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We established a mastitis model using exogenous infection of the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus and extracted total RNA from S. aureus-infected and healthy mammary quarters. Differential expression of genes due to mastitis was evaluated using Affymetrix technology and results revealed a total of 1230 differentially expressed mRNAs. A subset of affected genes was verified via Q-PCR and pathway analysis. In addition, Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze profiles of miRNA in infected and healthy quarters. These analyses revealed a total of 52 differentially expressed miRNAs. A subset of those results was verified via Q-PCR. Bioinformatics techniques were used to predict and analyze the correlations among differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA. Results revealed a total of 329 pairs of negatively associated miRNA/mRNA, with 31 upregulated pairs of mRNA and 298 downregulated pairs of mRNA. Differential expression of miR-15a and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 (IRAK2), were evaluated by western blot and luciferase reporter assays. We conclude that miR-15a and miR-15a target genes (IRAK2) constitute potential miRNA–mRNA regulatory pairs for use as biomarkers to predict a mastitis response.
The Ordovician–Silurian (O–S) transition was a critical interval in geological history. Multiple geochemical methods are used to explore the changes in oceanic environment. The Nd isotopic compositions in the Yangtze Sea are controlled by two sources: the continental erosion and the Panthalassa Ocean. High εNd(t) values during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals are associated with the high sea level, which resulted in less terrestrial input based on the low Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In contrast, low εNd(t) values during the early Hirnantian interval are related to the sea-level fall; in this case, the exposure of submarine highs and the growth of Yangtze Oldlands could lead to more continental materials being transported into the Yangtze Sea based on high Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios. In addition, the negative εNd(t) excursion can also be attributed to the weak circulation between the Yangtze Sea and Panthalassa Ocean when sea level was low. Furthermore, the sea-level eustacy plays a significant role in the changes in redox water conditions. The redox indices, mainly UEF, Ce/Ce* and Corg/PT, across the O–S transition show a predominance of anoxic ocean over the Yangtze Sea during the Katian, late Hirnantian and Rhuddanian intervals, and an oxygenated episode was briefly introduced during the early Hirnantian period because of the fall in sea level. The Late Ordovician biotic crisis was marked by two-phase extinction events, and the change in sea level and redox chemistry may be the important kill mechanisms.
The kinetics and mechanisms of interface reactions in a unidirectional continuous SiC fiber-reinforced Ti-17 matrix composite were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that a reaction zone (RZ) consisting of two-layered TiC-type carbide forms at the fiber/matrix interface during fabrication of the composite. After isothermal exposure at elevated temperatures, the two-layered TiC-type carbide is inherited, and a new TiC-type carbide layer forms within the RZ after exposure at temperatures lower than 900°C, while a new Ti3C2-type carbide layer forms after exposure at 900°C. It was also observed that the growth of RZ is a diffusion-controlled and temperature-dependent process, obeying the Fick's law-based parabolic relationship and the Arrhenius equation. Two material constants, the temperature-independent rate constant k0 and activation energy Q, are determined as 31.5 × 10−4µm/s1/2 and 49.9 kJ/mol, respectively.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Identification of individuals with clinically significant aggressive behavior is critical for the prevention and management of human aggressive behavior. A previous population-based taxometric study reported that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition (DSM-IV) intermittent explosive disorder (IED) belongs to its own discrete class (taxon) rather than existing along a continuum.
This study sought to extend previous population-based findings in a clinical research sample of adults with DSM-5 IED (n = 346), adults with non-aggressive DSM-5 disorders (n = 293), and adults without any DSM-5 disorder (n = 174), using standardized assessments of DSM-5 diagnoses, aggression, and other related measures not available in past studies.
Analyses revealed a taxonic latent structure that overlapped with the DSM-5 diagnosis of IED. Within the sample, taxon group members had higher scores on a variety of measures of psychopathology than did the complement members of the sample. Comorbidity of other diagnoses with IED did not affect these results.
These findings support the proposition that DSM-5 IED represents a distinct behavioral disorder rather than the severe end of an aggressive behavior continuum.
