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This work presents the results of physical and biological investigations at 27 biogeochemical stations of early winter sea ice in the Ross Sea during the 2017 PIPERS cruise. Only two similar cruises occurred in the past, in 1995 and 1998. The year 2017 was a specific year, in that ice growth in the Central Ross Sea was considerably delayed, compared to previous years. These conditions resulted in lower ice thicknesses and Chl-a burdens, as compared to those observed during the previous cruises. It also resulted in a different structure of the sympagic algal community, unusually dominated by Phaeocystis rather than diatoms. Compared to autumn-winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea (AWECS cruise), the 2017 Ross Sea pack ice displayed similar thickness distribution, but much lower snow cover and therefore nearly no flooding conditions. It is shown that contrasted dynamics of autumnal-winter sea-ice growth between the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea impacted the development of the sympagic community. Mean/median ice Chl-a concentrations were 3–5 times lower at PIPERS, and the community status there appeared to be more mature (decaying?), based on Phaeopigments/Chl-a ratios. These contrasts are discussed in the light of temporal and spatial differences between the two cruises.
The interpersonal dependency inventory comprised three subscales called Emotional reliance of another person (ER), lack of social self confidence (LSS) and Assertion of autonomy (AUT). Several formula have been developed for deriving whole-scale scores.
The aim of the study on 621 addictive subjects was to determine the best formula using the DSM-IV dependent personality disorder as gold standard. The formula 3 ER + LSS – AUT yielded the best values of sensitivity and specificity.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of the self-critical and dependent depressive experiences in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients and to explore the impact of adverse childhood experiences on these dimensions of personality.
A sample of 94 anorexic and 61 bulimic patients meeting DSM-IV criteria and 236 matched controls were assessed with the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ), the abridged version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the AMDP Life Events Inventory. Subjects presenting a major depression or a comorbid addictive disorder were excluded from the sample using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
Anorexic and bulimic patients showed higher scores than controls on both self-criticism and dependency sub-scales of the DEQ. Bulimic patients scored significantly higher than anorexic patients on self-criticism and reported more adverse childhood experiences. Finally, negative life events correlated only with self-criticism in the whole sample.
Differences in the DEQ Self-Criticism between anorexics and bulimics could not be accounted for by depression since bulimic patients did not show higher BDI levels compared to anorexic patients and depressive symptoms measured with the BDI were not found to be significant predictors of diagnostic grouping in a logistic multiple regression.
This study supports the diagnostic specificity of the dependent and self-critical depressive dimensions in eating disorders and strengthens previous research on the role of early experiences in the development of these disorders.
Many institutions are attempting to implement patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Because PROs often change clinical workflows significantly for patients and providers, implementation choices can have major impact. While various implementation guides exist, a stepwise list of decision points covering the full implementation process and drawing explicitly on a sociotechnical conceptual framework does not exist.
To facilitate real-world implementation of PROs in electronic health records (EHRs) for use in clinical practice, members of the EHR Access to Seamless Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Consortium developed structured PRO implementation planning tools. Each institution pilot tested the tools. Joint meetings led to the identification of critical sociotechnical success factors.
Three tools were developed and tested: (1) a PRO Planning Guide summarizes the empirical knowledge and guidance about PRO implementation in routine clinical care; (2) a Decision Log allows decision tracking; and (3) an Implementation Plan Template simplifies creation of a sharable implementation plan. Seven lessons learned during implementation underscore the iterative nature of planning and the importance of the clinician champion, as well as the need to understand aims, manage implementation barriers, minimize disruption, provide ample discussion time, and continuously engage key stakeholders.
Highly structured planning tools, informed by a sociotechnical perspective, enabled the construction of clear, clinic-specific plans. By developing and testing three reusable tools (freely available for immediate use), our project addressed the need for consolidated guidance and created new materials for PRO implementation planning. We identified seven important lessons that, while common to technology implementation, are especially critical in PRO implementation.
