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African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan), turnipweed [Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.], and African turnipweed (Sisymbrium thellungii O.E. Schulz) are common broadleaf weeds in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crops, particularly under dryland region conditions in eastern Australia. Information on crop yield losses and the seed production potential for these weeds in chickpea are limited. Field studies were conducted in the winter seasons of 2020 and 2021 in eastern Australia with different densities of the three weeds (B. tournefortii, R. rugosum, and S. thellungii) in chickpea. Based on the sigmoidal model, chickpea yield was reduced by 50% at 11 plants m−2 of B. tournefortii. Based on hyperbolic models, a 50% yield reduction of chickpea occurred at 5 and 25 plants m−2 of R. rugosum and S. thellungii, respectively. Based on the linear model, B. tournefortii, R. rugosum, and S. thellungii produced a maximum of 448,000, 206,700, and 869,400, seeds m−2, respectively. At chickpea harvest, the low seed retention (<55%) of B. tournefortii and S. thellungii suggests limited opportunities for harvest weed seed control, and the seed rain of these weeds may enrich the weed seedbank in the soil. At crop harvest, the seed retention of R. rugosum was found to be greater than 90%, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for harvest weed seed control. This study demonstrated that R. rugosum could cause a greater reduction in chickpea yield compared with B. tournefortii and S. thellungii. Furthermore, restricting seed rain of B. tournefortii and S. thellungii by not allowing the plants to produce seeds is recommended to reduce their weed seedbanks in the soil. The information generated from this study could aid in strengthening integrated weed management in chickpea.
Australian grain growers are showing interest in winter-planted sorghum to avoid heat and water stress during the grain-filling stage. Winter-planted sorghum may face competition from winter weeds, including sterile oats, and no herbicides are registered for controlling winter weeds in winter-planted sorghum. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify alternate herbicide options for sterile oats control in winter-sown imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant sorghum and (2) assess the crop injury levels due to herbicides. Sterile oats control with pendimethalin at 0.59 kg ai ha−1, trifluralin at 0.38 kg ai ha−1, and prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor at 2.3 kg ai ha−1 was poor (<30%). Atrazine at 2.7 kg ai ha−1, imazamox + imazapyr at 0.048 kg ai ha−1, and atrazine at 2.7 kg ai ha−1 followed by imazamox + imazapyr at 0.048 kg ai ha−1 reduced the sterile oats biomass by 93%, 96%, and 100% and increased yields by 116%, 136%, and 140%, respectively, compared with nontreated control. Pendimethalin at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and trifluralin at 0.38 kg ai ha−1 caused phytotoxicity to the crop and gave similar yields to nontreated control. Triallate at 0.8 kg ai ha−1, pyroxasulfone at 0.1 kg ai ha−1, and terbuthylazine at 1.0 kg ai ha−1 provided moderate weed control (44% to 65%) and increased yields by 68%, 108%, and 80%, respectively, compared with nontreated control. This research identified herbicide treatments for the effective control of sterile oats in winter-sown IMI-resistant sorghum that could be used in rotations to reduce the reliance on single herbicide treatments.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is increasing its prevalence in eastern Australia by adapting to Australia’s changing climatic conditions and conservation agricultural systems and by evolving resistance to glyphosate. Information is limited on the growth and seed production dynamics of E. colona when it interferes with mung bean [Vigna radiata (L). R. Wilczek], a major potential export crop for eastern Australia. This field study examined the interference of E. colona in mung bean for two summer seasons (2020 and 2021) at Gatton, QLD. Different infestation levels (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 plants m−2) of E. colona were assessed for their potential to cause yield reductions in mung bean. Seed yield of mung bean was highest in the weed-free plots (2,767 kg ha−1) and declined by 20%, 27%, 34%, and 43% at weed infestation levels of 4, 8, 16, and 32 plants m−2, respectively. Echinochloa colona biomass in mung bean varied from 11 to 137 g m−2 as weed density increased from 2 to 32 plants m−2. Based on a three-parameter hyperbolic rectangular decay model, crop yield loss was 52% and 57%, respectively, when weed density and weed biomass approached maximum. Echinochloa colona at the highest density (32 plants m−2) produced a maximum of 15,140 seeds m−2, and this seed production was reduced by 50% at a weed density of 10 plants m−2. Echinochloa colona plants retained 63% to 68% seeds at mung bean maturity, indicating a great opportunity for harvest weed seed control. This study suggests that a high infestation of E. colona in mung bean fields could cause a substantial yield loss and increase the weed seedbank.
Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) junglerice is a challenging task in eastern Australia. There is limited information on the efficacy and reliability of alternate herbicides for GR populations of junglerice, especially when targeting large plants and when temperatures are high. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm the level of glyphosate resistance in three populations of junglerice and to evaluate the efficacy of alternate herbicides for the control of GR junglerice populations. The LD50 of glyphosate of B17/7, B17/34, and B17/35 populations was found to be 298, 2,260, and 1,715 g ae ha–1, respectively, suggesting that populations B17/34 and B17/35 were highly resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate efficacy was reduced at high-temperature (35 C day/25 C night) compared with low-temperature conditions (25 C day/15 C night), suggesting that control of susceptible populations may also be reduced if glyphosate is sprayed under hot conditions. Preemergence herbicides dimethenamid-P (1,000 g ai ha–1) and pendimethalin (1,500 g ai ha–1) provided 100% control of GR populations (B17/34 and 17/35). Postemergence herbicides, such as clethodim (60 or 90 g ai ha–1), glufosinate (750 g ai ha–1), haloxyfop (52 or 78 g ai ha–1), and paraquat (400 or 600 g ai ha–1), applied at the four-leaf stage provided 100% control of GR populations. For larger junglerice plants (eight-leaf stage), postemergence applications of paraquat (400 or 600 g ai ha–1) provided greater weed control than clethodim, glufosinate, and haloxyfop. A mixture of either glufosinate or haloxyfop with glyphosate provided poor control of GR junglerice populations compared with application of glufosinate or haloxyfop applied alone. Efficacy of glufosinate and haloxyfop for the control of GR populations decreased when applied in the sequential spray after glyphosate application. This study identified alternative herbicide options for GR junglerice populations that can be used in herbicide rotation programs for sustainable weed management.
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) is a widespread weed of the southeastern cropping region of Australia. Seed germination ecology of S. arvensis populations selected from different climatic regions may differ due to adaptative traits. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, light, radiant heat, soil moisture, salt concentration, and burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of two populations (Queensland [Qld] population: tropical region; and Victoria [Vic] population: temperate region) of S. arvensis. Both populations germinated over a wide range of day/night (12-h/12-h) temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), and had the highest germination at 30/20 C. Under complete darkness, the Qld population (61%) had higher germination than the Vic population (21%); however, under the light/dark regime, both populations had similar germination (78% to 86%). At 100 C pretreatment for 5 min, the Qld population (44%) had higher germination than the Vic population (13%). Germination of both populations was nil when given pretreatment at 150 and 200 C. The Vic population was found tolerant to high osmotic and salt stress compared with the Qld population. At an osmotic potential of −0.4 MPa, germination of Qld and Vic populations was reduced by 85% and 42%, respectively, compared with their respective controls. At 40, 80, and 160 mM sodium chloride, germination was lower for the Qld population than the Vic population. Averaged over the populations, seedling emergence was highest (52%) from a burial depth of 1 cm and was nil from 8-cm depth. Differential germination behaviors of both populations to temperature, light, radiant heat, water stress, and salt stress suggest that populations of S. arvensis may have undergone differential adaptation. Knowledge gained from this study will assist in developing suitable control measures for this weed species to reduce the soil seedbank.
Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker] is an emerging weed in the Australian cropping region. Populations resistant to glyphosate have evolved in Australia, creating the demand for information regarding the seed germination ecology of glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) populations of C. sumatrensis. A study was conducted to examine the effects of temperature, light intensity, salt stress, osmotic stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of two populations (R and S) of C. sumatrensis. Both populations were able to germinate over a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C). In light/dark conditions, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 20/10 and 35/25 C. In the dark, the R population had higher germination than the S population at 25/15 C. In the dark, germination was inhibited at 30/20 C and above. Averaged over populations, seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 97% at zero light intensity (completely dark conditions) compared with full light intensity. Seed germination of C. sumatrensis was reduced by 17% and 85% at osmotic potentials of −0.4, and −0.8 MPa, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The R population had lower germination (57%) than the S population (72%) at a sodium chloride concentration of 80 mM. Seed germination was highest on the soil surface and emergence was reduced by 87% and 90% at burial depths of 0.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively. Knowledge gained from this study suggests that a shallow-tillage operation to bury weed seeds in conventional tillage systems and retention of high residue cover on the soil surface in zero-till systems may inhibit the germination of C. sumatrensis. This study also warrants that the R population may have a greater risk of invasion over a greater part of a year due to germination over a broader temperature range.