Mexican Americans suffer from a disproportionate burden of modifiable risk factors, which may contribute to the health disparities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of comorbid depression and diabetes on proteomic outcomes among community-dwelling Mexican American adults and elders.
Data from participants enrolled in the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders study was utilized. Participants were 50 or older and identified as Mexican American (N = 514). Cognition was assessed via neuropsychological test battery and diagnoses of MCI and AD adjudicated by consensus review. The sample was stratified into four groups: Depression only, Neither depression nor diabetes, Diabetes only, and Comorbid depression and diabetes. Proteomic profiles were created via support vector machine analyses.
In Mexican Americans, the proteomic profile of MCI may change based upon the presence of diabetes. The profile has a strong inflammatory component and diabetes increases metabolic markers in the profile.
Medical comorbidities may impact the proteomics of MCI and AD, which lend support for a precision medicine approach to treating this disease.
Flexible structures placed within an oncoming flow exhibit far more complex vortex-induced dynamics than flexibly mounted rigid cylinders, because they involve the distributed interaction between the structural and wake dynamics along the entire span. Hence, mapping the well-understood properties of rigid cylinder vibrations to those of strings and beams has been elusive. We show here with a combination of experiments, conducted at Reynolds number,
from 250 to 2300, and computational fluid dynamics that such a mapping is possible for flexible structures in uniform flow undergoing combined cross-flow and in-line oscillations, but only when additional concepts are introduced to model the extended coupling of the flow and the structure. The in-line response consists of largely standing waves that define cells, each cell spanning the distance between adjacent nodes, over which stable vortical patterns form, whose features (‘2S’ versus ‘P
S’) depend strongly on the true reduced velocity,
is the inflow velocity,
is the cross-flow vibration frequency and
is the cylinder diameter, and the phase angle between in-line and cross-flow response; while the cross-flow response may contain travelling waves, breaking the symmetry of the problem. The axial distribution of the highly variable effective added masses in the cross-flow and in-line directions, and the local phase angle between in-line and cross-flow motion determine the single frequency of cross-flow response, while the in-line response vibrates at twice the cross-flow frequency. The cross-flow and in-line lift coefficients in phase with velocity depend strongly on the true reduced velocity but also on the local phase angle between in-line and cross-flow motions. Modal shapes can be defined for in-line and cross-flow, based on the resemblance of the response to conventional modes, which can be in the ratio of either ‘
’ or ‘
is the order of the cross-flow response mode. We use an underwater optical tracking system to reconstruct the sectional fluid forces in a flexible structure and show that, once the cross-flow and in-line motion features are known, employing strip theory and the hydrodynamic coefficients obtained from forced rigid cylinder experiments allows us to predict the distributed forces accurately.
A large and growing body of literature has studied consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for local foods in the United States. However, these studies implicitly assume that consumers perceive local foods to have superior quality than nonlocal foods. Little is known about WTP for local foods when taking into account differences in consumer perception of food quality between local and nonlocal foods. In this article, we conduct an economic experiment to assess the effect of locally grown information on consumer WTP and quality perceptions of three broccoli varieties (one commercial variety grown in California and two newly developed local varieties). Our results show that consumers rate both the appearance and the taste of the two local broccoli varieties lower than the California variety when evaluating food quality blindly. However, consumers’ evaluations of the two local varieties improve substantially after being told the two varieties are locally grown. Results also indicate that consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the two local varieties after being told that they are locally grown. Our results provide evidence that locally grown information has a positive effect on both consumer WTP and quality perception of local foods.
Weed invasion is a prevailing problem in modestly managed lawns. Less attention has been given to the exploration of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different invasion pressures from lawn weeds. We conducted a four-season investigation into a Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele (native turfgrass)–threeflower beggarweed [Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.] (invasive weed) co-occurring lawn. The root mycorrhizal colonizations of the two plants, the soil AM fungal communities and the spore densities under five different coverage levels of D. triflorum were investigated. Desmodium triflorum showed significantly higher root hyphal and vesicular colonizations than those of Z. tenuifolia, while the root colonizations of both species varied significantly among seasons. The increased coverage of D. triflorum resulted in the following effects: (1) the spore density initially correlated with mycorrhizal colonizations of Z. tenuifolia but gradually correlated with those of D. triflorum. (2) Correlations among soil properties, spore densities, and mycorrhizal colonizations were more pronounced in the higher coverage levels. (3) Soil AMF community compositions and relative abundances of AMF operational taxonomic units changed markedly in response to the increased invasion pressure. The results provide strong evidence that D. triflorum possessed a more intense AMF infection than Z. tenuifolia, thus giving rise to the altered host contributions to sporulation, soil AMF communities, relations of soil properties, spore densities, and root colonizations of the two plants, all of which are pivotal for the successful invasion of D. triflorum in lawns.
