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1. analyze urinary protein exosome content pattern before and during DASH diet.
2. characterize urine electrolyte changes associated with changes in protein profiles, and hormonal changes before/after DASH diet.
3. analyze the association of these changes to the DASH-related BP response.
METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this proof of concept study, hypertension stage 1 volunteers will receive a DASH based menu during 14 consecutive days of elective admission to the RU research hospital. Participants will complete a food frequency questionnaire (VioScreen) with a bionutritionist. Throughout the intervention period, participants will be assessed for blood pressure, plasma renin and aldosterone, and 24 hour urines for electrolytes, creatinine, protein, albumin and first morning urine collected for exosomes. Exosome analysis will be performed by a commercial lab. Proteome analysis will be conducted in the RU Mass-spectrometry service. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The causal pathway we will elucidate hypothesizes that: 1) changes in diet affect blood electrolytes, and through these, aldosterone. 2) Aldosterone alters the expression of specific transporter proteins in the renal tubule; protein expression will be reflected in the urine exosome. 3) These transporters affect the excretion of electrolytes, as reflected by urinary ratio of sodium (Na) to Potassium (K). During consumption of the Western diet, the Na/K ratio is approximately 2-2.5, whereas we expect the urinary sodium/potassium ratio to be <1, when the participant is eating a DASH based diet. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This assay provides a clinical tool to assess dietary adherence, and the project will provide insights into the mechanism whereby DASH reduces blood pressure.
The objective of this study is to examine an association between apathy and caregiver burden in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
This was a retrospective cross sectional study. We selected 92 consecutive patients diagnosed with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment who had a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a behaviour rating scale of interest for this study recorded in the database. Correlation analysis was done to look into association between apathy and caregiver burden.
Apathy score was significantly related to caregiver burden in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
Our study has shown high association of apathy with caregiver burden in aMCI.
The primary aim of this study is to examine an association between apathy and frontal lobe dysfunction in patients with memory problems. We also aimed to look into the association between apathy severity and caregiver burden along with the relationship between apathy and praxis.
This was a retrospective cross sectional study. We selected 160 consecutive patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment who had a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a behaviour rating scale of interest for this study recorded in the database. Correlation between apathy with and without depression were tested against frontal lobe test including Trail making A, Trial making B, Letter Fluency, Ideational Fluency, Category Fluency, Abstract Thinking and Executive functioning subtest of CAMGOG-R. Similarly correlation analysis was also done to look into association between apathy and caregiver burden as well as praxis.
Statistically significant relationship were found between apathy and executive function scores, ideational fluency scores, abstract thinking and category fluency scores. Relationship between apathy and caregiver burden were highly significant. Further sub analysis, found apathy to be significantly associated with caregiver burden in both AD and aMCI patients.
Apathy is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction especially impaired executive function and ideational fluency even when controlled for depression. It is highly associated with caregiver burden both in AD & aMCI .Hence early recognition and management of apathy is important in improving the prognosis of patients with AD & aMCI as well as their caregiver.
Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) do not have significant deficits in their activities of daily living (ADL) and therefore questions exist as to whether carers of patients with MCI experience burden. Caregiver burden (CB) is defined as the adverse consequences of providing care. Studies report 20–30% of caregivers of MCI patient experience a significant degree of burden. CB is associated with poor outcomes for both patients and carers of people with dementia.
The main objective of this study is to look into the association of apathy and caregiver burden in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and also identify other significant predictors of caregiver burden.
This was a retrospective cross sectional study. We selected 92 consecutive patients diagnosed with aMCI who had a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a behaviour rating scale of interest for this study recorded. Nonparametric correlational analyses examined relationships between apathy, behavioural pathology, executive function, anxiety scores, depression scores, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), cognitive scores and caregiver burden scores. Linear regressions identified predictors of CB.
There was significant relationship between apathy, impairments in IADL, behavioural pathology and CB in aMCI patients. However linear regression analysis showed that apathy was the only significant predictor of CB.
Apathy is highly prevalent and a significant contributor to caregiver burden in amnestic MCI. Improved identification and early interventions to improve apathy symptom is likely alleviate CB and thereby improving the prognosis and QoL of both the patients and caregiver.
Data preservation, reuse, and synthesis are important goals in contemporary archaeological research that have been addressed by the recent collaboration of the Eastern Archaic Faunal Working Group (EAFWG). We used the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) to preserve 60 significant legacy faunal databases from 23 Archaic period archaeological sites located in several contiguous subregions of the interior North American Eastern Woodlands. In order to resolve the problem of synthesizing non-standardized databases, we used the ontology and integration tools available in tDAR to explore comparability and combine datasets so that our research questions about aquatic resource use during the Archaic could be addressed at multiple scales. The challenges of making digital databases accessible for reuse, including the addition of metadata, and of linking disparate data in queryable datasets are significant but worth the effort. Our experience provides one example of how collaborative research may productively resolve problems in making legacy data accessible and usable for synthetic archaeological research.