Junglerice and feather fingergrass are major problematic weeds in the summer sorghum cropping areas of Australia. This study aimed to investigate the growth and seed production of junglerice and feather fingergrass in crop-free (fallow) conditions and under competition with sorghum planted in 50-cm and 100-cm row spacings at three sorghum planting and weed emergence timings. Results revealed that junglerice and feather fingergrass had greater biomass in early planting (November 11) compared to late planting times (January 11). Under fallow conditions, seed production of junglerice ranged from 12,380 to 20,280 seeds plant–1, with the highest seed production for the December 11 and lowest for the January 11 planting. Seed production of feather fingergrass under fallow conditions ranged from 90,030 to 143,180 seeds plant–1. Seed production of feather fingergrass under crop-free (fallow) conditions was similar for November 11 and December 11 planting times, but higher for the January 11 planting. Sorghum crop competition at both row spacings reduced the seed production of junglerice and feather fingergrass >75% compared to non-crop fallow. Narrow row spacing (50 cm) in early and mid-planted sorghum (November 11 and December 11) reduced the biomass of junglerice to a greater extent (88% to 92% over fallow-grown plants) compared to wider row spacing (100 cm). Narrow row spacing was found superior in reducing biomass of feather fingergrass compared to wider row spacing. Our results demonstrate that sorghum crops can substantially reduce biomass and seed production of junglerice and feather fingergrass through crop competition compared with growth in fallow conditions. Narrow row spacing (50 cm) was found superior to wider row spacing (100 cm) in terms of weed suppression. These results suggest that narrow row spacing and late planting time of sorghum crops can strengthen an integrated weed management program against these weeds by reducing weed growth and seed production.
Herbicide resistance is an increasing issue in many weed species, including rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin); a major weed of winter cropping systems in southern Australia. Recently, this weed has also been found in summer crops in the southeastern region of Australia. Effective control of this herbicide-resistant weed across southeastern Australia requires alternative management strategies. These strategies can be informed by analyses on the interaction of germinable seeds with their regional environments and by identifying the differences between populations of varying herbicide-resistance levels. In this study, we explore how various environmental factors differentially affect the seed germination and seedling emergence of three L. rigidum populations, including one glyphosate-resistant population (GR), one glyphosate-susceptible population (GS), and one population of unknown resistance status (CC04). Germination was greater than 90% for all populations at each temperature regime, except 15/5 C. Populations germinated at a lower rate under 15/5 C, ranging from 74% to 87% germination. Salt stress had a similar effect on the germination of all populations, with 0% germination occurring at 250 mM salt stress. Population GS had greater tolerance to osmotic stress, with 65% germination at −0.4 MPa compared with 47% and 43% germination for CC04 and GR, respectively; however, germination was inhibited at −0.8 and −1.6 MPa for all populations. All populations had lower germination when placed in complete darkness as opposed to alternating light/dark. Germination in darkness was lower for CC04 (69%) than GR (83%) and GS (83%). Seedling emergence declined with increasing burial depth with the lowest emergence occuring at 8 cm (37%) when averaged over the populations. These results indicate that L. rigidum can survive under a range of environmental variables and that the extent of survival differs based on population; however, there was no difference based on herbicide-resistance status.
African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan) is a problematic winter annual weed in Australia. Germination ecology of B. tournefortii may change in response to the maternal environments or habitats in which the plants grow. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of four populations of B. tournefortii that were collected from different fields. Averaged over populations, germination was stimulated by dark and was higher at 25/15 C (92%) compared with 15/5 C (76%) and 35/25 C (45%). Averaged over light/dark regimes, at the lowest temperature regime (15/5 C), population A had higher germination than population D; however, at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C), population D had higher germination than population A. Populations B and C had higher germination in the temperature range of 25/15 C and 30/20 C compared with 15/5 C, 20/10 C, and 35/25 C. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), suggesting that seeds can germinate throughout the year if other optimum conditions are available. Population A was more tolerant to water and salt stress than population D. The sodium chloride concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% germination of population A were 68 mM and −0.60 MPa, respectively. Averaged over populations, seeds placed at 1-cm soil depth had the highest emergence (54%), and burial depth of 8 cm resulted in 28% seedling emergence. Averaged over populations, wheat residue retention at 6,000 kg ha−1 resulted in greater seedling emergence than the residue amount of 1,000 kg ha−1. The results suggest that B. tournefortii will be favored in no-till systems and that the seedbank of B. tournefortii could be managed by tillage regimes that bury its seeds below 8-cm depths and restrict seedling emergence and growth of new plants.
