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Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24,236 adults (mean [standard deviation] age: 40.7 [11.9] years; 11,394 men [47.0%]). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19.0%. Compared to those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) for those consuming 2-3 times/week and 0.76 (0.63, 0.92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week, respectively (P for trend = 0.01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex, and body mass index. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
The North Qilian Orogenic Belt is on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. It is connected with the Alxa Block in the north and the Tethyan orogenic assemblage in the south. The Lower Silurian Angzanggou Formation, deposited in the northern area of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, is the most important for revealing the architecture and orogenic processes of the North Qilian Belt. Provenance analysis of the Angzanggou Formation can reveal not only the tectonic evolution of the central orogenic belt of China but also Palaeozoic Asia plate reconstructions. Petrographic analysis indicated that the compositional and textural maturity of the sandstones was low. The detrital composition of the Angzanggou Formation samples consists of quartz (8–14 %), feldspar (6–29 %) and lithic fragments (56–86 %). The sandstones could be classified as litharenites or feldspathic litharenites. The detrital modal composition suggests that these sandstones were probably deposited in a fore-arc basin. The element ratios and some discrimination diagrams based on geochemistry indicate that felsic and intermediate rocks were the main source rocks. The SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, the index of chemical variability and the Th/Sc versus Zr/Sc discrimination diagram suggest that the compositional maturity and degree of recycling were moderate to low. The index of alteration (CIA) and the A–CN–K diagram indicate the intensity of weathering was moderate. The discrimination diagrams based on major and trace elements and petrographic discrimination diagrams imply that the Angzanggou Formation rocks were derived from a continental island arc, and a sedimentary cover probably overlaid the volcanic arc. Therefore, we infer that during Early Silurian time the North Qilian Belt sediments accumulated in a fore-arc basin.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance oestrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, a dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58·8 (sd 7·4) years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered FFQ. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: ‘healthy’, ‘sweets’ and ‘traditional Tianjin’ from eighty-eight food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The association between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The multivariable-adjusted OR of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: healthy, 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·28), 0·62 (95 % CI 0·37, 1·04) and 0·57 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·97); sweets, 1·00, 0·75 (95 % CI 0·42, 1·3), 1·08 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·81) and 1·66 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·71); and traditional Tianjin, 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·58, 1·79), 0·96 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·71) and 2·53 (95 % CI 1·58, 4·16), respectively. The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and traditional Tianjin dietary patterns was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague–Dawley male rats. All rats were fed a standard basal diet for 7 d and then received each diet for 7 d. Ileal contents were collected from the terminal 20 cm of ileum. Among the TID values obtained, whole wheat had the highest values (P<0·05), and polished rice, proso millet and tartary buckwheat had relatively low values. The TID indispensable AA concentrations in whole wheat were greater than those of brown rice or polished rice (P<0·05), and polished rice was the lowest total TID concentrations among the other cereal grains. The DIAAS was 68 for buckwheat, 47 for tartary buckwheat, 43 for oats, 42 for brown rice, 37 for polished rice, 20 for whole wheat, 13 for adlay, 10 for foxtail millet and 7 for proso millet. In this study, the TID values of the nine cooked cereal grains commonly consumed in China were used for the creation of a DIAAS database and thus gained public health outcomes.
Magnesium is a biodegradable material that has potential application in cardiovascular stent development: its excellent mechanical properties and blood compatibility make it highly useful in interventional therapy. Nevertheless, the following shortcomings restrict its further application: antihyperplasia function and promoting surface endothelialization. In this study, we immobilized a specific link peptide of endothelial cells, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), onto polydopamine (PDA)-deposited Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy surface via covalent reaction to improve the growth of the endothelial cells. The PDA/REDV coating with optimized parameters maintained the good blood compatibility of the Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy at the biomimetic speed of the blood flow and significantly inhibited the growth of the vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage attachment/activation, which indicated its better functions in antihyperplasia and anti-inflammation. In particular, the PDA/REDV coating not only showed consistent results in promoting the attachment of endothelial cells as reported elsewhere, but also displayed the ability of enhancing the viability of endothelial cells (or inhibiting apoptosis), suggesting its pro-endothelialized function through different pathways. In summary, this PDA/REDV coating addressed the above-mentioned shortcomings of the magnesium alloy, which may promise its wider application.
Combining density functional theory calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, the adsorption behavior of various sulfur containing compounds, including C2H5SH, CH3SCH3, tetrahydrothiophene, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and their derivatives on the coordinately unsaturated sites of Mo27Sx model nanoparticles, are studied systematically. Sulfur molecules with aromaticity prefer flat adsorption than perpendicular adsorption. The adsorption of nonaromatic molecules is stronger than the perpendicular adsorption of aromatic molecules, but weaker than the flat adsorption of them. With gradual hydrogenation (HYD), the binding affinity in the perpendicular adsorption modes increases, while in flat adsorption modes it increases first, then decreases. Significant steric effects on the adsorption of dimethyldibenzothiophene were revealed in perpendicular adsorption modes. The steric effect, besides weakening adsorption, could also activate the S–C bonds through a compensation effect. Finally, by comparing the theoretical adsorption energies with the TPD results, we suggest that HYD and direct-desulfurization path may happen simultaneously, but on different active sites.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
We designed a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) sol–gel ink for direct ink writing of the microlattices. To improve the formability, the fresh microlattices were strengthened by surface catalysis with HCl atmosphere. After supercritical drying and carbonization, the sample’s specific surface area was 631 m2/g and the average pore size was 3.81 nm. Both RF aerogel and carbonized RF aerogel samples had millimeter-scale pore, micron-scale pore, and nanoscale skeleton. The pore and skeleton could provide high surface area and diffusion channels, which were beneficial to the adsorption performances. The carbonized RF aerogel sample fully adsorbed Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium in 250 min, which exhibited a good capacity of quick adsorption and indicated the potential application for cell supports.
