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In 2021, Brazilian scientific research in Antarctica will reach its 40 anniversary, and in that period it has experienced good and bad times. How has Brazilian scientific research evolved since its first scientific mission to Antarctica? What were the conditions that enabled this research? How will Brazilian researchers work in the brand-new scientific station? Using an interdisciplinary approach, this article identifies tipping points and the national policy network that led to unstable funding policies. This article highlights four phases of Brazilian Antarctic science and states that there is a clear disconnect between the geopolitical and scientific priorities on one side and the political priorities, including the executive and the legislative powers, on the other.
In the past 25 years, education funding in Oklahoma has stagnated. In some schools, students learn about American politics from tattered textbooks in which George W. Bush is listed as the current president (Hendry and Pasquantonio 2018). Across the board, teachers are grossly underpaid, yet many are compelled to buy school supplies with their own funds (Felder 2018a). Moreover, in one out of five schools, students come to class only four days a week (Carlson 2018). After the state legislature failed to pass a funding package to sufficiently increase spending on schools and salaries in early 2018, teachers across Oklahoma walked out on their jobs to protest at the Capitol for nine days. In addition to sharing their grievances, the hundreds of protesting educators had something else in common: many were women.
Impairments in social behavior and cognition, such as the ability to identify others’ emotional state, are important features in schizophrenia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and are nonapeptides that influence social cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the administration of intranasal AVP or OXT may affect the ability to recognize facial emotions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of AVP or OXT on social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The secondary objective of the study was to test for sex-specific effects of intranasal AVP and OXT administration on social cognition.
In this double-blind, placebo-control, cross-over study, 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, received a dose of AVP, OXT or placebo in three separate meetings. Forty-five minutes after administration, subjects performed facial emotion recognition tasks.
There were no significant main effects of hormone administration on the ability to recognize facial emotions between treatment conditions. However, AVP administration resulted in sex-specific differences in emotion recognition. Specifically, in men, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize angry faces. In women, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize sad faces and improved the ability to recognize fearful faces.
These findings indicate that intranasal AVP may affect the recognition of facial emotions differently in men and women. Thus, AVP may increase the differences between men and women on social cognition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In conservation biology, population monitoring is a critical step, particularly for endangered groups, such as steppe birds in European agro-ecosystems. Long-term population monitoring allows for determination of species population trends and also provides insights into the relative roles that environmental variability and human activities have on priority species. Here, we compare the population trends of two sympatric, closely related farmland bird species, the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax and Great Bustard Otis tarda, in a protected area of Central Spain, which is their main stronghold in Europe. Over 12 years of monitoring, the abundance of Little and Great Bustards shifted in opposite directions in our study area. Little Bustard abundance decreased significantly (both males [-56%], and harder-to-detect females [-55%]), while Great Bustard abundance increased significantly (1,800%). Future surveys should be more precise and frequent for Little Bustards to facilitate evaluation of their population status and trends. We recommend annual surveys in 2–3 important locations by region throughout the breeding range for Little Bustards, while for Great Bustard the current regional monitoring programmes would be sufficient.
We present new imaging and spectral analysis of the recently discovered extended X–ray emission around the high-magnetic-field rotating radio transient RRAT J1819–1458. We used two Chandra observations, taken on 2008 May 31 and 2011 May 28. The diffuse X–ray emission was detected with a significance of ~19σ in the image obtained by combining the two observations. Long-term spectral variability has not been observed. Possible scenarios for the origin of this diffuse X–ray emission, further detailed in Camero–Arranz et al. (2012), are here discussed.
Supernovae play an integral role in the feedback of processed material back into the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies and are responsible for most of the chemical enrichment of the universe. The rate of supernovae can also reveal the star formation histories. In a sample of 11 nearby galaxies observed with SINFONI, a strong linear correlation between [FeII]1.26 luminosity and Starburst 99-derived supernova rate is found on a pixel-pixel basis. In the very nearby archetypal starburst galaxy NGC 253, the excitation of molecular gas is a subject of debate. Using the correlation between [FeII] and supernova rate, we can determine if supernovae can account for the excitation of the bright observed near-infrared H2 emission.
This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
Cet atelier, créé dans le cadre du GT SFRP-COFREND sur la radiographie industrielle a étudié le matériel utilisé en France. Ont été décrits les différents types de matériel, les générateurs de rayons X et les appareils contenant des sources radioactives. Les accessoires, et matériels de délimitation et systèmes de collimation du faisceau sont aussi décrits. Pour chaque type de matériel, des axes d'améliorations et propositions d'amélioration sont cités.