Prevalence of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and sterile oat [Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne; referred to as A. sterilis hereafter], winter-season weeds, is increasing in the eastern grain region of Australia. Biological attributes of these weeds enable them to survive in a wide range of environments and under different weed infestation levels. The interference of A. fatua and A. sterilis in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop was examined in southeast Queensland, Australia, through field studies in 2019 and 2020. Different infestation levels (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 plants m−2) of A. fatua and A. sterilis were evaluated for their potential to cause yield losses in wheat. Based on a three-parameter logarithmic model, the A. fatua and A. sterilis infestation levels corresponding to 50% wheat yield loss were 15 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. The yield reduction was due to a reduced spike number per unit area because of an increased weed infestation level. At the highest weed infestation level (48 plants m−2), A. fatua and A. sterilis produced a maximum of 4,800 and 3,970 seeds m−2, respectively. Avena fatua exhibited lower seed retention (17% to 39%) than A. sterilis (64% to 80%) at wheat harvest, as most of the seeds of A. fatua had shattered at crop maturity. Our results implied that there is a good opportunity for harvest weed seed control if the paddock is infested with A. sterilis. This study suggests that in the absence of an integrated weed management strategy (using both chemical and nonchemical options), a high infestation of these weeds could cause a severe crop yield loss, increase weed seed production, and replenish the weed seedbank in the soil.
Weed emergence time and the longevity of weed seeds within the soil play an important role in implementing a timely and effective weed control program. In this study, the seed longevity and emergence pattern of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and sterile oat [Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne] were monitored in field conditions. Fresh seeds of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana were placed into nylon bags (50 seeds per bag in three replications for three locations in eastern Australia: Gatton, Narrabri, and St George) and buried at depths of 0, 2, and 10 cm in November 2017. Bags were exhumed at 6-mo intervals over 30 mo to evaluate seed germination, viability, and decay components. The seed decay component of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana followed an exponential pattern. On both the surface and at the 10-cm burial depth, 50% of the seeds of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana had decayed by 6 mo. The seeds of A. fatua persisted longer at 2-cm depth than at other depths, particularly at St George, where 90% of the seeds decayed after the 30-mo study. However, at Gatton and Narrabri, 90% of the seeds of A. fatua at this depth had decayed after 18 mo of burial in the soil. In the emergence pattern experiment (2017 to 2019), the emergence of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana from different burial depths was also studied. The emergence of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana was greater from 2-cm (29% to 36%) and 5-cm (18% to 43%) soil depths compared with the surface (5% to 10%) and 10-cm (3-9%) soil depth. Avena ludoviciana emerged earlier (2,253 growing degree days [GDD]; March 14, 2018) than A. fatua (3,364 GDD; May 23, 2018). Both species exhibited high emergence between May to June 2018, and the last cohort of each species was observed in October 2018. The highest seedling emergence occurred at the start of the winter season (May), which emphasizes the need for early PRE weed control such as tillage, herbicide application, and cover crops to ensure crops are planted in a clean seedbed. The continued emergence of these weeds into the spring season (October) emphasizes the need for extended periods of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana management. The results also suggest that management strategies that can control all emerged seedlings over 2 yr and restrict seed rain in the field could lead to complete control of Avena spp. in the field.
Pigeonpea has great potential as a profitable summer legume rotational crop in cereal farming systems of subtropical Australia. Pigeonpea requires season-long weed control, but options for controlling broadleaf weeds in pigeonpea with POST herbicides are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of different herbicides (PRE: pendimethalin; POST: acifluorfen, bentazon, and imazapic) applied singly or in sequence for horse purslane control in pigeonpea and their impact on pigeonpea yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Gatton, Australia. Pendimethalin applied PRE at 1.14 kg ai ha−1 reduced horse purslane biomass by 87% and 92% and produced 32% and 105% higher grain yield compared with the nontreated control in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Imazapic applied POST at 0.10 kg ai ha−1 reduced horse purslane biomass by 79% and 82% and increased grain yield by 60% and 88% compared with the nontreated control in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Acifluorfen applied POST (0.34 and 0.42 kg ai ha−1) caused 16% to 48% injury to pigeonpea at 45 d after treatment. Control of horse purslane ranged from 87% to 92% (biomass reduction) with pendimethalin applied PRE at 1.14 kg ai ha−1 and was comparable with pendimethalin applied PRE at 0.91 kg ai ha−1 in the sequential application, and imazapic at 0.08 kg ai ha−1 or bentazon at 0.96 kg ai ha−1. The study findings suggest if farmers miss the PRE application of pendimethalin or are unable to achieve season-long weed control, POST application of imazapic is an alternate. This research provided herbicide options for control of horse purslane in pigeonpea that could be used in rotations for reducing the selection pressure of weeds.