We report major new insights from recent research at the Powars II Paleoindian red ocher quarry (48PL330). We salvaged more than 7,000 artifacts from Powars II between 2014 and 2016 by screening redeposited sediment from the talus slope below the intact portion of the site. Clovis artifacts dominate the diagnostic artifact assemblage, including 53 Clovis points, 33 preforms, and artifacts associated with a previously unrecognized blade core industry. We report the first radiocarbon dates from the site, determined from dating bone tools, which indicate Cody-aged use (ca. >10,000 cal BP). Further, salvage efforts discovered a previously unknown toolstone source from which many of the Clovis artifacts were produced. The Powars II Clovis points most resemble early Paleoindian points from the far Northern Plains and were likely both produced and discarded in the red ocher quarry after hunting, as evidenced by preform production and the presence of impact fractures on many used points. Given these production and discard patterns, Powars II holds some of the best evidence archaeologists currently have for Paleoindian ritualism related to hunting.
In 2012 Ghana passed a new Mental Health Act, which aimed to create a new system of mental healthcare in Ghana. The Act includes provisions for the creation of a modern, community-based mental health system and for the protection of the rights of persons with mental disorders. This article discusses the implications of the Act and the progress which has been made towards its implementation.
The concept of information has penetrated almost all areas of human inquiry, from physics, chemistry, and engineering through biology to the social sciences. And yet its status as a physical entity remains obscure. Traditionally, information has been treated as a derived or secondary concept. In physics especially, the fundamental bedrock of reality is normally vested in the material building blocks of the universe, be they particles, strings, or fields. Because bits of information are always instantiated in material degrees of freedom, the properties of information could, it seems, always be reduced to those of the material substrate. Nevertheless, over several decades there have been attempts to invert this interdependence and root reality in information rather than matter. This contrarian perspective is most famously associated with the name of John Archibald Wheeler, who encapsulated his proposal in the pithy dictum ‘it from bit?’ (Wheeler, 1999).
In a practical, everyday sense, information is often treated as a primary entity, as a ‘thing in its own right’ with a measure of autonomy; indeed, it is bought and sold as a commodity alongside gas and steel. In the life sciences, informational narratives are indispensable: biologists talk about the genetic code, about translation and transcription, about chemical signals and sensory data processing, all of which treat information as the currency of activity, the ‘oil’ that makes the ‘biological wheels go round’. The burgeoning fields of genomic and metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatics are based on the notion that informational bits are literally vital. But beneath this familiar practicality lies a stark paradox. If information makes a difference in the physical world, which it surely does, then should we not attribute to it causal powers? However, in physics causation is invariably understood at the level of particle and field interactions, not in the realm of abstract bits (or qubits, their quantum counterparts). Can we have both? Can two causal chains coexist compatibly? Are the twin narratives of material causation and informational causation comfortable bedfellows? If so, what are the laws and principles governing informational dynamics to place alongside the laws of material dynamics?
Recent advances suggest that the concept of information might hold the key to unravelling the mystery of life's nature and origin. Fresh insights from a broad and authoritative range of articulate and respected experts focus on the transition from matter to life, and hence reconcile the deep conceptual schism between the way we describe physical and biological systems. A unique cross-disciplinary perspective, drawing on expertise from philosophy, biology, chemistry, physics, and cognitive and social sciences, provides a new way to look at the deepest questions of our existence. This book addresses the role of information in life, and how it can make a difference to what we know about the world. Students, researchers, and all those interested in what life is and how it began will gain insights into the nature of life and its origins that touch on nearly every domain of science.
Background: Psychological therapy services are often required to demonstrate their effectiveness and are implementing systematic monitoring of patient progress. A system for measuring patient progress might usefully ‘inform supervision’ and help patients who are not progressing in therapy. Aims: To examine if continuous monitoring of patient progress through the supervision process was more effective in improving patient outcomes compared with giving feedback to therapists alone in routine NHS psychological therapy. Method: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled design, continuous feedback on patient progress during therapy was given either to the therapist and supervisor to be discussed in clinical supervison (MeMOS condition) or only given to the therapist (S-Sup condition). If a patient failed to progress in the MeMOS condition, an alert was triggered and sent to both the therapist and supervisor. Outcome measures were completed at beginning of therapy, end of therapy and at 6-month follow-up and session-by-session ratings. Results: No differences in clinical outcomes of patients were found between MeMOS and S-Sup conditions. Patients in the MeMOS condition were rated as improving less, and more ill. They received fewer therapy sessions. Conclusions: Most patients failed to improve in therapy at some point. Patients’ recovery was not affected by feeding back outcomes into the supervision process. Therapists rated patients in the S-Sup condition as improving more and being less ill than patients in MeMOS. Those patients in MeMOS had more complex problems.