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Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Advanced spatial analysis techniques are used to target a community education intervention for Immigrant and African American women to increase breast cancer screening. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We are addressing breast cancer screening disparities through the development of the COmmuNity kNowlEdge to aCtion Toolkit (CONNECT). CONNECT implements a mixed-methods approach using GIScience, community education, and social media to mitigate the impact of breast cancer screening disparities for Immigrant African and African American women. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used advanced spatial analysis techniques, Spatially Adaptive Filters (SAF) to reveal mammography screening rates below the state level. SAF create screening maps of This new information allows lay health educators to identify and engage their communities in the Breast Cancer Champions program. We transformed and curated existing cancer educational material into culturally relevant educational training for lay health educators. Lay health educators participate in educational trainings and receive stipends for conducting formal and informal breast cancer education and screening events. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have identified four principles for designing culturally relevant education materials.
1. Visual representation of the community in materials
2. Positive Framing
3. Statistics and graphs should be minimal
4. Appropriate reading level and minimizing jargon
Due to COVID-19, our breast cancer champions are engaging with their community in socially responsible ways (i.e., engaging through social media, developing and placing community education flyers, community radio spots). Our social media campaign, which began in October has already attracted over 1000 followers. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Despite the disruption of COVID-19, our project continues reduce breast cancer screening disparities. We have developed and created culturally appropriate materials and are currently training Champions. By incorporating an online presence into our community outreach, we are increasing the ways we connect with our community.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: We conducted a study to understand how a patient’s report of a new diagnosis compares with what was documented in the electronic medical record, since it is critical to the diagnostic process that the patient both understands and agrees with a new diagnosis. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought feedback on patient’s understanding of their diagnosis and health status follow Emergency Department discharge. We compared patient report of a new diagnosis to documentation in the electronic medical record. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To compare patient reported diagnoses to documented diagnoses, we employed a longitudinal cohort study design at 3 of emergency departments in an academic health system in the Mid-Atlantic. Patients consented to complete questionnaires regarding their understanding of their diagnosis and/or follow-up steps and their health status at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months following emergency department discharge. Inclusion criteria: adult ED patients aged 18 and older seen within the last 7 days with one or more of the following common chief complaints: chest pain, upper back pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath/cough, dizziness, and headache. We compared patient report of a new diagnosis following discharge to documentation in the electronic medical record. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the sample recruited (n=137), the majority were women (66%, n=91), the average age was 42 (SD 16). A third (n=45) were black and 56% (n=76) were white. The majority of participants (84%, n=115) reported that they either understood the diagnosis they received on ED discharge, or were not given a diagnosis but they understood follow-up steps. At two weeks following discharge, 25% of participants (n=36) had a new diagnosis identified after discharge and 33% (n=45) reported that their health status stayed the same or worsened. There was 85% agreement (kappa 0.49) between patient report of a new diagnosis and a new diagnosis identified in the electronic medical record. Only one of the participants who reported a new diagnosis also reported seeking healthcare outside of the health system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Patient report of a new diagnosis following emergency department discharge had moderate agreement with new diagnoses identified in the electronic medical record, and differences in agreement were not explained by outside healthcare visits.
Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation provide essential support for patients with respiratory failure, but the course of mechanical ventilation may be complicated by adverse ventilator-associated events (VAEs), which may or may not be associated with infection. We sought to understand how the frequency of subglottic suction, an indicator of the quantity of sputum produced by ventilated patients, relates to the onset of all VAEs and infection-associated VAEs.
We performed a case-crossover study including 87 patients with VAEs, and we evaluated 848 days in the pre-VAE period at risk for a VAE.
Setting and participants:
Critically ill patients were recruited from the medical intensive care unit of an academic medical center.
We used the number of as-needed subglottic suctioning events performed per calendar day to quantify sputum production, and we compared the immediate pre-VAE period to the preceding period. We used CDC surveillance definitions for VAE and to categorize whether events were infection associated or not.
Sputum quantity measured by subglottic suction frequency is greater in the period immediately prior to VAE than in the preceding period. However, it does not discriminate well between infection-associated VAEs and VAEs without associated infection.
Subglottic suction frequency may serve as a valuable marker of sputum quantity, and it is associated with risk of a VAE. However, our results require validation in a broader population of mechanically ventilated patients and intensive care settings.
Recently, artificial intelligence-powered devices have been put forward as potentially powerful tools for the improvement of mental healthcare. An important question is how these devices impact the physician-patient interaction.