In Australia, junglerice and feather fingergrass are problematic weeds in sorghum. The high seed production potential of these weeds increases their seedbank in the soil and makes weed control practices more difficult and expensive, particularly when weeds have evolved resistance to herbicides. A study was conducted to evaluate the seed production and seed retention behavior of junglerice and feather fingergrass at sorghum crop maturity following four transplanting times: 0, 2, 4, and 6 wk after sorghum emergence. Averaged across years, junglerice and feather fingergrass produced 4,060 and 5,740 seeds plant-1, respectively,when they were transplanted with the emergence of a sorghum crop. Seed retention ranged from 42% to 56% for junglerice and 67% to 75% for feather fingergrass when these weeds were transplanted from 0 to 4 wk after crop emergence. A positive correlation (r = 0.75 for junglerice; r = 0.44 for feather fingergrass) was found between seed production and weed biomass in both weeds, indicating that larger plants produced more seeds than smaller plants. However, no correlation was found between weed biomass and seed retention for junglerice. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.44) was found between feather fingergrass biomass and percent seed retention, indicating that seed retention was greater in larger plants compared with smaller plants. Our results suggest that feather fingergrass is a good candidate for harvest weed seed control (HWSC) tactics if crop harvest is timely. There is limited opportunity to use HWSC tactics for targeting junglerice seeds in sorghum crops, because most seeds dispersed before crop maturity. Additional research is required to evaluate seed retention levels of these weeds in other summer crops such as corn and soybean to determine the potential for HWSC for management of these species.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
African turnipweed (Sisymbrium thellungii O. E.Schulz) is an emerging problematic broadleaf weed of the northern grain region of Australia. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, light, salinity, pH, seed burial depth, and the amount of wheat crop residue on germination and emergence of two Australian S. thellungii weed populations (population C, cropped area; population F, fence line). Both populations behaved similarly across different environmental conditions, except in the residue study. Although the seeds of both populations of S. thellungii could germinate under complete darkness, germination was best (~95%) under light/dark conditions at the 20/10 C temperature regime. Both populations of S. thellungii germinated over a wide range of day/night temperatures (15/5, 20/10, 25/15, and 30/20 C). Osmotic stress had negative effects on germination, with 54% seeds (averaged over populations) able to germinate at −0.1MPa. Complete germination inhibition for both populations was observed at −0.8MPa osmotic potential. Both populations germinated at sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 mM, beyond which germination was completely inhibited. There were substantial reductions in seed germination, 32% (averaged over populations) under highly acidic conditions (pH 4.0) as compared with the control (water: pH 6.4). Seed germination of both populations on the soil surface was 77%, and no seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 1 cm. The addition of 6 Mg ha−1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue reduced the emergence of the C and F populations of S. thellungii by 75% and 64%, respectively, as compared with the control (no residue). Information gathered from this study provides a better understanding of the factors favorable for germination and emergence of S. thellungii, which will aid in developing management strategies in winter crops, especially wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.).
