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The closure of a human lung airway is modelled as a pipe coated internally with a liquid that takes into account the viscoelastic properties of mucus. For a thick-enough coating, the Plateau–Rayleigh instability blocks the airway by the creation of a liquid plug, and the preclosure phase is dominated by the Newtonian behaviour of the liquid. Our previous study with a Newtonian-liquid model demonstrated that the bifrontal plug growth consequent to airway closure induces a high level of stress and stress gradients on the airway wall, which is large enough to damage the epithelial cells, causing sublethal or lethal responses. In this study, we explore the effect of the viscoelastic properties of mucus by means of the Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR model. Viscoelasticity is shown to be very relevant in the postcoalescence process, introducing a second peak of the wall shear stresses. This second peak is related to an elastic instability due to the presence of the polymeric extra stresses. For high-enough Weissenberg and Laplace numbers, this second shear stress peak is as severe as the first one. Consequently, a second lethal or sublethal response of the epithelial cells is induced.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to uteroplacental insufficiency results in a placenta that is unable to provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. These growth-restricted babies have an increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life. In rats, both male and female growth-restricted offspring have nephron deficits but only males develop kidney dysfunction and high blood pressure. In addition, there is transgenerational transmission of nephron deficits and hypertension risk. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms may explain the sex-specific programming and multigenerational transmission of IUGR-related phenotypes. Expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt1and Dnmt3a) and imprinted genes (Peg3, Snrpn, Kcnq1, and Cdkn1c) were investigated in kidney tissues of sham and IUGR rats in F1 (embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatal day 1 (PN1)) and F2 (6 and 12 months of age, paternal and maternal lines) generations (n = 6–13/group). In comparison to sham offspring, F1 IUGR rats had a 19% decrease in Dnmt3a expression at E20 (P < 0.05), with decreased Cdkn1c (19%, P < 0.05) and increased Kcnq1 (1.6-fold, P < 0.01) at PN1. There was a sex-specific difference in Cdkn1c and Snrpn expression at E20, with 29% and 34% higher expression in IUGR males compared to females, respectively (P < 0.05). Peg3 sex-specific expression was lost in the F2 IUGR offspring, only in the maternal line. These findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be altered in renal embryonic and/or fetal development in growth-restricted offspring, which could alter kidney function, predisposing these offspring to kidney disease later in life.
The Lateran Basilica hosted three pivotal papal liturgies of the Roman ecclesiastical calendar – Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, and the Easter Vigil. Due to their importance and infrequency, these feasts are well described in medieval sources. These celebrations, which commemorated the death and resurrection of Jesus, featured unique and dramatic observances such as the blessing and distribution of palms, the blessing of new oils, the washing of feet, the lighting of the new paschal candle, the chanting of fitting Biblical texts, and the baptism of infants. The action of the liturgy made use not only of the church, but also of the atrium and the baptistery of the Lateran. Although worship is sometimes characterized as having become ossified in the Middle Ages, the clergy did in fact allow modification and even experimentation in their liturgies. Perhaps the greatest single change came in the rite of reconciliation of penitents on Maundy Thursday, which once had the pope interceding for the people of the city for forgiveness of their sins; this allowed them to rejoin the faithful in taking the Eucharist at Mass. However, starting in the thirteenth century, the pope took the opportunity to excommunicate sinners to exclude them from the Eucharist.
Since 2003 the national research program for solid organ transplantation in HIV patients is active at the Liver Transplantation Centre of Modena. HIV patients who enter this protocol are assessed by the CLP Service. The aim of the present study is to evaluate their psychiatric comorbidity.
An observational prospective study was conduced comparing ESLD patients with and without HIV. After the assessment, the psychiatrist compiled the TERS and the MADRS. Baseline (B) evaluation was made before the inclusion in the OLTx waiting list and the Follow-Up (FU) one was made 12 months later.
From January 2003 to December 2006 we assessed 553 patients: 39 (6%) with HIV and 361 (94%) without HIV. The two groups were homogeneous for gender (75% of male patients; p = ns) but not for age (46 ± 5 vs 56 ± 9; p = ns). Psychiatric anamnesis was negative in 176 (49%) patients without HIV and in 6 (15%) patients with HIV, p<0.001.
At baseline psychiatric comorbidity was present in 33 HIV patients (85%) and in 148 non HIV patients (41%), p<0.001.
At the follow-up MADRS highlights an improvement at all the items for HIV patients. In the non-HIV group score variation was: B = 7.10, FU = 8.15; in the HIV group: B = 10.20, FU = 4.09 (p<0.001).
The average score at TERS was higher in patients with HIV (43 ± 9 vs 35 ± 9, p = ns).