The aim of this study is to analyse the efficacy rate of folate for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) and to explore how folate metabolism-related gene polymorphisms change its efficacy. This study also explored the effects of gene–gene and gene–environment interactions on the efficacy of folate. A prospective cohort study enrolling HHcy patients was performed. The subjects were treated with oral folate (5 mg/d) for 90 d. We analysed the efficacy rate of folate for the treatment of HHcy by measuring homocysteine (Hcy) levels after treatment. Unconditioned logistic regression was conducted to analyse the association between SNP and the efficacy of folic acid therapy for HHcy. The efficacy rate of folate therapy for HHcy was 56·41 %. The MTHFR rs1801133 CT genotype, TT genotype and T allele; the MTHFR rs1801131 AC genotype, CC genotype and C allele; the MTRR rs1801394 GA genotype, GG genotype and G allele; and the MTRR rs162036 AG genotype and AG+GG genotypes were associated with the efficacy of folic acid therapy for HHcy (P<0·05). No association was seen between other SNP and the efficacy of folic acid. The optimal model of gene–gene interactions was a two-factor interaction model including rs1801133 and rs1801394. The optimal model of gene–environment interaction was a three-factor interaction model including history of hypertension, history of CHD and rs1801133. Folate supplementation can effectively decrease Hcy level. However, almost half of HHcy patients failed to reach the normal range. The efficacy of folate therapy may be genetically regulated.
Radiocarbon (14C) in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was measured for water samples collected from six deep stations in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region in the northwestern North Pacific in April–May 2015. Vertical profiles of Δ14C-DIC indicate that bomb-produced 14C was present from the surface to ~1500 m water depth. Large variations in Δ14C-DIC values (300‰) were observed at 500 m water depth among the stations and the differences were likely controlled by transport and mixing dynamics of different water masses in the region. The major Pacific western boundary currents, such as Kuroshio and Oyashio and regional mesoscale eddies, could play important roles affecting the observed Δ14C-DIC variability. The depth profiles of both Δ14C-DIC and DIC concentrations can be predicted by the solution mixing model and can be used as conservative tracers of water mass movement and water parcel homogenization in the ocean.
Replacing precious and nondurable platinum-based catalysts by economical and commercially available materials is a key issue addressed in contemporary fuel cell technology. Carbon-based nanomaterials display great potential to improve fuel tolerance and reduce the cost and stress on metal scalability. However, their relatively low catalytic activity limits the development and application of these catalysts. In this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst from metal–organic frameworks and carbon nanotube composites, taking advantage of the existing N in the organic linker in the MOFs with more N added through ammonia treatment. The morphology and composition of synthesized catalysts were characterized by SEM, TEM, XPS, and Raman. The derived catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity than that of commercial Pt-based catalysts. The N enriched carbon catalyst with high surface area, a graphitic carbon skeleton, and a hierarchical porous structure facilitated the mass and charge transfer during electrolysis.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < −2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < −2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < −2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (−2 ≤ Z < −1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001). HAZ and WAZ scores were significantly higher in children without cholestasis than children with cholestasis (0·58 (sd 1·59)/−0·68 (sd 1·99), P < 0·001, and 0·37 (sd 1·35)/−0·47 (sd 1·75), P < 0·001). Further multivariate logistic regression analysis strengthened the evidence that cholestasis was significantly associated with undernutrition of stunting (OR = 4·18, P = 0·002) and underweight (OR = 3·26, P = 0·008), and suggested that the prevalence of stunting caused by infection was lower than other aetiologies in hospitalised children with liver disease (OR = 0·10, P = 0·002). We concluded that a high prevalence of malnutrition and risk of undernutrition presents in hospitalised young children with liver disease, especially in children with cholestasis. Nutrition assessment is recommended for hospitalised children with liver disease.
Shortawn foxtail is an invasive grass weed infesting winter wheat and canola production in China. A better understanding of the germination ecology of shortawn foxtail would help to develop better control strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt concentration, and planting depth, on seed germination and seedling emergence of shortawn foxtail. The results showed that the seed germination rate was greater than 90% over a wide range of constant (5 to 25C) and alternating (15/5 to 35/25C) temperatures. Maximum germination occurred at 20C or 25/15C, and no germination occurred at 35C. Light did not appear to have any effect on seed germination. Shortawn foxtail germination was 27% to 99% over a pH range of 4 to 10, and higher germination was obtained at alkaline pH values ranging from 7 to 10. Seed germination was sensitive to osmotic potential and completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.6 MPa, but it was tolerant to salinity: germination even occurred at 200 mM NaCl (5%). Seedling emergence was highest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but declined with the increasing burial depth. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried 6-cm deep. Deep tillage could be an effective measure to limit seed germination from increased burial depth. The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of the requirements for shortawn foxtail germination and emergence and will provide information that could contribute to its control.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.