Field experiments were conducted in Punjab, India, in 2011 and 2012 to study
the integrated effect of planting pattern [uniform rows (20-cm spacing) and
paired rows (15-, 25-, and 15-cm spacing)], cultivars (PR-115 and
IET-21214), and weed control treatments (nontreated control, pendimethalin
750 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-sodium 25 g ai ha−1, and
pendimethalin 750 g ha−1 followed by bispyribac-sodium 25 g
ha−1) on weed suppression and rice grain yield in dry-seeded
rice. In the nontreated control, IET-21214 had higher grain yield than
PR-115 in both planting patterns. However, such differences were not
observed within the herbicide treatment. IET-21214 in paired rows, even in
nontreated control, provided grain yield (4.7 t ha−1) similar to
that in uniform rows coupled with the sole application of pendimethalin (4.3
t ha−1) and bispyribac-sodium (5.0 t ha−1). In uniform
rows, sequential application of pendimethalin (PRE) and bispyribac-sodium
(POST) provided the highest grain yield among all the weed control
treatments and this treatment produced grain yield of 5.9 and 6.1 t
ha−1 for PR-115 and IET-21214, respectively. Similarly, in
paired rows, PR-115 in paired rows treated with sequential application of
pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium had highest grain yield (6.1 t
ha−1) among all the weed control treatments. However,
IET-21214 with the sole application of bispyribac-sodium produced grain
yield similar to the sequential application of pendimethalin and
bispyribac-sodium. At 30 days after sowing, PR-115 in paired rows coupled
with pendimethalin application accrued weed biomass (10.7 g m−2)
similar to the sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium
coupled with uniform rows (8.1 g m−2). Similarly, IET-21214 with
bispyribac-sodium application provided weed control similar to the
sequential application of pendimethalin and bispyribac-sodium. Our study
implied that grain yield of some cultivars could be improved by exploring
their competitiveness through paired-row planting patterns with less use of
Weeds are a major biotic constraint to aerobic rice production in Asia. Research is needed on the effects of cultural practices on weed management in aerobic rice, including techniques such as planting pattern and competitive cultivars. Field experiments were conducted in Punjab, India, in the wet seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of weeds and two rice cultivars [PR 115 and Punjab (P.) Mehak 1] in relation to planting pattern (uniform rows [23-cm row spacing] and paired rows [15-, 30-, and 15-cm row spacings]) under aerobic conditions. Junglerice and rice flatsedge were the dominant weed species during the early stages of the crop, while Chinese sprangletop and large crabgrass were the predominant species during flowering stage of the crop. Weed dry matter was not affected by planting pattern of P. Mehak 1; however, for PR 115, weed dry matter was greater in rice grown in uniform rows (244 g m−2) than in paired rows (183 g m−2). Planting patterns did not affect weed-free crop growth and yield, but weeds tended to be more abundant in the uniform planting system, particularly under cultivar PR 115. Consequently, this cultivar grew and yielded better under the paired rows when weeds were present. The cultivar PR 115 had greater yield potential than P. Mehak 1, but growth and productivity of P. Mehak 1 were unaffected by the planting patterns, suggesting better competitive ability against weeds than PR 115. The results imply that yield of some aerobic rice cultivars may be improved by exploring competitiveness of rice cultivars through paired row planting patterns. There is a need to study plasticity changes for cultivars which respond with more competiveness in paired rows. The identified traits could be useful as selection criteria for screening weed-competitive cultivars in paired row pattern.
The looming water crisis and shortage of labor during rice transplanting in northwest India have led researchers to develop alternative methods to transition away from puddled transplanted rice. In this context, dry-seeded rice (DSR) is emerging as an efficient production technology to replace puddled transplanted rice. Weeds, however, are the main biological constraints to its success. A study comprising 12 treatments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PRE (pendimethalin and pyrazosulfuron) and POST herbicides (bispyribac, penoxsulam, and azimsulfuron) applied either alone or in a sequence for weed control in dry-seeded fine rice cv. ‘Punjab Mehak 1’. Results indicated that the single application of pendimethalin (750 g ai ha−1) PRE, pyrazosulfuron (15 g ai ha−1) PRE, bispyribac-sodium (25 g ai ha−1) POST, penoxsulam (25 g ai ha−1) POST, and azimsulfuron (20 g ai ha−1) POST reduced total weed biomass by 75, 68, 73, 70, and 72%, respectively, compared with the nontreated control at flowering stage of the crop. Azimsulfuron POST and pyrazosulfuron PRE proved effective against purple nutsedge and crowfootgrass, respectively. Chinese sprangletop, large crabgrass, and junglerice were effectively controlled with pendimethalin PRE. POST application of bispyribac-sodium and penoxsulam provided effective control of rice flatsedge. Compared to the nontreated control, grain yield following the single application of pendimethalin PRE, pyrazosulfuron PRE, bispyribac-sodium POST, penoxsulam POST, and azimsulfuron POST increased by 149, 119, 138, 124, and 144%, respectively. The sequential application of herbicides proved better than single applications. The lowest weed biomass was observed with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE followed by azimsulfuron POST, and rice yielded 228% more than the nontreated control following this treatment. The results of this study are important for farmers growing DSR in making decisions regarding the application of POST herbicides, according to existing weed flora in the field.