At B HIV patients with ESLD show a greater frailty to psychopathology but they quite improved during FU. The contrary happen in non-HIV group.
The presence of panic disorder (PD) [1,2,3] is associated with numerous of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastroenterologic and neuro-otologic symptoms. PD is an anxiety disorder with a good outcome and prognosis, but if it isn't recognized cause a worse quality of life and a reduction of global functioning. The aim of our study is to put the attention on this delayed form of PD that are very good treated with duloxetine.
GV, a 29-year-old caucasian woman affected by PD with agoraphobia referred for recurrent gastroenteric symptoms (heartburn, chest tightness). PA, a 64-year-old caucasian woman affected by PD without agoraphobia referred for recurrent gastroenteric symptoms (heartburn). TB, a 45-year-old caucasian man affected by PD without agoraphobia referred for recurrent gastroenteric symptoms (heartburn, tightness, eructation). All patients are evaluated by gastroenterologist to excluded fisical gastroenterological problems. After 6 months all patients treated with duloxetine 60 mg/day, showed a complete remission of gastric and panic related symptoms.
Three case report positive treated with duloxetine, without particular adverse effects and litterature review.
Discussion and conclusion
Others authors hypothesized the duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine inhibitor that has greater initial noradrenergic effects than venlafaxine, would have broad efficacy for individuals with PD. Descending serotonin and norepinephrine pathways are modulators of pain perception, and duloxetine have an analgesic effect on painful physical symptoms. Further research is warranted to replicate our clinical observations.
P300 is an event-related potential (ERP) thought to reflect attention, working memory and context integration and has been shown to be consistently reduced in patients with Schizophrenia. Despite a possible relation between P300 components and cognitive deficits in Schizophrenia has been hypothesized, few studies addressed this hypothesis.
In the context of a multicenter study of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses, our study focused on the investigation of auditory P300 component in relation to clinical and cognitive domains in patients with Schizophrenia.
ERPs were recorded in 64 chronic, stabilized patients with Schizophrenia during a standard oddball task. N1 and P3b latency and amplitude were assessed at Fz and Pz, respectively. State of art instruments was used for clinical assessment. Cognitive indices (from the seven cognitive domains of the Measurement and Treatment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, MATRICS) were expressed as Z-scores from an Italian normative sample.
Correlation analysis revealed associations of P3b latency with age, education, PANSS-DIS, processing speed, working memory, St. Hans parkinsonism subscale. In a multiple linear regression model, processing speed was an independent significant predictor of P3b latency.
For the first time, a strong relation between P3b latency and processing speed impairment was shown in Schizophrenia. Processing speed is considered a central factor in the relation between cognitive deficits and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia. The association with P3b latency might shed lights in the neural basis of this complex construct.
Psoriasis is a multisystem inflammatory disease associated to several comorbidities with a significant impact on interpersonal and social life. Depression, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation–due to psychological distress–are frequently reported. The aim of the study was to assess whether psychological factors–psychopathology, perceived health status and coping strategies–together with clinical and sociodemographic factors, were independent predictors of Quality of Life (QoL) in adult psoriatic patients on topical and/or systemic pharmacological therapy. A cohort of 87 patients (53 M and 34 F), whose mean age was 46 ± 22 years, was analyzed. Coping responses were assessed by COPE and general psychopathology by Self-Reported-Symptom Inventory Revised (SCL-90), while HAM-D and HAM-A evaluated depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, perceived health status and QoL were analyzed by Short-Form-36 (SF-36) while the disease's burden assessed by PSODISK. Univariate analyses were performed for each variable to explore the relationship with QoL. Preliminary results indicated that, although not severe, anxiety and depressive symptoms were the most reported among patients along with somatization and obsessive-compulsivity. Female patients used more frequently mental disengagement, focus on and venting of emotions, use of instrumental social support and religious coping. Physical pain and mental health, instead, greatly affected QoL of subjects in a negative manner. PSODISK data analysis showed that general health, itching, serenity, shame and degree of extension of the disease on the skin were the most compromised areas. Moreover, correlation analysis indicated that a worse perception of patients’ health status was associated to poor QoL.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Surfactant-laden liquid plug propagation and rupture occurring in lower lung airways are studied computationally using a front-tracking method. The plug is driven by an applied constant pressure in a rigid axisymmetric tube whose inner surface is coated by a thin liquid film. The evolution equations of the interfacial and bulk surfactant concentrations coupled with the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved in the front-tracking framework. The numerical method is first validated for a surfactant-free case and the results are found to be in good agreement with the earlier simulations of Fujioka et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 20, 2008, 062104) and Hassan et al. (Intl J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, vol. 67, 2011, pp. 1373–1392). Then extensive simulations are performed to investigate the effects of surfactant on the mechanical stresses that could be injurious to epithelial cells, such as pressure and shear stress. It is found that the liquid plug ruptures violently to induce large pressure and shear stress on airway walls and even a tiny amount of surfactant significantly reduces the pressure and shear stress and thus improves cell survivability. However, addition of surfactant also delays the plug rupture and thus airway reopening.
