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Evidence on whether nutritional supplementation affects physical activity (PA) during early childhood is limited. We examined the long-term effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on total PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) of children at 4–6 years using an accelerometer for 1 week. Their mothers were enrolled in the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement-DYAD randomised controlled trial in Ghana, assigned to daily LNS or multiple micronutrients (MMN) during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum or Fe and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and placebo for 6 months postpartum. From 6 to 18 months, children in the LNS group received LNS; the other two groups received no supplements. Analysis was done with intention to treat comparing two groups: LNS v. non-LNS (MMN+ IFA). Of the sub-sample of 375 children fitted with accelerometers, 353 provided sufficient data. Median vector magnitude (VM) count was 1374 (interquartile range (IQR) 309), and percentages of time in MVPA and SB were 4·8 (IQR 2) and 31 (IQR 8) %, respectively. The LNS group (n 129) had lower VM (difference in mean −73 (95 % CI −20, −126), P = 0·007) and spent more time in SB (LNS v. non-LNS: 32·3 v. 30·5 %, P = 0·020) than the non-LNS group (n 224) but did not differ in MVPA (4·4 v. 4·7 %, P = 0·198). Contrary to expectations, provision of LNS in early life slightly reduced the total PA and increased the time in SB but did not affect time in MVPA. Given reduced social-emotional difficulties in the LNS group previously reported, including hyperactivity, one possible explanation is less restless movement in the LNS group.
The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.
We aimed to identify factors (child diet, physical activity; maternal BMI) associated with body composition of Ghanaian pre-school children.
Longitudinal analysis of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana randomized trial, which enrolled 1320 pregnant women at ≤20 weeks’ gestation and followed them and their infants until 6 and 18 months postpartum, respectively. At follow-up, child age 4–6 years, we collected data on body composition (by 2H dilution), physical activity and diet, extracted dietary patterns using factor analysis, and examined the association of children’s percentage body fat with maternal and child factors by regression analysis.
Eastern Region, Ghana.
Children 4–6 years of age.
The analysis included 889 children with percentage body fat and dietary data at follow-up. We identified two major dietary patterns, a snacking and a cooked foods pattern. Percentage body fat was positively associated (standardized β (se)) with maternal BMI at follow-up (0·10 (0·03); P = 0·003) and negatively associated with physical activity (−0·15 (0·05); P = 0·003, unadjusted for child gender), but not associated with the snacking (0·06 (0·03); P = 0·103) or cooked foods (−0·05 (0·07); P = 0·474) pattern. Boys were more active than girls (1470 v. 1314 mean vector magnitude counts/min; P < 0·0001) and had lower percentage body fat (13·8 v. 16·9 %; P < 0·0001).
In this population, maternal overweight and child physical activity, especially among girls, may be key factors for addressing child overweight/obesity. We did not demonstrate a relationship between the dietary patterns and body fatness, which may be related to limitations of the dietary data available.
Halauxifen-methyl is an auxin herbicide for broadleaf weed control in preplant applications to corn and soybean. Our objective for this research was to characterize the phytotoxicity of halauxifen-methyl on horseweed, relative to 2,4-D and dicamba, in terms of weed height, the response to an auxin synergist, and root activity. The 50% reduction in plant growth (GR50) value for halauxifen-methyl on rosette-sized plants was 0.05 g ae ha−1, 100 times less than the labeled use rate of 5 g ae ha−1, compared with 36 and 31 g ha−1 for 2,4-D and dicamba, respectively. In a whole-plant bioassay, 240 g ae ha−1 of 2,4-D was calculated as the GR50 value on horseweed 20-cm tall, whereas applications of only 53 and 0.40 g ae ha−1 were necessary for dicamba and halauxifen-methyl, respectively, to achieve the same response. As weed size decreased, there was a concomitant reduction in the estimated herbicide dose for the GR50 with similar differences observed between halauxifen-methyl and the other two auxin herbicides. The addition of diflufenzopyr, an auxin synergist, to 2,4-D and dicamba resulted in a synergistic response on horseweed. However, the addition of diflufenzopyr to halauxifen-methyl resulted in an additive or antagonistic effect, depending on rate of diflufenzopyr, demonstrating a distinctive physiological pathway for halauxifen-methyl compared with 2,4-D and dicamba. In the agar-based bioassays, GR50 values for horseweed root length for 2,4-D and dicamba were 0.16 and 0.19 µM, respectively, whereas only 0.004 µM halauxifen-methyl was required for a comparable root response. These results indicate that horseweed exhibits a high level of sensitivity to halauxifen-methyl and suggest the activity of halauxifen-methyl is different from that of 2,4-D and dicamba. These differences in herbicide activity may reflect differential absorption, translocation, metabolism, or targeting of auxin receptors found in horseweed.
Synthetic-auxin herbicides are often applied for horseweed control before soybean planting. However, certain days of planting interval must be maintained before soybean planting, depending on the product and rate used, because of potential crop phytotoxicity. Halauxifen-methyl is a new synthetic-auxin herbicide for horseweed control in preplant applications in soybean. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Indiana to evaluate soybean phytotoxicity in response to applications of halauxifen-methyl (5 g ae ha−1) at five preplant intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks before planting [WBP]). In 2015, soybean phytotoxicity was not observed for any of the preplant intervals at any of the sites. In 2016, 0% to 15% phytotoxicity was observed at 14 d after planting (DAP) when halauxifen-methyl was applied at planting, 1 WBP, and 2 WBP at different sites. Soybean phytotoxicity was expressed in the unifoliate leaves only at 14 DAP. However, the first trifoliate did not show any injury symptoms at 21 DAP from any preplant application timing. Preplant application intervals for halauxifen-methyl did not affect soybean stand counts or grain yield in any site-year. Therefore, field results indicated that halauxifen-methyl applied alone can cause slight soybean phytotoxicity in preplant applications. In growth-chamber bioassays, reductions in soybean biomass, plant length, and emergence were accentuated at 30 C, compared with 20 or 15 C, when halauxifen-methyl was applied at 20 or 40 g ae ha−1. These results contradict the currently held paradigm in which lower temperatures generally increase crop phytotoxicity levels to herbicide soil residual.
In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), diagnostics are not always available in remote areas. Hospitals and healthcare centres are often too far from the community, and waiting times are up to a few hours even for relatively simple procedures. Moreover, travelling to the healthcare centre and taking the diagnostic test is frequently unaffordable. Point of Care Tests (POCTs) can improve the availability, accessibility and affordability of the diagnostics by providing the test at the time and place of patient care. Although many POCTs have been developed already, there remain challenges to enable the healthcare workers (HCW) and the patients to use the device in practice. In this paper, we aim to provide a systemic overview of the barriers and opportunities for the adoption of use and acceptance of the results of POCTs based on the literature. The barriers and opportunities were clustered into six themes and used to draw out recommendations for the future design.