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To simulate the impact that Na reductions in food categories that are the largest contributors to dietary Na intake would have on population Na intake from packaged foods among US adults and children.
24 h Dietary recall data were used. For each store-bought packaged food product reported by participants, we generated sales-weighted Na content at the median and 25th percentile using Nutrition Facts Panel data from 193 195 products purchased by US households. The impact that Na reductions would have on population Na intake, overall and by sociodemographic subgroup, was examined.
Children aged 2–18 years (n 2948) and adults aged >18 years (n 4878), 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Na intake from packaged foods was 1258 (se 21) mg for adults and 1215 (se 35) mg for children. Top-ten packaged food group sources contributed 67 % of Na intake. For adults and children, there was a decrease of 8·7 % (109 mg) and 8·0 % (97 mg), respectively, in Na intake if the top-ten sources reduced Na from the median to the 25th percentile. Although absolute reduction in intake varied between sociodemographic subgroups, significant differences were not observed.
The study demonstrated that if Na reduction shifted the top-ten packaged food group sources of dietary Na intake from the median to 25th percentile, population Na intake would be reduced by 9 % in US adults and children. These findings will help inform the US government’s Na reduction targets, as well as policy makers’ understanding of differences in intake of critical sub-populations in the USA.
The present study examined the energy (kilojoule) content of Australian fast-food menu items over seven years, before and after introduction of menu board labelling, to determine the impact of the introduction of the legislation.
Analysis of the median energy contents per serving and per 100g of fast-food menu items. Change in energy content of menu items across the years surveyed and differences in energy content of standard and limited-time only menu items were analysed.
Five of Australia’s largest fast food chains: Hungry Jack’s, KFC, McDonald’s, Oporto and Red Rooster.
All standard and limited-time only menu items available at each fast-food chain, collected annually for seven years, 2009–2015.
Although some fast-food chains/menu item categories had significant increases in the energy contents of their menus at some time points during the 7-year period, overall there were no significant or systematic decreases in energy following the introduction of menu labelling (P=0·19 by +17 kJ/100 g, P=0·83 by +8 kJ/serving). Limited-time only items were significantly higher in median energy content per 100 g than standard menu items (+74 kJ/100 g, P=0·002).
While reformulation across the entire Australian fast-food supply has the potential to positively influence population nutrient intake, the introduction of menu labelling legislation in New South Wales, Australia did not lead to reduced energy contents across the five fast-food chains. To encourage widespread reformulation by the fast-food industry and enhance the impact of labelling legislation, the government should work with industry to set targets for reformulation of nutrient content.
Americans consume Na in excess of daily recommendations. Most dietary Na comes from packaged foods, and bread is a major contributor. In the UK, national Na reduction strategies contributed to lower Na levels in packaged foods and lower population Na intake. Similar initiatives are emerging in the USA and require surveillance to assess effectiveness. We aimed to examine Na levels in bread products in the USA and compare levels with similar UK products.
Na data for bread products were obtained from the US Label Insight Open Data Initiative (n 4466) and the FoodSwitch UK database (n 1651). Mean, median and range of Na content, and proportion of products meeting Na targets established by the National Salt Reduction Initiative (NSRI) and the UK Department of Health (DH) were calculated overall, by bread type and by country.
Mean (sd) Na content in bread was 455 (170) mg/100 g in the USA and 406 (179) mg/100 g in the UK. In both countries, savoury bread had the highest mean Na (USA=584 mg/100 g, UK=543 mg/100 g) and fruit bread the lowest mean Na (USA=345 mg/100 g, UK=277 mg/100 g). Na content of US bread products was 12 % higher than in the UK, with 21 % of US bread products and 31 % of UK bread products meeting the NSRI and DH targets, respectively.
US bread products have, on average, 12 % more Na than similar products in the UK. Variation in Na content within product categories, and between countries, suggests the feasibility of manufacturing products with lower Na to lower dietary Na intake.
Limiting the intake of added sugars in the diet remains a key focus of global dietary recommendations. To date there has been no systematic monitoring of the major types of added sugars used in the Australian food supply. The present study aimed to identify the most common added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in the Australian packaged food supply.
Secondary analysis of data from the Australian FoodSwitch database was undertaken. Forty-six added sugars and eight non-nutritive sweetener types were extracted from the ingredient lists of 5744 foods across seventeen food categories.
Added sugar ingredients were found in 61 % of the sample of foods examined and non-nutritive sweetener ingredients were found in 69 %. Only 31 % of foods contained no added sugar or non-nutritive sweetener. Sugar (as an ingredient), glucose syrup, maple syrup, maltodextrin and glucose/dextrose were the most common sugar ingredient types identified. Most Australian packaged food products had at least one added sugar ingredient, the most common being ‘sugar’.
The study provides insight into the most common types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners used in the Australian food supply and is a useful baseline to monitor changes in how added sugars are used in Australian packaged foods over time.
To estimate the proportion of products meeting Indian government labelling regulations and to examine the Na levels in packaged foods sold in India.
Nutritional composition data were collected from the labels of all packaged food products sold at Indian supermarkets in between 2012 and 2014. Proportions of products compliant with the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) regulations and labelled with Na content, and mean Na levels were calculated. Comparisons were made against 2010 data from Hyderabad and against the UK Department of Health (DoH) 2017 Na targets.
Eleven large chain retail stores in Delhi and Hyderabad, India.
Packaged food products (n 5686) categorised into fourteen food groups, thirty-three food categories and ninety sub-categories.
More packaged food products (43 v. 34 %; P<0·001) were compliant with FSSAI regulations but less (32 v. 38 %; P<0·001) reported Na values compared with 2010. Food groups with the highest Na content were sauces and spreads (2217 mg/100 g) and convenience foods (1344 mg/100 g). Mean Na content in 2014 was higher in four food groups compared with 2010 and lower in none (P<0·05). Only 27 % of foods in sub-categories for which there are UK DoH benchmarks had Na levels below the targets.
Compliance with nutrient labelling in India is improving but remains low. Many packaged food products have high levels of Na and there is no evidence that Indian packaged foods are becoming less salty.
To compare two front-of-pack nutrition labelling systems for the assessment of packaged foods and drinks with Australian Dietary Guidelines.
A cross-sectional nutrient profiling assessment. Food and drink products (n 20 225) were categorised into scoring levels using criteria for the Institute of Medicine (IOM) three-star system and the five-star Australian Health Star Rating (HSR). The effectiveness of these systems to categorise foods in accordance with Australian Dietary Guidelines was explored.
The study was conducted in Australia, using a comprehensive food database.
Packaged food and drink products (n 20 225) available in Australia.
Using the IOM three-star system, the majority (55 %) of products scored the minimum 0 points and 25·5 % scored the maximum 3 points. Using HSR criteria, the greatest proportion of products (15·2 %) scored three-and-a-half stars from a possible five and 12·5 % received the lowest rating of a half-star. Very few products (4·1 %) scored five stars. Products considered core foods and drinks in Australian Dietary Guidelines received higher scores than discretionary foods in all food categories for both labelling systems (all P<0·05; Mann–Whitney U test), with the exception of fish products using IOM three-star criteria (P=0·603). The largest discrepancies in median score between the two systems were for the food categories edible oils, convenience foods and dairy.
Both the IOM three-star and Australian HSR front-of-pack labelling systems rated packaged foods and drinks broadly in line with Australian Dietary Guidelines by assigning core foods higher ratings and discretionary foods lower ratings.
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