A new locality for low-latitudinal, Early Triassic fishes was discovered in the Candelaria Hills, southwestern Nevada (USA). The fossils are derived from the lower Candelaria Formation, which was deposited during the middle–late Dienerian (late Induan), ca. 500 ka after the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction event. The articulated and disarticulated Osteichthyes (bony fishes), encompassing both Actinistia (coelacanths) and Actinopterygii (ray-fins), are preserved in large, silicified concretions that also contain rare coprolites. We describe the first actinopterygians from the Candelaria Hills. The specimens are referred to Pteronisculus nevadanus new species (Turseoidae?), Ardoreosomus occidentalis new genus new species (Ptycholepidae), the stem neopterygian Candelarialepis argentus new genus new species (Parasemionotidae), and Actinopterygii indet. representing additional taxa. Ardoreosomus n. gen. resembles other ptycholepids, but differs in its more angulate hyomandibula and lack of an elongate opercular process. Candelarialepis n. gen. is one of the largest parasemionotids, distinguished by its bipartite preopercle and scale ornamentation. Presented new species belong to genera (Pteronisculus) or families (Ptycholepidae, Parasemionotidae) that radiated globally after the mass extinction, thus underlining the striking similarities between Early Triassic (pre-Spathian) osteichthyan assemblages. The current data suggest that the diversity of low-latitudinal, Early Triassic bony fishes may have been greater than indicated thus far by the fossil record, probably due to sampling or taphonomic failure. All 24 fossils from the Candelaria Hills represent mid-sized or large osteichthyans, confirming the obvious absence of very small species (≤ 10 cm adult body length) in the beginning of the Mesozoic Era—even in low latitudes.
This study aims to estimate Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) prevalence in school-aged children in the province of Pisa (Italy) using the strategy of the ASD in the European Union (ASDEU) project.
A multistage approach was used to identify cases in a community sample (N = 10 138) of 7–9-year-old children attending elementary schools in Pisa – Italy. First, the number of children with a disability certificate was collected from the Local Health Authority and an ASD diagnosis was verified by the ASDEU team. Second, a Teacher Nomination form (TN) to identify children at risk for ASD was filled in by teachers who joined the study and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was filled in by the parents of children identified as positive by the TN; a comprehensive assessment, which included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition, was performed for children with positive TN and SCQ⩾9.
A total of 81 children who had a disability certificate also had ASD (prevalence: 0.79%, i.e. 1/126). Specifically, 66 children (57 males and nine females; 62% with intellectual disability –ID-) were certified with ASD, whereas another 15 (11 males and four females; 80% with ID) were recognised as having ASD among those certified with another neurodevelopmental disorder. Considering the population of 4417 (children belonging to schools which agreed to participate in the TN/SCQ procedure) and using only the number of children certified with ASD, the prevalence (38 in 4417) was 0.86%, i.e. one in 116. As far as this population is concerned, the prevalence rises to 1% if we consider the eight new cases (six males and two females; no subject had ID) identified among children with no pre-existing diagnoses and to 1.15%, i.e., one in 87, if probabilistic estimation is used.
This is the first population-based ASD prevalence study conducted in Italy so far and its results indicate a prevalence of ASD in children aged 7–9 years of about one in 87. This finding may help regional, national and international health planners to improve ASD policies for ASD children and their families in the public healthcare system.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
Probably, the long-term monitoring of the solar atmosphere started in Italy with the first telescopic observations of the Sun made by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century. His recorded observations and science results, as well as the work carried out by other following outstanding Italian astronomers inspired the start of institutional programs of regular solar observations at the Arcetri, Catania, and Rome Observatories.
These programs have accumulated daily images of the solar photosphere and chromosphere taken at various spectral bands over a time span larger than 80 years. In the last two decades, regular solar observations were continued with digital cameras only at the Catania and Rome Observatories, which are now part of the INAF National Institute for Astrophysics. At the two sites, daily solar images are taken at the photospheric G-band, Blue (λ = 409.4 nm), and Red (λ = 606.9 nm) continua spectral ranges and at the chromospheric Ca II K and Hα lines, with a 2″ spatial resolution.
