First Precursor (PC1), were observed by some ground-based near-infrared observations for the impacts of large-sized fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) in July 1994. The impact detections by the spacecraft Galileo [2, 7] about 10 seconds after the PC1 detections by ground based telescopes, combined with the far-side impacts of SL9 fragments as viewed from Earth, suggest that the source of the PC1 should be located in the Jovian upper atmosphere above the limb, at which the atmospheric pressure is extremely low. Thus, an important problem on the PC1 is how does the falling cometary fragment, which is a huge meteorite, emit near-infrared in the extremely thin atmosphere. The ablation model, which is usually used for an impact bolide, can only estimate flux from the bolide in a dense atmosphere at visible wavelength. In this paper, we assume that the PC1s are thermal radiation from the fragments and attempt quantitative estimations of the PCI fluxes using a simple entry flash model.
Although outbreaks of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at shelters are hypothesized to be associated with shelter crowding, no studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing medical records of evacuees presenting to one of the 37 clinics at the shelters in Ishinomaki city, Japan, during the 3-week period after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. On the basis of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique, we categorized 37 shelters into crowded (mean space <5·5 m2/per person) and non-crowded (⩾5·5 m2) shelters. Outcomes of interest were the cumulative and daily incidence rate of ARI/10 000 evacuees at each shelter. We found that the crowded shelters had a higher median cumulative incidence rate of ARI [5·4/10 000 person-days, interquartile range (IQR) 0–24·6, P = 0·04] compared to the non-crowded shelters (3·5/10 000 person-days, IQR 0–8·7) using Mann–Whitney U test. Similarly, the crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence rate of ARI of 19·1/10 000 person-days (95% confidence interval 5·9–32·4, P < 0·01) compared to the non-crowded shelters using quasi-least squares method. In sum, shelter crowding was associated with an increased incidence rate of ARI after the natural disaster.
Donor-acceptor mixed-stack charge-transfer (CT) compounds can be regarded as a model system for charge carrier separation in molecular-scale donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Here we investigated fundamental photocarrier generation characteristics in single crystals of a donoracceptor mixed-stack system, phenothiazine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PTZ-TCNQ). The laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurement on the crystals allowed the discrimination between the exciton and the photocarrier diffusion on the basis of the observed spatial decay profiles. We found that the photocarriers are directly generated by higher-lying CT band excitation and exhibit extremely long diffusion length reaching more than 10 μm. We discuss the origin of the efficient photocarrier generation in terms of the geminate electron-hole pair formation.
KNbO3 thick films were deposited on (100)c SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates at 240 °C for 3 h by hydrothermal method. Film thickness increased linearly with increasing the deposition number of times and 130 μm thickness was achieved by the 6 time deposition. XRD analysis showed the growth of epitaxial orthorhombic films with the mixture orientation of (100), (010) and (001). Cross-sectional SEM observation showed that the 130 μm-thick film was dense and no obvious voids inside the film. In addition, the crystal structure change along film thickness direction was not detected from the cross-sectional Raman spectral observation.
Two new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) are described from endemic murids of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Syphacia(Syphacia)taeromyos sp. n. and S.(S.)paruromyos sp. n. parasitic in the caecum of Taeromys celebensis and Paruromys dominator, respectively. They are readily distinguished from all of the congeners recorded from Indonesia–Australian regions by having a round cephalic plate, vesicular lateral alae in the male, posteriorly positioned excretory pore in the male, and/or lacking cervical alae. Syphacia (S.) paruromyos differs from S. (S.) taeromyos by having a whip-like tail appendage in the male, longer relative distance between excretory pore and vulva, and larger eggs. The round cephalic plate in both sexes and developed vesicular lateral alae in the male are morphological traits common in endemic Syphacia species hitherto known from Sulawesi murids, suggesting that they have derived from a common ancestor and evolved with their hosts in the isolated insular environment.
The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.