Aifred is an artificial intelligence-powered clinical decision support system (CDSS) for the treatment of major depression. Here, we explore the use of a simulation centre environment in evaluating the usability of Aifred, particularly its impact on the physician–patient interaction.
Twenty psychiatry and family medicine attending staff and residents were recruited to complete a 2.5-h study at a clinical interaction simulation centre with standardised patients. Each physician had the option of using the CDSS to inform their treatment choice in three 10-min clinical scenarios with standardised patients portraying mild, moderate and severe episodes of major depression. Feasibility and acceptability data were collected through self-report questionnaires, scenario observations, interviews and standardised patient feedback.
All 20 participants completed the study. Initial results indicate that the tool was acceptable to clinicians and feasible for use during clinical encounters. Clinicians indicated a willingness to use the tool in real clinical practice, a significant degree of trust in the system's predictions to assist with treatment selection, and reported that the tool helped increase patient understanding of and trust in treatment. The simulation environment allowed for the evaluation of the tool's impact on the physician–patient interaction.
The simulation centre allowed for direct observations of clinician use and impact of the tool on the clinician–patient interaction before clinical studies. It may therefore offer a useful and important environment in the early testing of new technological tools. The present results will inform further tool development and clinician training materials.
Nutrition during the periconceptional period influences postnatal cardiovascular health. We determined whether in vitro embryo culture and transfer, which are manipulations of the nutritional environment during the periconceptional period, dysregulate postnatal blood pressure and blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. Embryos were either transferred to an intermediate recipient ewe (ET) or cultured in vitro in the absence (IVC) or presence of human serum (IVCHS) and a methyl donor (IVCHS+M) for 6 days. Basal blood pressure was recorded at 19–20 weeks after birth. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after varying doses of phenylephrine (PE). mRNA expression of signaling molecules involved in blood pressure regulation was measured in the renal artery. Basal MAP did not differ between groups. Baroreflex sensitivity, set point, and upper plateau were also maintained in all groups after PE stimulation. Adrenergic receptors alpha-1A (αAR1A), alpha-1B (αAR1B), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA expression were not different from controls in the renal artery. These results suggest there is no programmed effect of ET or IVC on basal blood pressure or the baroreflex control mechanisms in adolescence, but future studies are required to determine the impact of ET and IVC on these mechanisms later in the life course when developmental programming effects may be unmasked by age.
Background:Candida auris and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) are multidrug-resistant organisms that can colonize people for prolonged periods and can cause invasive infections and spread in healthcare settings, particularly in high-acuity long-term care facilities. Point-prevalence surveys (PPSs) conducted in long-term acute-care hospitals in the Chicago region identified median prevalence of colonization to be 31% for C. auris and 24% for CPO. Prevalence of C. auris colonization has not been described in pediatric populations in the United States, and limited data exist on CPO colonization in children outside intensive care units. The Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) conducted a PPS to assess C. auris and CPO colonization in a pediatric hospital serving high-acuity patients with extended lengths of stay (LOS). Methods: CDPH conducted a PPS in August 2019 in a pediatric hospital with extended LOS to screen for C. auris and CPO colonization. Medical devices (ie, gastrostomy tubes, tracheostomies, mechanical ventilators, and central venous catheters [CVC]) and LOS were documented. Screening specimens consisted of composite bilateral axillae and groin swabs for C. auris and rectal swabs for CPO testing. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene tested all specimens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect C. auris DNA and carbapenemase genes: blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP (Xpert Carba-R Assay, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). All axillae and groin swabs were processed by PCR and culture to identify C. auris. For CPO, culture was only performed on PCR-positive specimens. Results: Of the 29 patients hospitalized, 26 (90%) had gastrostomy tubes, 24 (83%) had tracheostomies, 20 (69%) required mechanical ventilation, and 3 (10%) had CVCs. Also, 25 (86%) were screened for C. auris and CPO; 4 (14%) lacked parental consent and were not swabbed. Two rectal specimens were unsatisfactory, producing invalid CPO test results. Median LOS was 35 days (range, 1–300 days). No patients were positive for C. auris. From CPO screening, blaOXA-48 was detected in 1 patient sample, yielding a CPO prevalence of 3.4% (1 of 29). No organism was recovered from the blaOXA-48 positive specimen. Conclusions: This is the first documented screening of C. auris colonization in a pediatric hospital with extended LOS. Despite a high prevalence of C. auris and CPOs in adult healthcare settings of similar acuity in the region, C. auris was not identified and CPOs were rare at this pediatric facility. Additional evaluations in pediatric hospitals should be conducted to further understand C. auris and CPO prevalence in this population.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development sets a framework of universal Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to address challenges to society and the planet. Island invasive species eradications have well-documented benefits that clearly align with biodiversity conservation-related SDGs, yet the value of this conservation action for socioeconomic benefits is less clear. We examine the potential for island invasive vertebrate eradications to have ecological and socioeconomic benefits. Specifically, we examine: (1) how SDGs may have been achieved through past eradications; and (2) how planned future eradications align with SDGs and associated targets. We found invasive vertebrate eradication to align with 13 SDGs and 42 associated targets encompassing marine and terrestrial biodiversity conservation, promotion of local and global partnerships, economic development, climate change mitigation, human health and sanitation and sustainable production and consumption. Past eradications on 794 islands aligned with a median of 17 targets (range 13–38) by island. Potential future eradications on 292 highly biodiverse islands could align with a median of 25 SDG targets (range 15–39) by island. This analysis enables the global community to explicitly describe the contributions that invasive vertebrate management on islands can make towards implementing the global sustainable development agenda.
