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Zoos can play an integral role in headstarting, a conservation strategy involving the rearing of animals in zoos from birth or hatching and throughout the time when they are susceptible to the mortalities young animals experience in nature. Once they pass that critical period, they are returned to nature to help sustain wild populations. WCS’s Bronx and Queens zoos are involved in several such programs. The Bronx Zoo was instrumental in identifying the parameters required to rear maleo chicks, an endangered Indonesian bird. WCS’s field program in Indonesia adopted these protocols and 12,772 chicks have been headstarted since 2001. The Queens and Roger Williams Park Zoos are part of a multiagency team headstarting New England cottontail rabbits (NECTs), a species with a declining population. To date, 191 NECTs have been reintroduced to sites in New England. The Bronx Zoo also works with Eastern hellbenders, the US’s largest amphibian. The zoo hatches hellbender eggs collected from Allegheny watershed streams and rears the young until they reach a size where they are too large for most aquatic predators. The zoo has successfully reared nearly 300 hellbenders for release.
One of the longest-lived, noncolonial animals on the planet today is a bivalve that attains life spans in excess of 500 years and lives in a cold, seasonally food-limited setting. Separating the influence of temperature and food availability on life span in modern settings is difficult, as these two conditions covary. The life spans of fossil animals can provide insights into the role of environment in the evolution of extreme longevity that are not available from studies of modern taxa. We examine bivalves from the unique, nonanalogue, warm and high-latitude setting of Seymour Island, Antarctica, during the greenhouse intervals of the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene. Despite significant sampling limitations, we find that all 11 species examined are both slow growing and long-lived, especially when compared with modern bivalves living in similar temperature settings. While cool temperatures have long been thought to be a key factor in promoting longevity, our findings suggest an important role for caloric restriction brought about by the low and seasonal light regime of the high latitudes. Our life-history data, spanning three different families, emphasize that longevity is in part governed by environmental rather than solely phylogenetic or ecologic factors. Such findings have implications for both modern and ancient latitudinal diversity gradients, as a common correlate of slow growth and long life is delayed reproduction, which limits the potential for evolutionary change. While life spans of modern bivalves are well studied, data on life spans of fossil bivalves are sparse and largely anecdotal. Life histories of organisms from deep time can not only elucidate the controls on life span but also add a new dimension to our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns.
A 1995 National Institute of Neurological Disorders (NINDS) study found benefit for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) rate in the NINDS study was 6.4%, which may be deterring some physicians from using this medication.
Starting December 1, 1998, patients with AIS in London, Ontario were treated according to NINDS criteria with one major exception; those with approximately greater than one-third involvement of the idealized middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory on neuroimaging were excluded from treatment. The method used to estimate involvement of one-third MCA territory involvement bears the acronym ICE and had a median kappa value of 0.80 among five physicians. Outcomes were compared to the NINDS study.
Between December 1, 1998 and February 1, 2000, 30 patients were treated. Compared to the NINDS study, more London patients were treated after 90 minutes (p<0.00001) and tended to be older. No SICH was observed. Compared to the treated arm of the NINDS trial, fewer London patients were dead or severely disabled at three months (p=0.04). Compared to the placebo arm of the trial, more patients made a partial recovery at 24 hours (p=0.02), more had normal outcomes (p=0.03) and fewer were dead or severely disabled at three months (p=0.004).
The results of the NINDS study were closely replicated and, in some instances, improved upon in this small series of Canadian patients, despite older age and later treatment. These findings suggest that imaging exclusion criteria may optimize the benefits of tPA.
Meige syndrome is a movement disorder that includes blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonias. Its etiology may be idiopathic (primary) or it may arise secondary to focal brain injury. Acute respiratory distress as a feature of such dystonias occurs infrequently. A review of the literature on Meige syndrome and the relationship between dystonias and respiratory compromise is presented.