Établi dans le cadre du groupe de travail COFREND-SFRP, cet atelier avait pour principal objectif de recenser le retour d'expérience des incidents existant dans le domaine de la gammagraphie industrielle et, si possible, de l'améliorer. Les produits issus de l'atelier sont principalement destinés à enrichir le contenu des formations des opérateurs et des personnes compétentes en radioprotection des entreprises de gammagraphie industrielle. Différentes sources bibliographiques dans lesquelles des incidents/accidents sont recensés ont été analysées : les bases de données IRID et RELIR ont été particulièrement étudiées. Il a alors été identifié que le retour d'expérience existant n'était pas totalement représentatif des événements rencontrés en France aujourd'hui. De nouveaux types d'incidents (non maîtrise de la zone balisée, blocage du porte-source dans la gaine dû à la présence de corps étranger...) ont été identifiés à partir desquels de nouvelles fiches RELIR ont été établies. En parallèle, une synthèse des leçons issues des incidents recensés au cours de l'atelier a été élaborée.
The nuclei of ULIRGs harbor massive young stars, an accreting central black hole, or both. Results are presented for molecular gas that is exposed to X-rays (1–100 keV, XDRs) and far-ultraviolet radiation (6–13.6 eV, PDRs). Attention is paid to species like HCO+, HCN, HNC, OH, H2O and CO. Line ratios of HCN/HCO+ and HNC/HCN discriminate between PDRs and XDRs. Very high J (>10) CO lines, observable with HIFI/Herschel, discriminate very well between XDRs and PDRs. In XDRs, it is easy to produce large abundances of warm (T > 100 k) H2O and OH. In PDRs, only OH is produced similarly well.
Frederick Carder popularized art glass in America and is remembered as the founder of Steuben Glass. He was a designer and glass technologist whose factory produced colored and highly decorated glass vessels that competed with but were less expensive than those of Tiffany Studios. To understand the differences in technology between the competing products of Carder and Tiffany, opalescent white glass formulations, fumed gold lusters and silver-containing glasses used in trailed decoration were analyzed and compared by electron beam microprobe analysis and scanning-electron microscopy with simultaneous energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Analytical results show standardized processing that includes opalescent compositions in a narrow range of soda-lime-silicate and lead-alkali-silicate glasses, fumed “golden” lusters made from tin and silver, and iridized surface layers formed by multiple heat treatments.
Neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have begun to describe the functional neuroanatomy of human emotion. Taken separately, specific studies vary in task dimensions and in type(s) of emotion studied, and are limited by statistical power and sensitivity. By examining findings across studies in a meta-analysis, we sought to determine if common or segregated patterns of activations exist in different emotions and across various emotional tasks. We surveyed over 55 positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging activation studies, which investigated emotion in healthy subjects. This paper will review observations in several regions of interest in limbic (eg, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex) and paralimbic (eg, medial prefrontal cortex, insula) brain regions in emotional responding.
Gas in galaxy centers may be irradiated by far-ultraviolet, X-ray photons or both. We discuss the observational line diagnostics for PDRs (FUV) and XDRs (X-ray).To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
We derive and discuss the strong dependence on metallicity of the CO to H2 conversion factor X = N(H2)/Ico = 12.2 – 2.5log[O]/[H] appropriate to extragalactic objects, as well as the weaker dependence found for such objects from interferometer measurements.
The difficulty of directly observing molecular hydrogen (H2), the major constituent of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and ways of doing so indirectly are reviewed elsewhere in this volume (Combes 2000). Usually, H2 cloud properties are derived by extrapolation from more easily conducted CO observations. For instance, observed CO cloud sizes and velocity widths yield total molecular gas masses under the assumption of virial equilibrium. However, in extragalactic systems especially, this method is beset by pitfalls (see Israel, 1997, hereafter Is97) and requires high linear resolutions (i.e. use of interferometer arrays). More seriously, the fundamental assumption of virialization appears to be false. As individual components (‘clumps’) have velocities of only a few km s−1 and CO complex sizes are 50–100 pc, crossing times are comparable to CO complex lifetimes of only a few times 107 years or less (Leisawitz et al. 1989; Fukui et al. 2000; see also Elmegreen 2000). As equilibrium cannot be reached in a single crossing time or less, the virial theorem is not applicable to such complexes. Indeed, the elongated and interconnected filamentary appearance of many large CO cloud complexes do not suggest virialized systems (see also Maloney 1990).
Over the last year we obtained X-ray (ROSAT, BeppoSAX and ASCA) and optical (at ESO and at the Astronomical Observatory of Loiano) to infra-red (AAO) observations of a sample of newly discovered X-ray pulsars. Among this sample we discovered the likely optical counterpart of three of them located in the Galactic plane: GS 0834–43, 1WGA J1958.2+3232 and AX J1820.5–1434.