Infectious diseases became an increasing public health threat as humans transitioned from nomadic hunter-gatherer societies to stable, agrarian communities. It is accurate to say the international community was not optimally prepared for the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, which eventually spread and caused secondary cases in the United States. From that experience, much was learned about the management of an EVD outbreak, from prevention and treatment, to the need for a “whole of society” response. However, it is clear from the evidence that much still needs to be done to improve preparedness for Ebola and other emerging infectious diseases in the region. The current outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo both mirrors these challenges and demonstrates new ones reflected in violence, hampering efforts to prevent spread of EVD within and beyond the country. The journal Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness (DMPHP) is taking a forward-looking approach, establishing a task force of editors to quickly review and approve manuscripts relating to EVD for immediate electronic publication and open access. The intent is to make emerging information available to front-line responders and policy decision-makers as quickly as possible.
This study provides a morphological and phylogenetic characterization of two novel species of the order Haplosporida (Haplosporidium carcini n. sp., and H. cranc n. sp.) infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas collected at one location in Swansea Bay, South Wales, UK. Both parasites were observed in the haemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas. The prevalence of clinical infections (i.e. parasites seen directly in fresh haemolymph preparations) was low, at ~1%, whereas subclinical levels, detected by polymerase chain reaction, were slightly higher at ~2%. Although no spores were found in any of the infected crabs examined histologically (n = 334), the morphology of monokaryotic and dikaryotic unicellular stages of the parasites enabled differentiation between the two new species. Phylogenetic analyses of the new species based on the small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene placed H. cranc in a clade of otherwise uncharacterized environmental sequences from marine samples, and H. carcini in a clade with other crustacean-associated lineages.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur frequently in pediatric inpatients, and they are associated with increased morbidity and cost. Few studies have investigated ambulatory CAUTIs, despite at-risk children utilizing home urinary catheterization. This retrospective cohort and case-control study determined incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pediatric patients with ambulatory CAUTI.
Broad electronic queries identified potential patients with ambulatory urinary catheters, and direct chart review confirmed catheters and adjudicated whether ambulatory CAUTI occurred. CAUTI definitions included clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Our matched case-control analysis assessed risk factors.
Five urban, academic medical centers, part of the New York City Clinical Data Research Network.
Potential patients were age <22 years who were seen between October 2010 and September 2015.
In total, 3,598 eligible patients were identified; 359 of these used ambulatory catheterization (representing186,616 ambulatory catheter days). Of these, 63 patients (18%) experienced 95 ambulatory CAUTIs. The overall ambulatory CAUTI incidence was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter days (1.35 for indwelling catheters and 0.47 for CIC; incidence rate ratio, 2.88). Patients with nonprivate medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3) were significantly more likely to have ambulatory CAUTIs in bivariate models but not multivariable models. Also, 45% of ambulatory CAUTI resulted in hospitalization (median duration, 3 days); 5% resulted in intensive care admission; 47% underwent imaging; and 88% were treated with antibiotics.