The cao vit gibbon Nomascus nasutus, also known as eastern black crested gibbon, is categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and was considered one of the world's 25 most threatened primates. The only known population occurs along the border between China and Viet Nam. Accurate information on population size and dynamics is critical for the species’ conservation, but population surveys conducted in only one country may over- or underestimate total population size because the home ranges of cao vit gibbon groups often cross the international border. In 2007 and 2016 we conducted two collaborative transboundary censuses of the cao vit gibbon populations in the Trung Khanh Cao Vit Gibbon Species and Habitat Conservation Area in Viet Nam and the Bangliang Gibbon National Nature Reserve in China. The results showed a population size of 102–110 in 2007, which increased to 107–136 in 2016. Our results indicate that previous surveys conducted separately in Viet Nam and China underestimated the global population size of this species. According to our more comprehensive surveys, the gibbon population is increasing slowly. The gibbons and their habitat are legally protected in both countries. Hunting and charcoal making have not been reported in this area since 2007. As habitat carrying capacity is a limiting factor, habitat restoration is required. However, lack of funding to protect the cao vit gibbon remains a challenge.
We investigate the ability of an active body (master) to manipulate a passive object (slave) purely via contactless flow-mediated mechanisms, motivated by potential applications in microfluidic devices and medicine (drug delivery purposes). We extend prior works on active–passive cylinder pairs by superimposing periodic oscillations to the master’s linear motion. In a viscous fluid, such oscillations produce an additional viscous streaming field, which is leveraged for enhancing slave transport. We see that superimposing oscillations robustly improves transport across a range of Reynolds numbers. Comparison with results without oscillations highlights the flow mechanisms at work, which we capitalize on to design (master) geometries for augmented transport. These principles are found to extend to three-dimensional active–passive shapes as well.
Three-dimensional graphene (3D-GN)/Cu/Fe3O4 composite support materials were synthesized by a modified chemical reduction method using graphene oxide precursor. A 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensor was prepared by coating the electrode with laccase. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry using potassium ferricyanide, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and bisphenol A (BPA) solution. The current response of 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensors presents a remarkable sensitivity based on CV. The linear range of BPA is 7.2–18 μM using differential pulse voltammetry in PBS solution (pH = 4.0). A linear fitting equation of the laccase biosensor was observed for the current response as a function of BPA concentration. The detection limit was decreased to 1.7 μM. The detection approach herein turns out to be highly sensitive, has a wide linear range, and exhibits excellent stability.
Combining optics and microfluidics to create a portable optofluidic photonic crystal (PhC) biosensor is an approach with promising applications in the fields of counter-terrorism, agricultural sciences, and health sciences. Presented here are fabrication processes of a gallium nitride (GaN)-based PhC biosensor with a resonance-enhanced fluorescence detection mechanism that shows potential for meeting the single molecule detection requirements of these application areas. GaN is being targeted as the photonic crystal slab material for two main reasons: its transparency in the visible spectral range, within which the excitation and emission wavelengths of the commercial fluorescent-labeling dyes fall, and its intrinsic thermal stability which provides an increased flexibility of operating in different environments. Optical modeling efforts indicate a 25-fold enhancement of the fluorescent emission in this portable fluorescentbased PhC biosensor.
The BioCD is a spinning biochip that uses quadrature laser interferometry to detect captured protein on the disc surface. We describe the detection limits of protein binding on this optical biosensor. The fundamental metrology limit is 1 picometer for a single 100-micron diameter spot. Under assay conditions for prostate specific antigen, we can detect 25 pg/ml at 10 assays per disc.