Reliable spectroscopic data are needed for interpretation and modeling of observed astrophysical plasmas. For heavy element ions, which have complex spectra, experimental data are rather incomplete. To provide valuable fundamental quantities, such as precise wavelengths, level energies and semi-empirical transition probabilities, we are carrying out laboratory studies of high-resolution VUV emission spectra of moderately charged ions of transition metals and rare earth elements. Experimental and theoretical methods are summarized. Examples of studies are described.
We present a homogeneous analysis of a large sample of magnetic white dwarf stars (with SDSS, PanSTARRS and Gaia data) using state-of-the-art magnetic atmosphere models and fitting techniques. We discuss the properties of the sample as well as the implication on our understanding of the nature and evolution of such objects.
This research aims to characterize the mineralogical and crystal-chemical purity of two samples of natural talc (BTT6, BTT7) from the occurrence ‘Ecole1’ in the deposit of Minzanzala, southwest Gabon. X-ray diffraction and modal-composition calculations demonstrated the presence of quartz and Al–Fe-bearing phases (kaolinite and/or chlorite and/or Al–Fe oxyhydroxides) as accessory minerals in both ores. In contrast, the chemical and spectroscopic characterization of the talc component revealed remarkable chemical purity expressed by very low Fe contents. According to these results, the talc of Minzanzala might be used as a filler in a wide range of industrial applications, such as in cosmetics, paints, polymers or ceramics.
Low and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of sepsis, contributing to an estimated 90% of global sepsis-related deaths. Critical care capabilities needed for septic patients, such as continuous vital sign monitoring, are often unavailable in LMICs.
This study aimed to assess the feasibility and accuracy of using a small wireless, wearable biosensor device linked to a smartphone, and a cloud analytics platform for continuous vital sign monitoring in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected sepsis in Rwanda.
This was a prospective observational study of adult and pediatric patients (≥ 2 months) with suspected sepsis presenting to Kigali University Teaching Hospital ED. Biosensor devices were applied to patients’ chest walls and continuously recorded vital signs (including heart rate and respiratory rate) for the duration of their ED course. These vital signs were compared to intermittent, manually-collected vital signs performed by a research nurse every 6-8 hours. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated over the study population to determine the correlation between the vital signs obtained from the biosensor device and those collected manually.
42 patients (20 adults, 22 children) were enrolled. Mean duration of monitoring with the biosensor device was 34.4 hours. Biosensor and manual vital signs were strongly correlated for heart rate (r=0.87, p<0.001) and respiratory rate (r=0.74 p<0.001). Feasibility issues occurred in 9/42 (21%) patients, although were minor and included biosensor falling off (4.8%), technical/connectivity problems (7.1%), removal by a physician (2.4%), removal for a procedure (2.4%), and patient/parent desire to remove the device (4.8%).
Wearable biosensor devices can be feasibly implemented and provide accurate continuous vital sign measurements in critically ill pediatric and adult patients with suspected sepsis in a resource-limited setting. Further prospective studies evaluating the impact of biosensor devices on improving clinical outcomes for septic patients are needed.
Patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with an initial shockable rhythm have a better prognosis than their counterparts. The implications of recurrent or refractory malignant arrhythmia in such context remain unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to hospital discharge among patients in OHCA.
This cohort study included adult patients with an initial shockable rhythm over a 5-year period from a registry of OHCA in Montreal, Canada. The relationship between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was described using dynamic probabilities. The association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 1,788 patients (78% male with a mean age of 64 years) were included in this analysis, of whom 536 (30%) received treatments from an advanced care paramedic. A third of the cohort (583 patients, 33%) survived to hospital discharge. The probability of survival was highest with the first shock (33% [95% confidence interval 30%-35%]), but decreased to 8% (95% confidence interval 4%-13%) following nine shocks. A higher number of prehospital shocks was independently associated with lower odds of survival (adjusted odds ratio=0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.85-0.92], p < 0.001).