Pediatric ambulatory CAUTIs occur in 18% of patients with catheters; they are associated with morbidity and healthcare utilization. Ambulatory indwelling catheter CAUTI incidence exceeded national inpatient incidence. Future quality improvement research to reduce these harmful infections is warranted.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Leveraging Patient’s Experience to improve Diagnosis (LEAPED) is our proposed method of measuring diagnostic error through seeking patient feedback on their understanding of their diagnosis and health status following emergency department discharge. To pilot test LEAPED’s feasibility, we deployed and determined patient uptake of LEAPED. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To test LEAPED, we employed a longitudinal cohort study design at emergency departments across one academic health system in the Mid-Atlantic region. Patients consented to complete questionnaires regarding their understanding of their diagnosis and/or follow-up steps and their health status at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months following emergency department discharge. People aged 18 and older who were seen at the emergency department within the past 7 days with at least one chronic condition (hypertension, diabetes, history of stroke, arthritis, cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, depression, and/or chronic obstructive lung disease) and one or more of the following common chief complaints: chest pain, upper back pain, abdominal pain, shortness of breath/cough, dizziness, and headache were eligible to join the study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of those enrolled (n = 59), 95% (n = 53) responded to the two week post-ED discharge questionnaire (1 and 3-month ongoing). Of the 6 non-responders, 1 had died and 3 were hospitalized at two weeks. The average age was 50 years (SD 16) and 64% were female. Over half of participants (53%) were white and 41% were black. Almost one-third (27%) reported they were not given an explanation of their health problem on leaving the ED, and of those, a third did not have an understanding of what steps to take after leaving the ED. Participants reported a new health problem was identified after ED discharge (19%), worsening health status (12%), and health status stayed the same (16%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Patient uptake of LEAPED was high, which suggests that patient-report is a feasible method of evaluating diagnostic decision making and delivery to patients and yields insightful information beyond administrative data. The next steps are to validate the accuracy of patient-reported diagnostic error by comparing with administrative data.
In 2019, a 42-year-old African man who works as an Ebola virus disease (EVD) researcher traveled from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), near an ongoing EVD epidemic, to Philadelphia and presented to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Emergency Department with altered mental status, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. He was classified as a “wet” person under investigation for EVD, and his arrival activated our hospital emergency management command center and bioresponse teams. He was found to be in septic shock with multisystem organ dysfunction, including circulatory dysfunction, encephalopathy, metabolic lactic acidosis, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Critical care was delivered within high-risk pathogen isolation in the ED and in our Special Treatment Unit until a diagnosis of severe cerebral malaria was confirmed and EVD was definitively excluded.
This report discusses our experience activating a longitudinal preparedness program designed for rare, resource-intensive events at hospitals physically remote from any active epidemic but serving a high-volume international air travel port-of-entry.
Schizophrenia is associated with altered neural development. We assessed neurological soft signs (NSS) and dermatoglyphic anomalies (total a–b ridge count (TABRC) and total finger ridge count) in 15 pairs of twins concordant and discordant for schizophrenia. Within-pair differences in both NSS and TABRC scores were significantly greater in discordant compared to concordant monozygotic pairs. There was no significant difference in NSS and TABRC scores between subjects with schizophrenia and their co-twins without the illness. However, monozygotic discordant twins with schizophrenia had higher ABRCs on their right hands compared to their co-twins without the illness. These findings suggest that an unidentified environmental event acting between weeks 6 and 15 of gestation affects the development of monozygotic twins who go on to develop schizophrenia but does not have a corresponding effect on their co-twins who do not develop the illness. The effect of such an event on dermatoglyphic profiles appears lateralised to the right hand in affected twins.
Many institutions are attempting to implement patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Because PROs often change clinical workflows significantly for patients and providers, implementation choices can have major impact. While various implementation guides exist, a stepwise list of decision points covering the full implementation process and drawing explicitly on a sociotechnical conceptual framework does not exist.
To facilitate real-world implementation of PROs in electronic health records (EHRs) for use in clinical practice, members of the EHR Access to Seamless Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Consortium developed structured PRO implementation planning tools. Each institution pilot tested the tools. Joint meetings led to the identification of critical sociotechnical success factors.
Three tools were developed and tested: (1) a PRO Planning Guide summarizes the empirical knowledge and guidance about PRO implementation in routine clinical care; (2) a Decision Log allows decision tracking; and (3) an Implementation Plan Template simplifies creation of a sharable implementation plan. Seven lessons learned during implementation underscore the iterative nature of planning and the importance of the clinician champion, as well as the need to understand aims, manage implementation barriers, minimize disruption, provide ample discussion time, and continuously engage key stakeholders.
Highly structured planning tools, informed by a sociotechnical perspective, enabled the construction of clear, clinic-specific plans. By developing and testing three reusable tools (freely available for immediate use), our project addressed the need for consolidated guidance and created new materials for PRO implementation planning. We identified seven important lessons that, while common to technology implementation, are especially critical in PRO implementation.