Solar observation in Italy, which benefits from over 2500 hours of yearly sunshine, currently aims at the operational monitoring of solar activity and long-term variability and at the continuation of the historical series as well. Existing instruments will be soon enriched by the SAMM double channel telescope equipped with magneto-optical filters that will enable the tomography of the solar atmosphere with simultaneous observations at the K I 769.9 nm and Na I D 589.0 nm lines. In this contribution, we present the available observations and outline their scientific relevance.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
The Early Triassic vertebrate record from low paleolatitudes is spotty, which led to the notion of an ‘equatorial vertebrate eclipse’ during the Smithian. Here we present articulated ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), collected from the marine Lower Triassic Thaynes Group at three new localities in Elko County (Nevada, USA), which were deposited within the equatorial zone. From the Smithian of the Winecup Ranch, we describe two partial skulls of the predatory actinopterygian Birgeria (Birgeriidae), attributed to B. americana new species and Birgeria sp. Birgeria americana n. sp. is distinguished from other species by a less reduced operculogular series. With an estimated total length of 1.72–1.85m, it is among the largest birgeriids. We confirm that Birgeria encompasses species with either two or three rows of teeth on the maxilla and dentary, and suggest that species with three well-developed rows are restricted to the Early Triassic. From the latest Smithian of Palomino Ridge, we present a three-dimensional, partial skull of the longirostrine predator Saurichthys (Saurichthyidae). This and other occurrences indicate that saurichthyids were common in the western USA basin. From the early late Spathian of Crittenden Springs, we describe a posterior body portion (Actinopterygii indet.). This find is important given the paucity of Spathian osteichthyan sites. We provide a summary of Early Triassic vertebrate occurrences in the United States, concluding that vertebrate fossils remain largely unstudied. The presence of predatory vertebrates in subequatorial latitudes during the Smithian confirms that Early Triassic trophic chains were not shortened and contradicts the ‘equatorial vertebrate eclipse’.
Mycobacterium avium sp. avium (MAA), M. avium sp. hominissuis (MAH), and M. avium sp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are the main members of the M. avium complex (MAC) causing diseases in several hosts. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of MAC isolated from different hosts. Twenty-six MAH and 61 MAP isolates were recovered from humans and cattle, respectively. GenoType CM® and IS1311-PCR were used to identify Mycobacterium species. The IS901-PCR was used to differentiate between MAH and MAA, while IS900-PCR was used to identify MAP. Genotyping was performed using a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) scheme (loci: 292, X3, 25, 47, 3, 7, 10, 32) and patterns (INMV) were assigned according to the MAC-INMV database (http://mac-inmv.tours.inra.fr/). Twenty-two (22/26, 84·6%) MAH isolates were genotyped and 16 were grouped into the following, INMV 92, INMV 121, INMV 97, INMV 103, INMV 50, and INMV 40. The loci X3 and 25 showed the largest diversity (D: 0·5844), and the global discriminatory index (Hunter and Gaston discriminatory index, HGDI) was 0·9300. MAP (100%) isolates were grouped into INMV 1, INMV 2, INMV 11, INMV 8, and INMV 5. The HGDI was 0·6984 and loci 292 and 7 had the largest D (0·6980 and 0·5050). MAH presented a higher D when compared with MAP. The MIRU-VNTR was a useful tool to describe the genetic diversity of both MAH and MAP as well as to identify six new MAH patterns that were conveniently reported to the MAC-INMV database. It was also demonstrated that, in the geographical region studied, human MAC cases were produced by MAH as there was no MAA found among the human clinical samples.
The influence of organizational culture on how psychotropic medicines are used in nursing homes has not been extensively studied. Schein's theory provides a framework for examining organizational culture which begins with the exploration of visible components of an organization such as behaviors, structures, and processes. This study aimed to identify key visible components related to the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes.
A qualitative study was conducted in eight nursing homes in Sydney, Australia. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured interviews with 40 participants representing a broad range of health disciplines. Thematic analysis was used to derive concepts.
Three visible components were related to psychotropic medicine use. These were drugs and therapeutics committee meetings, pharmacist led medication management reviews and formal and informal meetings with residents and their families. We found that only a few nursing homes utilized drugs and therapeutics committee meetings to address the overuse of psychotropic medicines. Pharmacist led medication management reviews provided a lever to minimize inappropriate psychotropic prescribing for a number of nursing homes; however, in others it was used as a box-ticking exercise. We also found that some nursing homes used meetings with residents and their families to review the use of psychotropic medicines.
This study was the first to illustrate that visible components of organizational culture do influence the use of psychotropic medicines and explains in detail what of the culture needs to be addressed to reduce inappropriate psychotropic prescribing.
We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a ‘typical’ halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.
We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.