Survival remains possible even after a high number of shocks for patients suffering from an OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm. However, requiring more shocks is independently associated with worse survival.
Studies interested in Indigenous voting in Canada tend to focus on socio-economic, cultural and political factors that explain their lower levels of electoral participation. While highly relevant given Canada's ongoing reality as a settler-colonial state, these studies are of limited help in making sense of recent increases in electoral engagement in Indigenous communities across the country. Using data from four elections between 2006 and 2015, this study focuses instead on why some Indigenous individuals vote and how they vote. Our analysis suggests that one of many possible reasons for the recent surge in Indigenous turnout has to do with the candidates presenting themselves for elections. Higher voter turnout in Indigenous communities corresponds with a higher proportion of Indigenous candidates. This trend is consistent with the literature on affinity voting. We also find that political parties who present an Indigenous candidate receive more votes in constituencies with a high proportion of Indigenous voters.
This work presents the synthesis of minerals with a layered structure in supercritical water/ethanol mixtures to decrease the critical coordinates of the solvent regarding water. Depending on the water/ethanol ratio of the solvent, we obtained three different minerals adopting an octahedral brucitic sheet: (1) without a Si-tetrahedral sheet (O); (2) associated with one Si-tetrahedral sheet (T-O); or (3) intercalated between two Si-tetrahedral sheets (T-O-T). We have thus shown that ethanol in a supercritical water/ethanol mixture changes the solubility of silicon with a direct consequence on the formation of the tetrahedral silicon sheets and thus makes it possible to control the structure of the synthesized layered material.
We report on new molecular-line observations of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula M 1–92. The new IRAM 30 m MRT and NOEMA data shows the presence of shock induced chemistry in the nebula. From the derived [17O]/[18O] ratio, we suggest that the sudden mass loss event responsible for the formation of the nebula 1200 yr ago may also have resulted in the premature end of the AGB phase of the central star.
Glyphosate-resistant populations of Conyza canadensis have been spreading at a rapid rate in Ontario, Canada, since first being documented in 2010. Determining the genetic relationship among existing Ontario populations is necessary to understand the spread and selection of the resistant biotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the genetic variation of C. canadensis accessions from the province of Ontario using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and (2) investigate the molecular mechanism (s) conferring resistance in these accessions. Ninety-eight C. canadensis accessions were genotyped using 8 SSR markers. Germinable accessions were challenged with glyphosate to determine their dose response, and the sequences of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes 1 and 2 were obtained. Results indicate that a majority of glyphosate-resistant accessions from Ontario possessed a proline to serine substitution at position 106, which has previously been reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other crop and weed species. Accessions possessing this substitution demonstrated notably higher levels of resistance than non–target site resistant (NTSR) accessions from within or outside the growing region and were observed to form a subpopulation genetically distinct from geographically proximate glyphosate-susceptible and NTSR accessions. Although it is unclear whether other non–target site resistance mechanisms are contributing to the levels of resistance observed in target-site resistant accessions, these results indicate that, at a minimum, selection for Pro-106-Ser has occurred in addition to selection for non–target site resistance and has significantly enhanced the levels of resistance to glyphosate in C. canadensis accessions from Ontario.
In this investigation the factor structure of the Adult Attachment Interview was studied in a partially at-risk sample of 120 young adults. More specifically, 60 participants had engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 53 females, M age = 20.38 years), and 60 were non-self-injuring controls matched by age and sex. Theoretically anticipated differential associations between preoccupied (but not dismissing) states of mind and NSSI were then examined. Exploratory factor analyses identified evidence for two weakly correlated state of mind dimensions (i.e., dismissing and preoccupied) consistently identified in factor analyses of normative-risk samples. As hypothesized, results further showed that preoccupied (but not dismissing) states of mind were associated with NSSI behavior. Findings support existing arguments suggesting that the regulatory strategy adults adopt when discussing attachment-related experiences with primary caregivers, particularly passive, angry, or unresolved discourse patterns, is uniquely correlated with NSSI.