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Self-efficacy can be defined as individuals’ beliefs in their capability to implement a behavior needed to reach a goal or perform a task successfully. A vast amount of empirical research shows that self-efficacy is a key factor in predicting and explaining the successful initiation and maintenance of behavior change in various domains of human life. Less research has been conducted on the sources of self-efficacy (mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, somatic and affective states) and how these can be prompted in behavior change interventions. This chapter reviews primary and meta-analytic research on behavior change techniques promoting self-efficacy beliefs in interventions for change in health, work, and academic contexts. It also provides practical guidelines and concrete examples on how to design and evaluate behavior change interventions that target self-efficacy.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Produce rich in phytochemicals may alter postprandial glucose and insulin responses by interacting with the pathways that regulate glucose uptake and insulin secretion in humans. The aims of the present study were to assess the phytochemical constituents of red beetroot juice and to measure the postprandial glucose and insulin responses elicited by either 225 ml beetroot juice (BEET), a control beverage matched for macronutrient content (MCON) or a glucose beverage in healthy adults. Beetroot juice was a particularly rich source of betalain degradation compounds. The orange/yellow pigment neobetanin was measured in particularly high quantities (providing 1·3 g in the 225 ml). A total of sixteen healthy individuals were recruited, and consumed the test meals in a controlled single-blind cross-over design. Results revealed a significant lowering of the postprandial insulin response in the early phase (0–60 min) (P < 0·05) and a significantly lower glucose response in the 0–30 min phase (P < 0·05) in the BEET treatment compared with MCON. Betalains, polyphenols and dietary nitrate found in the beetroot juice may each contribute to the observed differences in the postprandial insulin concentration.
On June 13, 2012, a group of key stakeholders, leaders, and national experts on tuberculosis (TB), occupational health, and laboratory science met in Atlanta, Georgia, to focus national discussion on the higher than expected positive results occurring among low-risk, unexposed healthcare workers undergoing serial testing with interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs). The objectives of the meeting were to present the latest clinical and operational research findings on the topic, to discuss evaluation and treatment algorithms that are emerging in the absence of national guidance, and to develop a consensus on the action steps needed to assist programs and physicians in the interpretation of serial testing IGRA results. This report summarizes its proceedings.
We describe an experiment designed as an upper level physics laboratory that introduces students to Raman Scattering of electronic materials and research methodology. This experiment is an effective approach in demonstrating the relationship between the Raman intensity of the scattered light from crystals and symmetry dependent Raman selection rules. In our measurements we alter the angle between the crystal axis and the polarization of the incident laser beam by Si (100) sample rotation. The three dimensional plot of the intensity profile versus the theoretical model is used to distinguish differences between various crystal planes of the same electronic sample. This experiment will combine optical analysis with materials aspects of electronic materials.
Bioenergy has a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential, provided that the resources are developed sustainably and that efficient bioenergy systems are used. Certain current systems and key future options including perennial cropping systems, use of biomass residues and wastes and advanced conversion systems are able to deliver 80 to 90% emission reductions compared to the fossil energy baseline. However, land use conversion and forest management that lead to a loss of carbon stocks (direct) in addition to indirect land use change (d+iLUC) effects can lessen, and in some cases more than neutralize, the net positive GHG mitigation impacts. Impacts of climate change through temperature increases, rainfall pattern changes and increased frequency of extreme events will influence and interact with biomass resource potential. This interaction is still poorly understood, but it is likely to exhibit strong regional differences. Climate change impacts on biomass feedstock production exist but if global temperature rise is limited to less than 2°C compared with the pre-industrial record, it may pose few constraints. Combining adaptation measures with biomass resource production can offer more sustainable opportunities for bioenergy and perennial cropping systems.
Biomass is a primary source of food, fodder and fibre and as a renewable energy (RE) source provided about 10.2% (50.3 EJ) of global total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2008. Traditional use of wood, straws, charcoal, dung and other manures for cooking, space heating and lighting by generally poorer populations in developing countries accounts for about 30.7 EJ, and another 20 to 40% occurs in unaccounted informal sectors including charcoal production and distribution.
The Business Meeting of Commission 41 was held in Sessions 2 on 5 August 2009, with Acting President Clive Ruggles (UK) in the Chair. He called for a moment of silence for those members who had passed away in the last triennium, including Prof. Xi Zezong (b. 1927, d. 2008 Dec 27) and Prof. Chen Meidong (b. 1936, d. 2008 Dec 30).
Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 gas begins the process of systemic acidification by altering the ultrastructural, metabolic, and immune functions of the peritoneum. Both direct and indirect effects of CO2 can be seen in numerous aspects of the cardiovascular system. Both obese and non-obese patients undergo laparoscopy at 15 mm Hg of CO2 gas in order to provide adequate visualization while minimizing the detrimental effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). An overall decrease in renal perfusion and a resultant increase in hormonal activity occur with pneumoperitoneum. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often require lower IAP during laparoscopy. Effective preventions or control of detrimental effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum are key to maintaining the safety profile of laparoscopy. Nevertheless, with the numerous benefits that stem from sequential compression devices (SCDs), their routine use has become widely recommended for all laparoscopic surgery.
Commission 41 of the International Astronomical Union deals with all aspects of astronomical history and heritage from ancient sky knowledge to developments in modern astronomy that have occurred within living memory. It encourages and supports research in the history of astronomy and related fields such as archaeoastronomy and is also concerned with the identification, documentation and preservation of vital aspects of our astronomical heritage such as sites, artifacts, instruments and archives. Commission 41 is one of the largest Commissions in the Union, and is a member of Division XII on Union-Wide Activities.