Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weiße Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0·05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A′, is characterized by a t→c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0·01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0·1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0·8) in the Buren.