Field experiments were conducted at Vegreville, Alberta, in 1997, 1998, and 1999 and in Lacombe, Alberta, in 1997 and 1998, to determine if barley row spacing (20 and 30 cm) and seeding rate (75, 125, and 175 kg ha−1) influenced the effects of variable tralkoxydim rates on barley seed yield, net economic returns, and wild oat seed production. In most cases, barley seed yield was unaffected by row spacing or seeding rate. Where no herbicide was applied, the presence of wild oat reduced barley yield at each location each year. When the herbicide was applied at 50, 75, or 100% of the recommended rate, barley yields were not affected by the presence of wild oat. Results were more variable at 25% of the recommended rate, especially at Lacombe, where yield losses occurred both years at this rate. The lowest net economic returns consistently occurred in the absence of herbicide application; however, the influence of herbicide rate on net returns varied among years and locations. Net returns were either higher at the lower herbicide rates or were unaffected by herbicide rate. Seeding rate and herbicide rate affected wild oat seed production at each location each year and also the amount of seeds in the soil seedbank at Vegreville in 1999. Row spacing had little or no effect on wild oat seed production. There was a consistent and highly significant seeding rate by herbicide rate interaction on wild oat seed production. The effects of tralkoxydim on wild oat seed production, especially at relatively low rates, were superior at the higher barley seeding rates. The results suggest that seeding barley at relatively high rates can result in optimum barley yields, undiminished economic returns, and effective wild oat management when tralkoxydim is used at lower than recommended rates.