A 60-year-old woman suffered a cerebral anoxic event secondary to manual strangulation. She developed progressive blepharospasm combined with oromandibular and cervical dystonias. Neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral damage localized to the globus pallidus. Years later, she presented to the emergency department in intermittent respiratory distress associated with facial and cervical muscle spasms.
Results and conclusions:
Increasing frequency and severity of the disorder was noted over years. The acute onset of respiratory involvement required intubation and eventual tracheotomy. A partial therapeutic benefit of tetrabenazine was demonstrated.
Stereotyped, repeated transient ischemic attacks manifesting as pure motor hemiparesis are most often attributed to ischemia of the internal capsule or ventral pons resulting from in situ disease of the small penetrating arteries.
We report a 61-year-old man presenting with recurrent episodes of left-sided weakness consistent with the lacunar syndrome of pure motor hemiparesis. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed infarction of the right ventral pons and a critical basilar artery stenosis as the inciting lesion. Despite maximal antithrombotic therapy, he continued to have repeated symptoms. Angioplasty and stenting were attempted but both failed due to plaque recoil and technical difficulties. After the procedure, the patient had no further ischemic episodes and remained symptom-free at two months.
This case illustrates the imprecise and discordant relationship between the mode of presentation of a stroke syndrome and its presumed pathophysiology. The lacunar syndrome of pure motor hemiparesis should be recognized by clinicians as a mode of stroke presentation due not only to small vessel disease, but also to large artery atherosclerotic disease such as basilar artery stenosis. Prompt institution of treatment can lead to a good clinical outcome.
Background: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke are associated with
a substantial risk of subsequent stroke; however, there is uncertainty about
whether such patients require admission to hospital for their initial
management. We used data from a clinical stroke registry to determine the
frequency and predictors of hospitalization for TIA or minor stroke across
the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods: The Ontario Stroke Registry collects information on a
population-based sample of all patients seen in the emergency department
with acute stroke or TIA in Ontario. We identified patients with minor
ischemic stroke or TIA included in the registry between April 1, 2008, and
March 31, 2011, and used multivariable analyses to evaluate predictors of
hospitalization. Results: Our study sample included 8540 patients with minor ischemic stroke
or TIA, 47.2% of whom were admitted to hospital, with a range of 37.6% to
70.3% across Ontario’s 14 local health integration network regions. Key
predictors of admission were preadmission disability, vascular risk factors,
presentation with weakness, speech disturbance or prolonged/persistent
symptoms, arrival by ambulance, and presentation on a weekend or during
periods of emergency department overcrowding. Conclusions: More than one-half of patients with minor stroke or TIA were not
admitted to the hospital, and there were wide regional variations in
admission patterns. Additional work is needed to provide guidance to health
care workers around when to admit such patients and to determine whether
discharged patients are receiving appropriate follow-up care.
This is a report of the first recorded observation of displacement of temporal cortex into the central spinal canal in an infant with the Arnold Chiari malformation, platybasia, aqueductal atresia, hydrocephalus and meningomyelocele. The combination of an absent tentorium, absent right cerebellar hemisphere and malformed fourth ventricular roof provided the anatomical background for this unique event.
This monograph summarizes the proceedings of a roundtable meeting convened to discuss pseudobulbar affect (PBA). Two didactic lectures were presented, followed by a moderated discussion among 11 participants. Post-meeting manuscript development synthesized didactic- and discussion-based content and incorporated additional material from the neuroscience literature. A conceptual framework with which to distinguish between disorders of mood and affect is presented first, and disorders of affect regulation are then reviewed briefly. A detailed description of the most common of these disorders, PBA, is the focus of the remainder of the monograph. The prevalence, putative neuranatomic and neurochemical bases of PBA are reviewed, and current and emerging methods of evaluation and treatment of persons with PBA are discussed. The material presented in this monograph will help clinicians better recognize, diagnose, and treat PBA, and will form a foundation for understanding and interpreting future studies of this condition.