Quantum dots play a promising role in the development of novel optical and biosensing devices. In this study, we investigated steady state and time-dependent luminescence properties of InGaP/ZnS core/shell colloidal quantum dots in a solution phase at room temperature. The steady state experiments exhibited an emission maximum at 650 nm with full width at half maximum of ~ 85 nm, and strong first-excitonic absorption peak at 600 nm. The time-resolved luminescence measurements depicted a bi-exponential decay profile with lifetimes of τ1 ~ 47 ns and τ2 ~ 142 ns at the emission maximum. Additionally, luminescence quenching and lifetime reduction due to resonance energy transfer between the quantum dot and an absorber are demonstrated. Our results support the plausibility of using these InGaP quantum dots as an effective alternative to highly toxic conventional Cd or Pb based colloidal quantum dots for biological applications.
Detection of important biological molecules using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has become widely used because of the highly sensitive and label free approach offered by SERS as well as the low cytotoxic response from some SERS substrates. Gold nanoparticles are commonly used in SERS studies; however, the inherent instability of these metal nanostructures in solution adversely influences the reproducibility and quantitative nature of these measurements. Furthermore, the metal surface often denatures biomolecules upon their direct interaction. To combat this incompatibility and improve optical stability, gold nanoparticles have been encapsulated in silica shells. These Au@SiO2 nanostructures have been used extensively in cellular studies, but their SERS capabilities are generally limited to uses that include silica-entrapped SERS reporter molecules rather than direct SERS detection. This work focuses on combating these limitations via the fabrication of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles with porous silica membranes for the direct detection of target molecules in solution. Gold nanoparticles have been designed and coated with a variety of silica morphologies and subsequently interrogated using extinction spectroscopy and SERS. It will be revealed that these gold nanoparticles entrapped in silica membranes serve as optically stable substrates for the quantitative and direct detection of target molecules. These advances in nanomaterial fabrication are envisioned to impact both fundamental and applied studies in a variety of research areas including catalysis, separations, and spectroscopy.
Molecular interferometric imaging (MI2) is a label-free optical biosensor that combines common-path interferometry with shot-noise limited characteristics of a CCD array detector to detect protein binding to surfaces. In the metrology limit, it has achieved roughness-limited surface height resolution of 15 pm per 0.4 micron pixel, corresponding to a scaling mass sensitivity of 7 fg/mm, and a molecular resolution of about 15 IgG molecules per pixel. We have applied MI2 to detect cytokine interleukin-5 at a concentration detection limit of 50 pg/mL with a sandwich immunoassay. Real-time binding assays with MI2 enable the study of reaction kinetics, with a scaling mass sensitivity of 2 pg/mm under 7x magnification. Real-time MI2 measurements of anti-rabbit IgG against rabbit IgG were compared with results from surface plasmon resonance, with identical association rate constants at 5x103 M-1sec-1.
We develop rapid chemical vapor sensors and micro gas chromatography (μGC) analyzers based on the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). An OFRR is a micro-sized thin-walled glass capillary; the circular cross-section of the capillary acts as an optical ring resonator while the whispering gallery modes or circulating waveguide modes (WGMs) supported by the ring resonator interact with the vapor samples passing through the capillary. The OFRR interior surface is coated with a vapor-sensitive polymer. The analyte and polymer interaction causes the polymer refractive index (RI) and the thickness to change, which is detected as a WGM spectral shift. Owing to the excellent fluidics, the OFRR vapor sensor exhibits sub-second detection and recovery time with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. On-column separation and detection in the OFRR based μGC system is also demonstrated, showing efficient separation of vapor mixtures and presenting highly reproducible retention time for the individual analyte. Compared to the conventional GC system, the OFRR μGC has the advantage of small size, rapid response, and high selectivity over a short length of column.
In this work, we have theoretically investigated a model for the poly(2-methoxy-5(2'- ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) photodegradation based on structural models for MEH-PPV oligomers in vacuum and in solvent (chloroform). We investigated how the incorporation of oxygen and breaking of vinyl double bonds affect the absorption spectra. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data if we assume that the incorporation of carbonyl group is the main mechanism associated with the photodegradation processes.